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A COLLECTION OF 



Practical Suggestions and Recipes 

For the Preparation of Non-Flesh Foods in Palatable 
and Attractive Ways 



BY 

EVORA BUCKNUM PERKINS 

An Instructor of wide experience in Vegetarian Cookery in Various 

Homes, Chatauquas and Sanitariums, and the Pioneer in 

Hygienic Vegetarian Restaurant Work 



THE LAUREL PUBLISHING COMPANY 

MELROSE. MASS., U. S. A, 



THE NEW YORK 
PUIiLIC L 



IUIIY 



3852^81* 

A TOR, LENOX AND 



a 



Copyright, 1911, by EVORA BUCKNUM PERKINS. 



INTRODUCTION 



QEVERAL years ago as I was leaving Washington after giving 
^ a course of demonstration lectures in hygienic cookery, I was 
impressed with the thought that a cook book (which my friends 
had been urging me to write) giving the results of my experience, 
would be the means of reaching the greatest number of people 
with knowledge on health subjects. 

As a result of that thought, this book comes with earnest, 
heartfelt greeting to all other works of the same nature, not as 
a rival but as a co-worker in the great plan of glorifying our 
Creator. I Cor. 10:31. 

In its preparation, I have purposed to make the book practi- 
cal, avoiding technicalities and to some extent conventionalities, 
and have endeavored to "meet the people where they are" by 
not being extreme or radical; and at the same time to make 
principles of truth so clear that many will be won from ''the in- 
dulgence of appetite, which places them in such a condition of 
health that there is a constant warring against the soul's highest 
interests. ' 

While there are recipes especially for those who entertain, 
there is an abundant variety of directions for carefully prepared 
simple dishes. 

The explicit general directions will not be needed by all, but 
from my twenty years of experience in teaching, I know that 
many will value them. 

The foods richest in proteids are classed as 'True Meats" and 
no flesh meat names are used in the book. 



4 THE LAUREL 

This collection contains the choicest of those of my recipes 
which have been published by others in various books and peri- 
odicals at different times. 

I am indebted to an innumerable company of people of all 
classes for ideas, for which I would be glad to thank each one 
personally if it were possible. 

Though there is hardly any choice, the recipes marked with a 
star are especially practical and desirable. 

All unnamed quotations are from 'The Ministry of Healing" 
or other works by the same author. 

That 'The Laurel Health Cookery" may bring rich blessings 
to many households is my earnest prayer. 





' Many will be rescued from physical, mental and moral degen- 
eracy through the practical influence of health reform. Health 
talks will be given, publications will be multiplied. 

The principles of health reform will be received with favor ; 
and many will be enlightened." 




CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION 3 

GENERAL g 

Cooking Utensils, their Uses and Care 

Things to Do Beforehand 

Economy 

Miscellaneous 

Measurements 

Flavorings 

Garnishings 



FRUITS 34. 

Fresh 
Cooked 
To Can 
Jellies 
Jams 

*, 

To CAN VEGETABLES 69 

To DRY VEGETABLES 72 

SOUPS 74 

Suggestions 

Water Soups 

Cream and Milk Soups 

Bisques 

Chowders 

Purees 

Our Famous Soups 

Fruit Soups 

Soup Garnishes and Accompaniments 

ENTREES 109 

TRUE MEATS 139 

Nuts and Nut Foods 

Trumese 

Trumese Dishes 

Nutmese 

Nutmese Dishes 

Trumese and Nutmese Dishes 

Roasts 

Legumes 

Eggs 

(5) 



THK LAUREL 

PAGE 

MUSHROOMS 216 

STUFFINGS AND DRESSINGS 221 

MEAT AND VEGETABLE GRAVIES AND SAUCES . . . 223 

VEGETABLES 237 

CHESTNUTS 271 

SALADS 273 

Secrets of Success 
Cooked Dressings 
Uncooked Dressings 
True Meat Salads 
Vegetable Salads 
Fruit Salads 

PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 294 

PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 309 

PUDDING SAUCES 324 

GELATINE VEGETABLE 335 

PIES . 347 

CAKES 370 

Icings and Fillings 

ICE CREAM AND FRUIT ICES 402 

CEREALS 409 

MACARONI 419 

BREADSLEAVENED 424 

BREADS--UNLEAVED, WITHOUT CHEMICALS 445 

SANDWICHES 465 

MILK, CREAM, BUTTER AND CHEESE 473 

DRINKS 479 

INVALID FOODS 486 

CONFECTIONS 488 

MEALS AND MENUS 493 

PICNIC AND TRAVELLING LUNCHES 504 



ERRATA 

The sauce number 72 given for Peanut and Rice Croquettes 
(page 152), and for Mashed Beans (page 186), should be 75, 



GENERAL 

COOKING UTENSILS, THEIR USES AND CARE 

A GOOD housekeeper without perfected kitchen conveniences 
is as much of an anomaly as a carpenter without a plane, a 
dressmaker without a sewing machine.' -Anonym. 

What would we think of the farmer who to-day was cutting 
his hay with a scythe and reaping his grain with a cradle because 
he could not "afford" a reaper and mower? 

While we should be able to adapt ourselves to circumstances, 
to improvise double boilers, steamers and ovens when necessary, 
it is at the same time true economy to have an abundance of 
cooking utensils if possible. A half dozen saucepans will last six 
times as long as one used for everything and save much valuable 
time. 

'To many people, anything out of the usual custom is deemed 
extravagant.' This I suppose accounts for the fact that many 
housewives who have beautifully furnished parlors and wear 
fine clothing cannot afford conveniences for the kitchen. 

The room in which is prepared the 'food to sustain life and 
nourish brain, bone and muscle," should be the most attractive 
place in the house, and it will be when arranged and furnished 
for convenience. I can think of nothing more interesting than 
a kitchen with the frequently used utensils decorating the walls 
where they can be reached with few steps; and such little things 
as spoons, egg beaters, can openers, spatulas, cork screw r s, po- 
tato mashers, measuring cups, funnels, soup dippers, wire strain- 
ers, pinchers and skimmers, not forgetting a small cushion with 
pins, hanging just over the table; the table having drawers for 
knives, vegetable cutters and other unhangable articles. 

The best quality of aluminum ware is the cheapest and best 
for fruits and for general cooking purposes, except for vegetables. 

[9] 



IO THE LAUREL 

Never put lye or anything alkaline into aluminum vessels. 

Copper and re-tinned vessels are unequaled in some respects 
(if they may not be used for acid foods); being flat bottomed, 
thick and heavy, milk, legumes, cereals and foods of that nature 
are not so apt to stick or scorch in them, and they are almost 
everlasting. They can be re-tinned when the lining wears off. 

Iron kettles and frying pans are excellent for many things. 
Some of the uses of a nice smooth iron frying pan are to bake a 
round cake or a thick pie or a pudding in, to scallop corn or po- 
tatoes, or to scald milk. 

Use granite, agate, and porcelain lined utensils with care. 

Never dry them on the stove as that causes them to crack; and 
do not knock the edges of the kettles and saucepans with a 
spoon, nor strike any kind of a vessel with an agate spoon, as 
it causes the little particles of glazing to flake off. These 
flakes from agate utensils often work serious injury to the deli- 
cate membranes of the digestive tract. 

One large double boiler holding from 8 to 16 qts. is very de- 
sirable as it furnishes two kettles for fruit canning and other 
purposes and can be used as a double boiler when required. 
Several smaller ones of different sizes economize time and food 
material. 

To improvise a double boiler, set a close covered pan over a 
kettle of boiling water; or set a covered dish into a pail with 
water in it, cover and put into the oven; or put a pan or other 
covered vessel into a kettle of water on top of the stove with 
something under it to keep it from the bottom of the kettle; 
or set one milk crock into another, with water in the lower 
one; or a bowl into the top of the teakettle. The first double 
boiler I ever owned was a gluepot. 

Use wire strainers or small and large colanders, well covered, 
over dishes of boiling water, for steamers; and when a deeper re- 



GENERAL I I 

ceptacle is required, turn a basin or pan that just fits, over the 
top. 

Two sizes of flat colanders with pin head holes are to be found 
at the 5 and 10 cent stores, which are just as useful and durable 
as more expensive ones. They answer the purpose of both 
steamer and colander. 

Be sure to have deep kettles or boilers into which the colan- 
ders fit perfectly. I have been in kitchens where, though there 
was a sufficient variety of utensils, they were of little use, for no 
two things fitted; the steamers and colanders were just a little 
too large or a little too small for all the kettles, requiring double 
the expenditure of time and strength in using 

Iron rings from small wooden kegs or little rings melted from 
the tops of tin cans are great treasures to use on the top of the 
stove, in kettles, or in the oven, to set vessels on to keep the 
contents from sticking and burning. 

"Gunboats" -empty tin cans of all sizes, have a great vari- 
ety of uses. 

A book of asbestos sheets costing ten cents is invaluable. 
Each sheet can be used again and again for laying over bread, 
cake and other foods in the oven. 

After using an aluminum frying or omelet pan for a time, one 
would always feel it to be a necessity. 

The uses of timbale molds and custard cups are almost in- 
numerable, and when you once get them you have them. 

A pastry brush saves greasy fingers and much time, in oiling 
cold or warm pans. Never use it on a hot griddle. 

For dispatch and thoroughness in oiling round bottomed gem 
pans, nothing equals a piece of cloth folded in several thick- 
nesses 2^ to 3 in. square, saturated with oil. 

A spatula (similar to a palette knife) of medium size will soon 
pay for itself in the material it saves from the sides of the pans, 
as well as in time. 



12 THE LAUREL 

A large French knife chops vegetables on a board more rapidly 
than they can be done in a chopping bowl; it also slices onions, 
shaves cabbage, cuts croutons and does many things as no other 
knife can, while smaller ones of different sizes all have their uses. 

For stirring dry flour and meal into hot liquid, for gravies, 
and for beating all batters, nothing can take the place of a 
strong wire batter whip. 

The "Surprise" beater with fine cross wires makes the whites 
of eggs for meringues and cakes lighter than any other. The 
smaller the wire around the edge, the lighter the eggs will be. 
These very delicate ones are for sale in some of the five and ten 
centstoresat 3 for 50. Next to the "Surprise" beater for beating 
whites of eggs comes the silver fork. 

The "Dover" revolving beatergivesa fine close grain when that 
is desired, as in egg creams, the 'Holt" coming next and being 
more rapid in its work, while the 'Lyon" gives a fine, fluffy re- 
sult. A large sized beater is more useful. 

Eggs can be beaten in a deep bowl, narrow at the bottom (the 
regular cooking bowl shape) in half the time that it takes to beat 
them in a broad bottomed bowl. The nearer the sides of the 
bowl are to the beater, the quicker the work will be done. 
The same is true of whipping cream, and as cream spatters at 
first, a pitcher or a tin can, not so deep but the handle of the 
beater can be operated, is best for the purpose. It is better to 
set the dish in the sink while whipping cream. 

If possible have a good scale, as much more accurate results 
are obtained in cooking by weight than by measure. It will be 
useful in weighing articles from the grocery and market, for 
weighing letters and papers for mailing and many other things. 

When you have used a good bread mixer for a time, you would 
not go back to the old, laborious way of kneading bread for dou- 
ble its cost. The mixer also makes better bread than can be made 
by hand. 




J 



SOME COOKING CONVENIENCES 




PUDDiyG MOLDS 

BORDER MOLD 



COPPER SAUCE PAN TURK S HEAD MOLD 

ALUMINUM OMELET PAN SURPRISE BEATER 



GENERAL I 3 

One of the greatest labor savers is a food cutter. A large sized 
one, even for a small family, is most satisfactory. Many now 
have a nut butter attachment which is desirable, though a regu- 
lar nut butter mill is preferable for nut preparations. 

Try to have something for a quick fire. If you are out of the 
reach of gas, a well-cared-for two burner oil stove will do good 
service. 

Eternal vigilance is the price of preventing double boilers from 
going dry. Add more water before there is the least danger. 

Rinse off the egg beater or batter whip and hang it in its place 
as soon as you finish using it, before going on with what you are 
doing, unless, as in some cakes, it needs to drain, then have 
ready a pitcher, tin can or quart measure containing cold water 
to drop it into after draining. 

The cogs of an egg beater should never be wet; when they are 
wet once, its usefulness is impaired. 

The "Surprise" beater should never be touched with a cloth. 
Always wipe a can opener after using, and hang it in its place. 

Wire strainers should always be rinsed as soon as used; colan- 
ders also, unless they require soaking, in which case put them 
immediately into water. 

Put sticky utensils to soaking as soon as emptied. 

Rinse and put to draining everything that can be rinsed; then 
it will be ready for use instead of rusting in the sink. 

Never put knives, spatulas, egg beaters or whips in the sink; 
always rinse them off at once. 

Professional cooks never lay a knife down without wiping it 
off. Clean, dry cloths or towels should be at hand for such pur- 
poses. 

A side towel fastened to the waist is almost a necessity. 

Never scrape a knife or spoon on the edge of a dish. 

It is just as necessary and as satisfactory to keep the inside of 



14 THE LAUREL 

the oven blackened as the top of the stove, and it is very little 
more work. 

Boil strong lye water in a scorched vessel (except aluminum), 
before trying to clean it. 

I have noticed that if a little water is boiled for a few minutes 
in a close covered vessel in which some pasty food has been 
cooked, the particles are so loosened by the steam that the ves- 
sel washes easily. 

I would suggest that instead of hanging the dish cloth on the 
inside of the sink door, you put it on a line near the stove or 
out of doors, where it will dry quickly. 

Wet wooden spoons, chopping bowls and all wooden utensils 
in cold water before using, to prevent their absorbing the flavors 
and juices of foods. 

Put new bread and cake tins into a hot oven and bake them 
until they look like old ones, if you wish your bread and cake to 
be well done on the bottom and sides. 

Do not work in a "mess," keep your tables wiped up as you go. 

Above all, pick up after yourself . It is often more work to 
pick up after people than to do the work. 

THINGS TO DO BEFOREHAND 

Wash potatoes and keep in stone crock in cool place. 

Have beans, peas and lentils looked over. 

Have English currants washed and dried, in jars. 

Have seeded raisins stemmed. 

Have peanuts and almonds blanched. 

Have herbs and flavorings ground and bottled. 

Have citron cut, wrapped in waxed paper, in covered jar. 

Have flour browned in three shades. 

Have dry bread ground. 

Have tomatoes strained. 

Have lemon juice extracted, standing in a cool place. 



GENERAL I 5 

ECONOMY 

"Gather up the fragments that remain that nothing be lost.' 
John 6:13. 

True economy consists in using all of a good material, rather 
tJian in buying an inferior quality. 

It is poor economy from a financial standpoint (saying nothing 
of health) to buy small or specked fruits or vegetables. 

It takes longer to pare, quarter and core a specked apple than 
a sound one, because the decayed part has first to be cut out 
and one may have to cut again and again before it is all removed 
and when it is finished there may not remain a quarter of an apple. 

I once saw two barrels of apples bought at a great 'bargain.' 
Four or five people whose time was valuable spent an afternoon 
in preparing those apples to stew; when they had finished, there 
was just a bushel left and they were so flavorless that it was 
necessary to add lemon juice and a good deal of sugar to make 
them at all palatable. 

C. F. Langw T orthy, Ph. D. in speaking of overripe and partial- 
ly decayed fruit says: "In addition to a deterioration in flavor, 
there is always the possibility of digestive disturbance if such 
fruit is eaten raw. ' -Farmers' Bulletin 293. U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

Inferior, immature fruit, dried, requires a larger proportion of 
sugar than well ripened fruit, and then it is neither palatable 
nor wholesome. 

Small prunes with their large proportion of stone and skin are 
expensive besides being inferior in flavor. 

It takes as long to pare, quarter and core a small apple as a 
large one, and a bushel of large apples will yield more pulp than a 
bushel of small ones, notwithstanding the spaces, there being a so 
much larger proportion of skins and cores in the small ones. 

Small pineapples are especially expensive. 



1 6 THE LAUREL 

"Cheap" flour costs more than the best because it takes a 
larger quantity to make the same amount of bread. 

Corn starch that costs two or three cents less per package than 
the best will sometimes require double the quantity for thicken- 
ing, besides imparting a strong, disagreeable flavor. 

Cotton seed oil that is not well refined, so that it is clear and 
nearly white is not fit for food, and requires more for shortening. 

Economy in all things, food, clothing, houses, climate is that 
which keeps us in the best condition physically and spiritually. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

All foods that are suitable should be used uncooked. They 
are more nourishing and consequently more satisfying. 
Foods containing starch should not be eaten raw. 

Next to wholesomeness, make taste and palatability first. 
There is nothing more disappointing than to taste of a daintily 
arranged and decorated dish and find it flat and insipid. 

Seek to develop the natural flavors of foods, of which there 
are thousands, rather than to add foreign flavorings. 

To stir fruits, legumes and many foods while cooking is just 
the way to make them stick and scorch. Shake the vessels in- 
stead of stirring. 

To brush kettles and saucepans on the inside with oil, helps 
to keep milk and other foods from sticking. 

Use double boilers as far as possible for reheating gravies, ce- 
reals and legumes, and for heating milk. 

When, in spite of all precautions, something burns on, plunge 
the vessel without ceremony into a pail or pan of cold water for 
a moment, empty the contents immediately into another kettle, 
add boiling water and return to the fire to finish cooking. Badly 
scorched foods often lose all the scorched flavor by this treat- 
ment. 



GENERAL 17 

Remove the burnt portion from bread or cake with a grater, 
when first taken from the oven. 

Dip the knife into hot water to cut butter, warm bread or cake. 

Two forks are better than a knife for separating steamed pud- 
dings, fresh cake and many things. 

Use pastry flour for gravies, sauces and all thickenings. 

To blend flour and liquid for thickening, add only a little liquid 
at a time, stirring with a fork or batter whip until a perfectly 
smooth paste is formed, then add liquid to make of the consist- 
ency of rather thin cream. 

Flour, for thickening, gives a more creamy consistency than 
corn starch. Use corn starch for fruit juices, as it leaves them 
clearer. 

Never mix flour or corn starch with eggs to stir into boiling 
liquid, as they both require longer cooking than eggs will bear 
without separating. Stir the blended flour or corn starch into 
the liquid first, let it boil well, then pour the hot mixture grad- 
ually, stirring, into the beaten eggs, return to the fire and cook 
a moment if necessary, but do not boil. 

In adding yolks of eggs to hot mixtures, put two or three 
spoonfuls of the mixture on to the yolks, stirring, then add them, 
all at once, to the whole. 

Eggs must be added all at once to hot liquids so they will all 
be cooked alike and a part will not curdle before the rest is done. 

To prevent a raw taste, blended flour should be added to boil- 
ing liquid so slowly as not to stop its boiling. 

; Rich milk" means one-fourth to one-third cream. 

Cream judiciously used is no more expensive from a financial 
stand point than butter, and from a health standpoint it is cheaper. 

Being in the form of an emulsion, cream does not hinder di- 
gestion as does the free fat of butter. It should be sterilized be- 
fore using in uncooked dishes. 



I 8 THE LAUKK1. 

In the recipes in this book, heavy cream is meant unless thin 
is specified. 

It is cheaper to buy heavy cream than light, when there are 
two qualities, and you can make it as thin as you wish. 

When cream is scarce do not use it where oil and skimmed 
milk will do just as well, but save it for uses where nothing else 
will take its place. 

Cream with water often gives a better flavor to foods than 
milk, and is just as cheap. 

For farmers, the use of cream saves the labor of making butter. 

When taking cream, use fewer nuts and less butter and other 
oils. 

Nut creams and butters may always be substituted for dairy 
cream and butter, with judgment as to flavors. 

Peanut butter should be used sparingly and judiciously. No 
one enjoys, as one man expressed it, ''that everlasting peanut 
flavor in everything.' 

Oil and melted butter may be combined in equal quantities 
when the butter flavor is desirable, as in pilau and drawn butter. 

Oil makes more tender pastry, raised cakes and universal crust. 
''Stale" bread crumbs are those of a two or three days old loaf. 

Stale bread is understood for crumbs when no specification is 
given. 

A quick and easy way to prepare stale bread crumbs is to cut 
very thin slices from the loaf, lay them together and cut as thin 
as possible across one \vay and then the other with a large sharp 
knife into tiny dice. 

' 'Dry' ' crumbs are those from a loaf dry enough to grate or grind. 

Save all pieces of bread not usable for croutons or other things, 
dry without browning, and roll or grind, for dry crumbs; sift, 
leaving two sizes of crumbs. 



GENERAL I 9 

When bread crumbs are used for puddings or molds the quan- 
tity will vary with the kind of bread. Fewer will be required 
with home-made bread than with baker's bread. 

Bread, cracker or zwieback crumbs, corn meal, flour or browned 
flour No. I, or a mixture of crumbs and brown or white flour 
may be used for rolling croquettes or cutlets, or for sprinkling 
the top of scallops or gratins. 

Nut meal is suitable for the outside of rice croquettes and the 
top of many dishes. 

Grated or chopped onion is apt to become bitter if prepared 
long before using. 

To extract the juice from lemons without a drill, cut them in 
halves without rolling, the same as for a drill, then holding each 
half over a strainer in a bowl, work the point of a spoon from 
the cut surface in and around gradually to the rind. This method 
removes the juice cleaner than does the drill. 

Another way is to roll the lemon and puncture it at one end 
with a silver fork, then squeeze the juice out. This leaves the 
seeds inside. 

Dry lemons yield more juice than fresh ones. 

Remove the pulp from lemons for pies and other uses by cut- 
ting them lengthwise in the middle of the sections and scraping 
each side of the membrane, or by cutting the lemon in halves 
crosswise and taking the pulp out with a spoon. 

To keep lemons and oranges from molding, spread them on a 
shelf in a dry place so that they will not touch each other. They 
may be covered with glass tumblers if in a cool as well as dry 
place. 

To core apples, insert a steel fork at the blossom end and turn 
it round and round, then repeat from the stem end. 

The half shell of an egg will remove bits of shell from broken 
eggs much better than a spoon. 



2O THK LAl'RKf. 

My mother taught me to use too little rather than too much 
salt in foods, saving it was easier to add it than to take it out. 

Salt varies so much in saltness that it is impossible to give 
definite rules for its use. 

Have a shelf over the stove for zwieback, crackers and toasted 
cereals to keep them crisp. 

Keep a dish of oil on or near your work table. 

Have a small tin of pastry flour on the table to use for thick- 
ening sauces; also a small bowl or tin of sugar, and one of corn 
starch if using it frequently, and a box of salt, of course. 

If a thickened mixture is allowed to any more than boil up 
well, after lemon juice is added, it will become thin. 

Finely-sliced, tender, raw celery is much to be preferred to 
cooked, in timbales, croquettes, batters and sauces. 

Never chop celery; slice it fine instead. 

The word "meat" as used in this book refers to true meats, 
not flesh meats, but is confined to such foods as are rich in pro- 
teids, not being taken in its broadest sense. 

Use soft butter for oiling molds to be decorated, as that holds 
the decorations better than oil. 

To unmold, dip the mold in hot water a moment. 
Both oil and crumb molds for delicate fillings. 

Dip molds in cold water, invert and turn quickly right side up 
without draining, for gelatine and other fillings to be served cold. 

Many foods gain in richness of flavor by being reheated; and 
for that reason, left overs often make more appetizing dishes 
than fresh cooked foods. 

Reheat foods, legumes, vegetables, cereals, or fruits, to pre- 
serve them, before they begin to show signs of spoiling. 

Only a small quantity of sugar, proportionately, should be ad- 
ded to yolks of eggs, or they will gather in small, hard particles 
and become useless. 



GENERAL 21 

Ice water crisps and freshens such vegetables as lettuce, pars- 
ley, cabbage and cucumbers as that just a little warmer will not. 

In multiplying a recipe to make a larger quantity of soup or 
other liquid food, use a smaller proportion of liquid; or in dishes 
containing thickening take a larger proportion of flour, as the 
evaporation is not so great in proportion to the quantity. 

The alcohol of yeast or of flavoring extracts goes off in the 
steam in cooking. 

When eggs are used in cakes, breads, puddings or other dishes, 
fewer nuts, nut foods, legumes or other proteid foods will be re- 
quired. 

Bake souffles and dishes made light with eggs, slowly, as when 
baked rapidly they puff up quickly and fall just as quickly; while 
if baked slowly, they retain their lightness. 

Timbales, puddings and all molds to be served hot should stand 
5 or 10 m. in a warm place after removing from the fire, before 
unmolding. 

Place a cold wet towel over pudding molds to loosen, if in- 
clined to stick. 

Do not chop nut meats fine for roasts, cakes or puddings. 
Sometimes leaves them whole, or just break them a little. 

To try vegetables for tenderness, use a sharp pointed knife 
rather than a fork. 

Batter and plum puddings and brown bread may be steamed in 
the oven by setting the mold containing them into a vessel of 
water with a tight fitting cover. 

To steam in glass, set dishes or jars first into cold water and 
bring to boiling, then set into steamer. 

Honey attracts moisture, consequently it should be kept in a 
warm dry place. 

In discarding unwholesome foods be sure to put something 
wholesome in their place; in other \vords, employ a system of 
substitution rather than one of subtraction. 



22 THE LAUREL 

For instance, for this book we have taken pains to search out 
a variety of harmless flavorings to be used in place of the irritat- 
ing condiments, such as mustard, pepper, ginger, cinnamon, nut- 
meg and cloves; and instead of the acetic acid of vinegar, we use 
lemon juice citric acid. 

'Yinegar--acetic acid, is about ten times as strong as alcohol 
and makes more trouble in the stomach than any of the other 
acids except oxalic.' -Dr. Rand. 

"Do not eat largely of salt.' 

'Very hot food ought not to be taken into the stomach. Soups, 
puddings and other articles of the kind are often eaten too hot, 
and as a consequence the stomach is debilitated.' 

Many people can digest cream better when accompanied by an 
acid fruit. 

While using oil enough to keep the machinery of the body 
lubricated, take care not to use too much. People with dilated 
stomachs can take very little, and that little best in salad dress- 
ings or as shortening with flour. 

Malt gives flesh but not strength; too much is harmful. 

Flesh is more often a sign of disease than of health. Good 
solid firm muscle is to be cultivated. 

Taste is a matter of education. Let us educate ourselves to 
like the things that are good for us. 

'Perseverance in a self-denying course of eating and drinking 
will soon make plain, wholesome food palatable, and it will be 
eaten with greater satisfaction than the epicure enjoys over his 
rich dainties.' 



GENERAL 



MEASUREMENTS 

Flour is always sifted once before measuring and is laid into 
the measure lightly with a spoon to just level, without being 
shaken down; when measured otherwise, results w r ill not be cor- 
rect. 

The measurements of tablespoons and teaspoons in this book 
are for slightly rounded spoons, as granulated sugar would be 
when the spoon is shaken sidewise. This seems the natural way 
of measuring. When level spoons are specified, the spoon is 
leveled off with a spatula or the straight edge of a knife. 

The half-pint cup is the standard measuring cup. 

A cupful is all the cup will hold without running over. 

A speck equals ^ saltspn. 

1 saltspn X teaspn. 

2 teaspns i dessert spn. 

i/^ dessert spn i tablespn. 

3 teaspns i tablespn. 

i tablespn. sugar or corn starch .... l% level tablespn. 

3 level tablespns. cracker crumbs ... /^ cup. 

9/^2 tablespns. granulated sugar .... i cup. 

I5/^ level tablespns. .... i cup. 

3 tablespns. liquid X cup. 

4 tablespns. liquid ji cup. 

4/^ level tablespns. butter /^ cup. 

3 rounded tablespns. butter /4 cup. 

12 tablespns. liquid i cup. 

i wine glass X cup. 

i gill /4 cup. 

i cup /4 pint. 

1 tumbler /^ pint. 

4 gills---2 cups i pint. 

2 pints . i quart. 

4 quarts i gallon. 

2 cups (i pint) granulated sugar ... i pound. 

2/4 cups powdered sugar i pound. 



24 THE LAUREL 

3-3 cups light or medium brown sugar . equals i pound 

2 cups butter i pound 

4. cups good pastry flour i pound 

3 ^2- -3^6 cups good bread flour .... i pound 

3 / I /2 plus, cups rice i pound 

3 cups seeded raisins i pound 

3X cups currants i pound 

4 cups desiccated cocoanut i pound 

i pint milk or water i pound 

1 rounded tablespn. butter ...... i ounce 

Butter size of a w T alnut i ounce 

Butter size of an egg 2 ounces 

2 tablespns. oil i/^ ounce 

1 cup of oil 6^4 ounces 

2 rounded tablespns. flour i ounce 

i rounded tablespn. sugar i ounce 

i/^ level tablespn. table salt i ounce 

8 eggs in shell i pound 

10 eggs out of shell i pound 

12 ears of corn 3 cups grated corn 

i ear of corn /^ cup grated corn 

18 roots of oyster plant i/4^ qt. sliced 

i bunch of oyster plant /^ qt. sliced 

i bunch of oyster plant i pt. after cooking 



FLAVORINGS 

If we heed the injunction of the wise man to eat for strength 
and not for drunkenness, we will exclude the burning, irritating 
condiments from our dietary, since they by causing a feverish 
state of the system and creating "a thirst which water cannot 
quench," are among the greatest causes of inebriety. 

When our sense of taste is not benumbed or destroyed by 
harmful accompaniments we are in a condition to keenly enjoy 
the thousands of fine, delicate flavors that our loving Father has 
placed in wholesome foods. 



GENERAL 25 

Among the stronger flavors for those who do not at once en- 
joy the delicate ones, we have sage, savory, thyme, marjoram, 
rosemary, bay leaf, garlic, onion, chives and leeks. 

Then come celery salt and seed, leaves and stalks; lemon 
thyme, shallots, spearmint, parsley, basil and tarragon. 

The flavors of carrots, turnips, cabbage and spinach have 
their place. 

The small leaf buds of sassafras may be dried and ground for 
soups and stews. 

Celery leaves dried w r ith gentle heat make excellent flavorings. 
They may be powdered by rubbing through a wire strainer the 
same as leaf sage. 

Crush stalks of celery and let them stand in the soup or 
sauce to be flavored for I 5 m., then remove them. 

For a fresh positive onion flavor, let slices of onion stand in 
the food for 5 or 10 m. 

The flavor of garlic is usually obtained by rubbing the dish in 
which the food is to be served or the spoon with which it is stir- 
red with the cut surface of one of the cloves or sections. Slice 
it and crush it with salt when using it in cooked foods. One 
clove will flavor a large quantity. 

Use bay leaf in the proportion of one large leaf to a quart of 
liquid. 

As far as possible raise your own herbs. If in no other way, 
plant them in pots and boxes in the house. Somewhere I have 
seen the suggestion of planting parsley in holes in the sides of a 
barrel which has been sawed in two, and such plants as sage, 
thyme, mint, basil and tarragon in the top. 

Gather herbs before flowering, dry in the shade, tie in paper 
sacks and hang in a dry place. Powder only a small quantity at 
a time and keep in close covered small jars. Fresh herbs, es- 
pecially mint and tarragon, when obtainable, are far superior to 
dry ones. 



26 THE LAl'Kf ( 

The fact that raising any oil to a temperature high enough to 
brown it, decomposes it and produces a poisonous acid a power- 
ful irritant- -is one of the best known to science. 

Flour is rendered more digestible by browning and when com- 
bined with cream, oil or butter, gives the browned oil flavor 
without the poison. 

To prepare browned flour, sift bread flour into a broad flat 
pan, let it stand in a warm oven, stirring occasionally, until thor- 
oughly dry, then gradually increase the heat of the oven, stir- 
ring often, until the desired degree of brownness is reached. 

A delicate cream color, so light that you would hardly know 
there was any color except by comparing it with flour that had 
not been in the oven, gives a delightfully meaty flavor to some 
gravies and sauces. A light or medium brown is convenient to 
have at times, but the one most useful is the dark chestnut 
brown. The darker it is the longer it will last, as less of it will 
be required for flavoring. 

To obtain this color a very high degree of heat will be required 
at the last, with almost constant stirring. As this dark flour 
lasts so long (I seldom make it more than once in a year for a 
large family), it pays to give it the necessary attention at every 
stage. Do not try to hurry it. If you begin browning it before 
it is thoroughly dry, it will burn, When done, sift and keep in 
close covered can or jar. 

The lightest shade (which for convenience we call No. I, and 
the others No. 2 and 3) should be prepared oftener as it becomes 
stale by standing. Xo. 3 will keep indefinitely. It is used for 
flavoring only as it will not thicken. Where consistency is de- 
sired, combine it with unbrowned flour. No. I will thicken nearly 
as much as though it had not been in the oven, and No. 2 a little. 

When no number is given in recipes calling for browned flour, 
No. 3 is understood. 

Browned flour, onion and a small quantity of tomato (not 



GENERAL 27 

enough to give a tomato taste) combined, form the basis of meaty 
flavors in foods. 

To these, add sometimes a bay leaf, a very little sage and a 
trifle of thyme. Again, add bay leaf, grated or chopped carrot 
and a very few celery tops, dried or fresh. 

Garlic combines well with either of these combinations, and 
powdered or soaked dried mushrooms are a delightful addition. 

Butter (oil or part oil) and a little onion with parsley seem 
something like chicken. 

Juniper berries are thought to give the flavor of game. Not 
more than a teaspoonful of crushed berries should be used to the 
quart of stew. 

Combine flavors so that no one is prominent but the whole 
combination pleasing. 

Use herbs and all strong flavorings sparingly. One colored 
cook of experience expressed it when she said, 'I put in just a 
trifle of sage, not enough to make it vulgar. ' 

Withal, have a variety; do not use the same flavors day after 

day. 

Brown Onion Flavor 

For sauces, soups and croquettes. 

Cook together sliced onions, browned flour and oil with salt 
and water until onions are tender; strain, keep in cool place. 

FOR SWEETS 
Steep peach leaves in water for almond flavor. 

Finely-ground coriander seed is a delightful and not unwhole- 
some flavoring. It is cheaper to buy the seed by the pound. A 
half pound will go a long way. Do not grind too much at a time. 

Ground anise seed in minute quantities is unequaled for some 
things, but is disagreeable when used too liberally. 

For sweet dishes to be flavored with lemon or orange, score 
the rind of the fruit lightly with a sharp-tined fork. Drop the 



28 THE LAUREL 

scored fruit into the measured sugar and rub it well with the sugar. 

Another way of obtaining the flavor, also of grape fruit, is to 
pour boiling water over the thinly-pared yellow rind and when 
cold, strain. For salads, let that thin rind stand in the lemon 
or other fruit juices for a time and then remove. 

When obliged to use lemon or orange extracts, use only a few- 
drops instead of the teaspoonful of the average recipe. 

Rose is another of the delightful flavors to be used sparingly. 

To flavor with cocoanut, when the fibre is not desired, steep 
(do not boil) the cocoanut in milk for I 5-20 m., then strain it out. 

SALAD FLAVORINGS 

To flavor lemon juice lor cooked or uncooked dressings, take 
to each three tablespns. of lemon juice and one of water, a slice 
of onion, a bay leaf, and % teaspn. of celery seed or I tablespn. 
of chopped celery leaves. Boil a moment, then cool and strain. 
Tarragon and chives may be used for the flavorings. Onion, 
bay leaf, thyme, a trifle of garlic if liked, and a few thin yellow 
slices of orange peel make another combination. 

The salad dish is sometimes rubbed with the cut surface of a 
clove of garlic or a slice of onion, or onion may be chopped or 
grated. Crushed celery seed is liked by some in salad dressings. 
Spearmint is very refreshing. Delicate tender sassafras leaves 
may be used in fruit and nut meat salads. 

Shredded fresh mint combines well with orange or grape fruit 

or with currant juice; tarragon with red raspberries and currants, 
and basil with peaches. 

In closing the subject of flavorings, I quote the words of a 
lady visitor after sampling some of the dishes prepared by a class 
in cookery: 

"Any one can give a taste to foods by adding condiments and 
flavorings, but to develop the flavors of the foods themselves is 
an art. " 



GENERAL 

GARNISHING 

The saying that "some people eat with their eyes" is true to a 
great extent of all of us. I believe that the veriest savage 
would better enjoy his dinner, however rude, if somewhere there 
were tucked into it a bit of green. The busy farmer's wife as 
she goes to the wood pile for an armful of wood can quickly pick 
off a spray of May weed, dropping it into a tin of cold water as 
she passes the water pail, and her platter of beans for dinner is 
transformed, in the eyes of those children, into a thing of beauty, 
and what effect may it not have in the formation of their char- 
acters? 

Of variety in garnishing there need be no lack with the gar- 
den, wayside and woods abounding in beautiful leaves, vines and 
flowers. 

There are foliage plant, geranium, and autumn leaves, ferns 
in variety, with lettuce, endive, spinach, parsley, chervil and 
carrot tops. The variegated variety of beet leaves, as also the 
bright blossoms of nasturtiums make a brilliant garnish. 

Put parsley, ferns, and all of the green leaves and vines into 
very cold water as soon as gathered and leave for some time, 
then keep in paper sacks in a cold place away from the wind. 
Repeat the cold water bath at intervals. 

Barberries canned, or prese'rved in brine, candied cranberries 
or cherries, green grapes in brine, designs cut from orange, lemon 
grape fruit and tangerine rinds, tomatoes in slices or in length- 
wise pieces, and slices of lemon or orange with the skin on are 
all suitable garnishes at times. 

Lemon cups, having a slice cut off from the ends so that they 
will stand, may be used for mayonnaise or small servings of salad. 

Orange and grape fruit halves with tops notched or scalloped 
or sometimes cut in deep points rolled down, and orange baskets 
make a change of service. All of these fruit cups should be kept 



3O THE LAUREL 

in ice water or chopped ice until serving time, then thoroughly 
dried with a soft towel. 

Blood oranges and gelatine oranges are novelties for garnishing. 

Sprays of maidenhair fern are pretty under grape fruit and or- 
ange cups. 

All cups or glasses containing salads or creams should be 
served on doilies on small plates. 

To prepare fringed celery, cut the stalks into two- or three-in. 
lengths, then slice very fine from each end to within ^-i in. of 
the center and leave in ice \vater for a time. Do not lay in ice 
water before preparing. The short tender stalks may have the 
leaves left on and be shredded at the opposite end. Celery leaves 
make a desirable garnish. 

Cut carrots, beets and yellow turnips into slices or sticks, or 
into round pieces with an open-top thimble or a round pastry 
tube, and into fancy shapes with vegetable cutters, selecting cut- 
ters which have not sharp points or slender stems. 

Radish Lilies 

Get either the turnip or olive shaped radishes, wash them well, 
trim off just the slender tips and all but one or two of the small- 
est leaves. With a thin, sharp knife cut them into halves from 
the tip end almost to the stem, and the same way into quarters 
and eighths. Then carefully loosen the rind of each section as 
far down as it is cut and throw the radishes into ice water, leav- 
ing them there for several hours or overnight, when they will 
have bloomed into beautiful lilies. Pure white or yellow lilies 
may be made from yellow or white radishes. Serve directly 
from the ice water, and the radishes will be crisp and sweet and 
easily digested. 

Just one radish sometimes, in a spray or two of parsley or 
chervil is better than a more elaborate garnish; a red radish sliced 
or cut into quarters or sixths is pretty in a little green. 



GENERAL 3! 

Roll up imperfect leaves of lettuce and slice in thin slices, 
then pick up lightly and use for borders or nests or beds. 

Dry parsley thoroughly in a towel before chopping. For roll- 
ing, spread the particles out, a little distance apart, so as to just 
fleck whatever is rolled in it. 

Use nuts chopped or in halves or broken pieces for borders or 
nests of fruit or vegetable salads; never put them into the dressing. 

Potato Balls 

Potatoes may be cut into balls with a vegetable scoop, boiled 
until just tender, not broken, drained, sprinkled with chopped 
parsley and used for garnishing a true meat dish. 

Egg Daisies 

Cut the hard boiled yolks of eggs into round pieces and the 
whites into petal shapes for daisies for decorating the tops of 
small spinach or other timbales or molds. 

The whites and yolks are better poached separately for gar- 
nishing. Cut whites with vegetable cutters sometimes. 

Oxeye Daisies 

Use the end of a small black olive for the center of daisies, and 
carrots for the leaves. 

Toast points or croutons of different shapes are suitable gar- 
nishes for timbales, eggs, broiled mushrooms and true meat or 
vegetable stews, or we may use pieces of bread of different shapes 
that have been dipped in egg yolks and milk and baked. Breaded 
triangles, squares or circles, of corn meal porridge may be used 
to garnish the edge of a platter for a stew. 

Serve some creamed dishes or stews in shells of pastry. 

Turk's head and border molds may be decorated with truffles 
or other decorations, and used for meat dishes for variety. 

Button mushrooms may be used for garnishing individual tim- 
bales. 

Cut left overs of pie crust or cracker dough into fancy shapes, 



32 THE LAUREL 

for scalloped dishes, salads and some desserts, and into squares, 
diamonds or strips for peas and other vegetables. 

For legumes or other meat dishes, sometimes use carrots in 
dice or slices, sprinkled with chopped parsley or interspersed 
with sprigs of parsley. 

Lemon Points.- -Cut slices of lemon into four or six parts. 

Pastry Bag 

The pastry bag gives variety in garnishing and decorating. The 
bag itself may be of rubber, paper or cloth. Cloth for all pur- 
poses is the most practical. To make, take 'Indian Head" or 
other heavy cloth, cut it into any sized square desired; fold and 
sew together in cornucopia shape (the seam is better felled), trim 
the top evenly and hem; then cut off a very little from the point 
and hem that, leaving the opening just large enough to insert 
the tubes one-third to one-half their length. 

Paper bags may be used in an emergency, and rubber for some 
purposes, but not for anything containing oil. 

Mashed peas and potatoes should not be too dry for decorating. 

Mayonnaise dressing and whipped cream should be stiff, as 
also meringues. 

COLORINGS 
Pokeberry Carmine 

Cover berries with water, boil till the skins break, strain, add 
i cup of sugar to each pint of juice; boil, bottle, seal. 

For Red, cook strained tomato to a thick pulp; or slice a bright 
red raw beet into cold water and let it stand on the stove where 
it will heat slowly to a little below the boiling point and strain. 

For Green, bruise parsley, spinach, chervil, onion tops, chives, 
tarragon or lettuce, with or without lemon, and press out the 
juice for coloring. 

For Yellow, steep saffron in boiling water for }/2-\ hour and 
strain when cold. 



GENERAL 33 

When these colorings are not suitable, the so-called 'fruit 
colors" for sale at the groceries may be used. Use only enough 
for delicate shades. 

ARRANGEMENT AND GARNISHING OF SALADS 

The arrangement and garnishing of salads depends largely 
upon individual taste and skill in the use of things at hand, and 
is a matter of importance. 

The garnish should be a suitable one and should harmonize 
with the ingredients of the salad. For example, a dainty flower 
or vine with a delicate fruit salad, and slices or fancy shapes of 
vegetables with true meat salads. 

Red apple, or tomato cups may be used for light colored salads, 
and yellow tomato, or green and white apple cups for bright ones. 

Juicy fruit salads should be served in dainty glasses or cups; 
and a correspondingly dainty doily on the plate underneath the 
glass with a delicate flower or leaf by its side, leaves nothing to 
be desired. 



nonon 



' We do not attain perfection by striving to do something out 
of the common. 

' Perfection is acquired by doing the common things uncom- 
monly well.' -Mowry. 



FRUITS 



FRUITS FRESH 

'Man has always thrived as he has eaten freely of fruits.' 
-H. In ///<' Hancock. 



'The best food on this planet is ripe fruit. The healthiest 
people on the globe are the fruit eaters of tropical countries. 
The great muscular Maoris of New Zealand are a frugiverous race. 
I have seen a boat crew of these great chocolate colored giants 
that would outrow the ' crack ' university crews were they prop- 
erly trained. The bread fruit of the Samoan Islands has made a 
race of giants. I have examined these men and women on their 
native soil and finer human specimens never lived.' -Dr. Paul 
Edwards. 

'The more we depend upon the fresh fruit just as it is plucked 
from the tree, the greater \vill be the blessing.' 

Tt would be well for us to do less cooking and to eat more 
fruit in its natural state. Eat freely of fresh grapes, apples, 
peaches, pears, berries and all other kinds of fruit that can be 
obtained. ' 

Fruits supply sugar, acids, mineral matter and bulk. The 
mineral elements of fruits are more readily assimilated than those 
of flesh meat and vegetables. Acid fruits aid in the digestion of 
nuts and other nitrogenous foods. Acid, juicy fruits keep the 
system clean and free from germs. They render lime and soda 
salts soluble, enabling the system to throw them off. They al- 
lay instead of creating thirst. Alcohol and tobacco cannot stay 
long with the individual who uses no flesh foods and partakes 
freely of ripe juicy fruits. Use more fruit and fewer vegetables 
if you would not experience thirst. 

Cane sugar is not digested in the stomach but causes fermen- 

(34) 



FRUITS 35 

tation by hindering the digestion of other foods. The sugar of 
fruits (grape and fruit sugar, so-called), and that of honey are all 
ready for assimilation, so require less labor on the part of the 
body and may be used more rapidly for the repair of muscular 
fatigue. 

The laxative effect of fruit is very important. Very ripe bana- 
nas taken when the stomach is empty often produce immediate 
effect. Pineapples after nitrogenous foods, ripe olives, peaches, 
pears and nearly all fruits are helpful. 

It is better to use the juice and pulp only, of seedy fruits like 
blackberries and black raspberries. With many people the seeds 
produce hives. 

The matter of bulk in the diet is an important one. The whole 
digestive tract suffers if there is not a fairly good bulk of food to 
be handled by it, yet serious results follow when a large quantity 
of concentrated food is consumed; consequently, fruits and green 
vegetables being composed largely of water supply just what is 
needed. 

Fruit must be thoroughly ripened, sound and w 7 ell matured. 
Many unripe fruits contain raw starch which causes trouble when 
they are eaten. 

The largest fruit of its kind is usually the cheapest. It is poor 
economy to spend money and (if the fruit requires paring) time, 
for seeds, skins, and cores. Besides, as a rule the larger fruit is 
more perfectly matured, so more wholesome as well as of a finer 
flavor. 

Do not use the skins of fruits much. They are composed 
largely of woody fibre and are intended only for a covering to the 
fruit. In the days of stomach washes, the skins of fruits were 
noticeably abundant in the ''unswallowed" food. 

For the best effect, fruits should be used without sugar. When 
one has accustomed himself to the use of grape fruit and oranges 
without sugar, the addition of it will make them positively disa- 



36 THE LAUREL 

greeable to his taste, besides causing rebellion in the stomach. 

Since acids hinder the digestion of starch, it is better to take 
acid fruits at the close of a meal including starchy foods, and we 
should especially avoid taking starches and acids into the mouth 
at the same time, before the starch has been acted upon by the 
saliva. 

There is great opportunity for the display of artistic skill in 
serving fresh fruits, and nothing so well repays a little effort as 
the combination of leaves, ferns and vines with fruits. One 
beautiful dish that I remember was of plums, grapes and peaches 
with autumn leaves; another, with rich branches of foliage plants 
and a variety of fruits. Grape leaves combine beautifully with 
fruits. 

One person with w r hom I am acquainted can use no starchy 
foods. The many attempts which she has made to use them in- 
variably result in her becoming extremely weak, and helpless 
with rheumatism; but she thrives on a diet composed almost ex- 
clusively of acid fruits and nuts. She writes- "On my fruit and 
nut diet I seldom feel thirst, but after eating even starchless 
vegetables I suffer exceedingly from it. I find also that I do not 
require so much sleep as when living on another diet.' Her 
chief fruits are sour apples, grape fruit, oranges and mealy-ripe 
bananas with a few raisins, dates and figs occasionally for dessert. 
She is at her best when currants are ripe; and takes them every 
day as long as they can be obtained. 

APPLES 

The apple, of which there are said to be over 2000 varieties, 
has no equal as an "all-round" fruit; but it is at its best just 
pared and eaten raw. It requires thorough mastication both 
for digestion and enjoyment. 

When you are not feeling quite at par, cut an apple in two 
from stem to blossom end and with a round pointed knife scrape 
it into a fine pulp from either side. It is most refreshing and 



FRUITS 37 

easily digested so. Children and people whose teeth are defect- 
ive can take it best that way. 

The apple is the choicest salad fruit. 

BANANAS 

The fact that the banana is a serious cause of indigestion when 
just turned yellow is quite generally understood, and fruit eaters 
now buy them and keep them until they become not just soft, 
but mellow ripe, which will be after the skins are dark or covered 
with dark spots. As long as they have a 'pasty" feeling in the 
mouth they are unfit for food because the starch is not yet 
changed to sugar. 

Do not try to hurry the ripening process as bananas are bet- 
ter when ripened slowly. Keep them in the dark, in a not too 
cold place and give them plenty of time. Large, plump bananas 
are far superior to small slender ones in wholesomeness and flavor, 
besides being cheaper. 

There is no other way of using bananas to compare with 
eating them "out of hand" with the skin and fibres removed; 
but they may be served with sugar and lemon juice for luncheon 
or with whipped cream for dessert. 

Almond cream is very harmonious with bananas. Peeled ba- 
nanas w T ith a little almond butter accompanying each mouthful 
make a complete and delightful luncheon. Brazil nut butter 
and cream are also excellent with bananas. 

BLACKBERRIES 

Wild blackberries are sweeter and finer flavored than culti- 
vated ones and eaten in small quantities. from the bush are very 
enjoyable, but they should not be taken in large quantities \vith 
their seeds. They may be served with nut, or whipped dairy 
cream. With a thin syrup of sugar and water they are delicious. 

CANTALOUPE 

Wash, drain, chill, cut in halves and remove the seeds w r ith a 



TIIK I A IK I I 

round-pointed spoon (not a sharp pointed knife-) or with the lin- 
gers. Do not put ice inside as it destroys the flavor. Serve on 
mat of grape leaves. 

CURRANTS 

Wash, drain, serve on the stems plain or around a mold of 
sugar (made by pressing not too dry powdered or granulated 
sugar into a small glass, andunmolding in the center of the plate), 
or a spoonful of sugar, on a dainty dish. Nice, very ripe cur- 
rants are especially refreshing and reviving. 

Frosted Currants 

Pick fine even bunches of currants and dip them, one at a 
a time, into a mixture of frothed white of egg and a very little 
cold water. Drain them until nearly dry and roll in powdered 
sugar. Repeat the dip in the sugar once or twice and lay them 
on white paper to dry. Use as a garnish. 

DATES AND NUTS 

Serve dates piled on a dessert plate with halves of nuts around, 
or on individual dishes with a spoonful of any desired nut butter 
or meal in the center of the dish. 

DATES AND CREAM 

Slice dates and cover with nut or dairy cream. Dairy cream 
may be whipped and piled in center of dish with fruit around. 

DATES OR FIGS AND MILK 

One writer on health subjects recommends dates and milk or 
figs and milk as an improvement upon bread and milk. They 
make an excellent combination and a satisfying meal. 

Nut milk or nut cream are ideal for sweet fruits. 

FIGS 

Serve figs with nuts and with cream, the same as dates. 
For Stuffed Dates and Figs, see Confections. 



FRUITS 39 

GOOSEBERRIES 

Nice large ripe gooseberries are most enjoyable right from the 
bushes. 

GRAPES 

There is perhaps no fruit more highly recommended than the 
grape. One says: "It is safe to say that the juice of no other 
fruit or vegetable so strikingly resembles blood in its composition 
as the unfermented juice of grapes.' 

Another: "Grapes eaten exclusively for several days bring 
about wonderful results in the system. From one to two pounds 
should be consumed daily at first, gradually increasing to eight 
or ten pounds. ' 

The "grape cures" in France and Germany are too well known 
to require mention. There is said to be "a life giving principle 
in grapes which builds tissue and stimulates the sympathetic 
nervous system.' 

These quotations apply particularly to fresh grapes. Cooked 
grapes and juice do not agree with every one, 

TO PACK GRAPES 

Take the late grapes, pick them carefully, spread them in a 
cool place in layers on shelves, let them remain two weeks, then 
pack in barrels with dry hard-wood sawdust. Bran will answer 
very well. Packed in this manner the fruit will keep good 
through the winter it is said. After packing, grapes should be 
kept in a cool, dry place. 

GRAPE FRUIT 

Cut in halves crosswise, remove seeds with sharp pointed knife, 
and separate the pulp from the bitter membrane between the 
sections. Serve one half to each person in peel or small glass, 
or serve halves after removing seeds without separating pulp. 
The fruit should not be cut long before serving as the juice * and 
pulp absorb the bitter of the cut membrane. Taken at the close 
of the meal, grape fruit is an aid to digestion. The effect will be 



4O THE LATRKL 

better without sugar. As a dessert, it is sometimes served with a 
tablespoonful of thick maple syrup in the center. 

GRAPE FRUIT WITH MALAGA GRAPES 

Prepare grape fruit as for salad, combine with halved, seeded 
Malaga grapes and sugar; refill cups which have been wiped 
dry after standing in ice water. Garnish with candied cherries 
or blanched almonds. 

GRAPE FRUIT AMBROSIA 

Mix grape fruit pulp with orange pulp, grated cocoanut and 

sugar. Serve, sprinkled \vith cocoanut, in its own cups or in 
glasses. 

OLIVES 

'When properly prepared, olives like nuts supply the place of 
butter and flesh meats. Oil as eaten in the olive is far prefer- 
able to animal oil or fat. It serves as a laxative. Its use will 
be found beneficial to consumptives and it is healing to an in- 
flamed, irritated stomach. ' 

The olive contains more protein than any of the other com- 
mon fruits, and with the exception of the alligator pear is the 
only one containing any appreciable amount of oil. Until within 
a few 7 years w r e have been eating this valuable fruit in its un- 
ripe state, but now we get it, both imported and home grown, 
ripe. There is just as much difference between a ripe and green 
olive as between a ripe and green apple. 

The ripe olive is black or dark brown in color (according to 
where it was grown) and has its full quota of oil. After one has 
eaten ripe olives for a time, the green ones will have a harsh, 
rank taste to him. It is also much easier to acquire a taste for 
the ripe olive. The large, luscious ones with meat as thick as 
that of a good sized plum are truly delightful. 

Those hurried on to the eastern market from California before 
the holidays are not thoroughly ripened, but there are some 



FRUITS 41 

growers who hold them until properly matured before gathering. 
Olives are better just soaked a little and eaten in that state than 
to be used in cooked dishes; but when used in soups or sauces, 
add without cooking just before serving. 

Ripe olives are a valuable substitute for butter with bread, 
giving an emulsified oil instead of a free fat, with no germs of 
tuberculosis or other diseases. 

The dried olives sold by Italian grocers require a long soaking 
and several changes of water. They, too, become stronger 
flavored by cooking. They are considerably cheaper than the 
bottled ones but much less delicate in flavor. 

ORANGES 

4 'The one thing that quickest revives a human being is orange 
juice. ' -Dr. Paul Edwards. 

"The orange is a fruit that is distinctly health-giving. Orange 
juice aids greatly in reducing the amount of putrefaction in the 
intestines of nearly all persons who are submitted to clinical 
laboratory tests.' -H. Irving Hancock, in '"Good Housekeeping.' 

The white separating membrane of the orange is rather indi- 
gestible, so in many cases it is better to use the juice or pulp only. 

I am going to tell you how to "drink" oranges. First, cut 
the orange in halves from end to end, then cut each half in three 
or four pieces; place each one of these oblong cups to the lips 
and extract the juice, rejecting the seeds and leaving all the 
membrane. This method is most refreshing, if not elegant. 
Eaten with a spoon from the halves cut across is, next to this, 
most satisfying, but takes more time. 

In Jamaica they peel off the outer yellow skin and cut the 
orange across into two unequal portions. They extract the juice 
and pulp from the larger stem section first, and reserve the 
smaller, sweeter section for the last. 

Again, they peel the yellow part of the rind off about one-fourth 



42 THE LAUREL 

of the way down, run the knife into the peeled end and cut away 
a conical portion of the pulp, thus opening all of the sections of 

the orange. They then suck out the juice, without any burned 



lips as the result. 

One nice way to prepare the pulp is to peel the fruit as you 
would an apple, cutting deep enough to remove all the white 
portion of the covering; then to cut all around each section of 
pulp, just inside the separating membrane, when you can remove 
the pure pulp. Serve in glass sauce-dish, or in cups, --orange, 
glass or china. 

Another dainty and satisfactory way of preparing an orange is 
to "cut two circles through the skin around the fruit about ^ in. 
apart and half way between the two ends. Remove all the rind 
except the half-inch band. Just over one of the natural separa- 
tions between the sections of the orange, cut the band with a 
sharp knife. All the divisions may then be carefully separated 
one from another, while all remain attached to the girdle of yel- 
low rind. Oranges may be laid in layers on a fruit plate, out- 
stretched upon the narrow piece of peeling, or they may, after 
the several divisions heve been carefully made, be closed together 
again. A ribbon tied around the orange over the rind girdle will 
preserve the spherical form and be very pretty and ornamental. 
It is but the act of a moment to untie this ribbon, when the 
sections will all lie before one in perfect readiness to be eaten.' 
-Clipping. 

PEACHES 

Ripe mellow peaches are incomparable both for health and 
palatability. They are equally good both for grown people and 
children, though one writer says 'the ripe mellow peach is re- 
ally the child's fruit." 

A friend told me that an old Indian came to the house when 
her little brother was lying at the point of death, and said, 
"peach juice will keep him alive.' The mother, anxious to 



FRUITS 43 

leave nothing untried, began giving him the juice of stewed 
peaches, from which time he began to retain his food (the moth- 
er's milk) and to improve in every way. \Yhen he came to be 
weaned, peach juice and gradually the soft halves of peaches 
were his sole diet for eight months; then other foods were intro- 
duced sparingly, but all his life peaches have formed a large part 
of his diet and he is an unusually well man. 

\Yash and carefully rub peaches in cold water, and rub them 
well with a soft cloth in wiping to remove the down, w r hich is 
irritating. 

Peaches should ripen on the trees; the shipped ones are often 
suitable for cooking only as they are gathered before they are 
ripe. Some varieties are sour and disagreeable, while others are 
sweet and luscious. 

Few people know how exceedingly delightful rich juicy white 
peaches are. 

PEACHES AND CREAM 

Pare peaches just as short a time before they are to be served 
as possible. Cut in halves, quarters or thick slices. Do not 
sweeten but pass sugar and unwhipped cream with them. Al- 
mond or cocoanut cream are especially suitable for peaches. 

PEACH SNOW 

Add sweetened cream to stiffly-beaten whites of eggs (J/^ cup 
to each white) and pour over peaches just before serving. All 
must be cold. 

Peaches combine nicely with bananas and with red raspberries. 
The juice of the berries may be served over the peaches instead 

of cream. 

PINEAPPLES 

The pineapple is another of the universal favorites and deser- 
vedly. Its delightful flavor is unequaled and the fresh juice 
contains bromelin, a remarkably active principle w r hich aids di- 
gestion both in the stomach and in the intestinal tract. A slice 



44 THE LAUREL 

or two of pineapple taken at the close of a meal gives a marked 
laxative effect. The use of pineapple in diptheria is well known. 
I knew a very successful physician in one of our large cities who 
always had quantities of pineapple canned each year for use in 
diphtheria cases. The digestive ferment is not quite so active 
in the cooked fruit as in the uncooked. 

SHREDDED PINEAPPLE 

Use only choice large w r ell ripened sound pineapples. Wash 
and drain; give the crown a twist with the hand, when it will 
come out easily if the fruit is ripe. Set the pineapple on a board 
and with a large sharp knife pare it by cutting slices down from 
the top all around, cut thick enough to remove all the woody 
covering (the fruit in connection with that has very little flavor), 
leaving only the deepest eyes. 

After removing, the eyes, take the pineapple in the left hand 
with the base up and shred it by picking up small pieces all around 
with the tines of a silver fork. It will come off easily from that 
end, leaving the core, which should be wrung to obtain all the 
juice. 

Let the fruit stand in layers with sugar, %to $4 cup, (or % 
to Y^ cup sugar, ^ to I tablespn. lemon juice and ^ cup water) 
to each pint, for some time before serving, or, serve plain and 
pass sugar \vith it. Pineapple and strawberries or raspberries or 
oranges with lemon juice and sugar are nice alone, or with cake, 
for dessert. 

PINEAPPLE AND GRAPE FRUIT 

Equal quantities of prepared pineapple and grape fruit with 
sugar and the juice of either poured over. 

Peach, orange and pineapple is another nice combination. 
PINEAPPLE AND WHIPPED CREAM 

Drain finely-shredded pineapple and beat with whipped cream, 
as much as can be used and keep the combination stiff. Serve 
cold in glasses. 



FRUITS 45 

PINEAPPLE AND STRAWBERRY AMBROSIA 

Equal quantities ripe strawberries, shredded pineapple and 
cream. Whip cream, place layer of pineapple in dish, sprinkle 
with sugar, cover with cream, then make a layer of strawberries, 
sugar and cream. Continue. Have cream on top. Serve cold 
with sponge cake or cocoanut crisps. 

PINEAPPLE AND ORANGE AMBROSIA 

* 
Drained shredded pineapple, orange pulp and juice, grated 

cocoanut and sugar, in layers. 

RAISINS 

Raisins are nutritious and valuable foods, containing some- 
times as high as 61 per cent, of grape sugar and a considerable 
proportion of albuminoids. They are suitably combined with all 
kinds of bread and nuts. One thing that makes them so satisfy- 
ing is that they require thorough mastication. 

RASPBERRIES RED 

When necessary to wash, have cold water in a deep pan and 
turn the berries in, not more than a quart at a time. (Do not 
pour the water over the berries as that bruises them.) Rinse up 
and down in the water with the hands and remove quickly to a 
colander. Drain, pile in dish and serve at once. Lemon or 
currant juice poured over makes a harmonious combination. /^ 
or y& very ripe currants may be mixed with the berries. Serve 
Brazil nuts or blanched almonds with these combinations. 

RASPBERRIES BLACK 

Black raspberries have a peculiar spicy flavor not found in any 
other fruit and when plump and thoroughly ripened may be used 
in moderate quantities in their natural state. 

STRAWBERRIES 

The perfect way to serve strawberries is the Frenchwith the 
hulls on, without washing. Pass sugar with them, or pile the 
berries around a mold of sugar on individual plates, or, set a dainty 



46 THE I. A IK EL 

cup or glass containing sugar in the center of the plate and pile 
the berries around. But if the berries are very sandy, wash the 
same as red raspberries. Wash berries always before hulling un- 
less obliged to let stand after hulling, then do not \vash until 
just ready to serve. The little strawberry hullers snip the hulls 
out so quickly and so perfectly without staining the fingers that 

they seem among the indispensables of housekeeping. 


ORANGE STRAWBERRIES 

Put sliced berries into glasses and pour sweetened orange juice 
over to more than cover. Let stand in a cool place 3 or 4 hrs. 
to improve the color. They may be served with an uncooked 
meringue garnished with halves or quarters of berries or a slice 

of orange. 

WATERMELON 

The flavor of watermelon is better if cooled in water instead 
of on ice. To serve cut the melon in halves across and cut off 
pieces from the ends so that they will stand. Serve the pulp by 
spoonfuls, scooped out with a tablespoon. If convenient take 
the pieces out before sending to the table, remove the seeds and 
return the pieces to the shell, then keep in a cool place until 
serving time. 

The watermelon furnishes an abundance of pure distilled w r ater. 
Watermelons that are not very sw r eet maybe served with almond 
cream and sugar. 

WHORTLEBERRIES 

The most desirable of this family is the large purple soft pulpy 
sweet juicy berry growing in the s\vamps, and called in some 
parts of the country 'blueberry.' It is delightful with nut or 
dairy cream or \vith sugar or in bread and milk. Its juice being 
so sweet it is one of the most suitable berries for sauce with 
cereals. In cakes puddings or pies it is equally enjoyable. 

The so-called 'huckleberry,' though more seedy, has a nice 
flavor when cooked. 



FRUITS 47 

FRUITS COOKED 

APPLE SAUCE 

Select nice tart apples; wash, drain, cut out the blossom end of 
each so that the little black particles will not get on to the fruit. 
Pare as thin as possible. When all are pared, cut into quarters, 
and core by cutting from both stem and blossom end downward 
to the center, just below the core. After coring, throw 
enough quarters into the kettle (granite, porcelain or aluminum) 
to about cover the bottom, and turn the quarters core side down. 
Then arrange another layer in the same way and continue until 
all are in. Pour boiling water over to half cover the apples 
(more or less according to the juiciness of the apples), cover ket- 
tle and set over hot fire. Cook without removing cover until 
apples are perfectly tender; remove from fire at once, stir in a 
little sugar if desired and a trifle of salt. This method gives a 
nice white well cooked sauce with a fresh apple taste. Placing 
the apples as directed causes them to cook tender quickly and 
evenly. The salt improves the flavor unless too much is used. 

STRAINED APPLE SAUCE 

When apples are small or knotty, cook without paring, rub 
through colander and add a little sugar. 

BAKED APPLE SAUCE 

Place quartered apples in pudding dish as for apple sauce. 
Sprinkle delicately with sugar between the layers and over the 
top. Pour water in at the side of the dish so as to leave the 
sugar on the top. Cover and bake for several hours until the 
apples assume a rich red color. 

BAKED QUARTERS OF APPLES 

Wash, quarter and core but do not pare apples; lay cut side 
down in pudding dish, pour very little if any water over, cover 
close, bake until tender. Remove cover and drv out i^cll. Eat 
from the fingers, rejecting the skins, or scrape the pulp from the 



48 THE LAUREL 

skin with a teaspoon. The skin imparts such richness and flavor 
to the pulp that it seems to have been sweetened with sugar. 

BAKED APPLES 

To the natural taste, the apple is best just washed, put into a 
baking pan with little if any water (depending upon the juici- 
ness of the apple), covered at first and baked until tender and 
dry. Some prefer to have the apples cored with l /2-\ teaspn. of 
sugar (brown sugar sometimes) placed in the core space. 

LEMON APPLES, ORANGE APPLES, AND OTHERS 

Core and pare nice large perfect apples. Place in the core 
space sugar with a little grated lemon or orange rind. Sprinkle 
outside of apples with sugar and turn a little lemon juice over 
for "Lemon Apples" or "Orange Apples.' Bake until just ten- 
der, with or without a little w^ater. 

Use citron, cocoanut, raisins or nuts with sugar for other 
varieties. Fill core space with jelly for 'Jelly Apples.' Serve 
plain or with nut cream or whipped dairy cream, or with cocoa- 
nut or custard sauce or with wafers or nuts for dessert, at a meal 
without vegetables, especially starchy vegetables. 

Lemon and jelly apples make suitable accompaniments to 
meat dishes. 

BAKED SWEET APPLES 

Bake whole with plenty of water at first (covered part of the 
time) until perfectly tender and all the water is evaporated. 
Serve for dessert, or for breakfast or supper with nuts, or with 
nut or dairy cream, or in bread and milk, than which nothing is 
more delicious. 

"MOTHER" CRANSON'S STEWED SWEET APPLES 

Put whole apples into preserving kettle, cover with thin syrup 
of sugar and water and cook until tender (carefully changing the 
apples from top to bottom once or twice) and the syrup just a 
little thick. Place the apples on plates and turn the syrup over. 



FRUITS 49 

STEWED BANANAS 

Slice bananas, stew with a little sugar water and a trifle of 
ground or crushed anise seed tied in a piece of cheese cloth. 
Prunes may be flavored the same. 

BANANAS IN BUTTER 

Simmer bananas in butter in an aluminum or agate frying pan 
covered, on the top of the stove where it is not too hot. They 
will not be browned but simply stewed. 

BANANAS AND RAISINS 

Cook raisins in a broad flat pan in water for an hour. Slice 
bananas over, cover and cook 10 m. 

BAKED BANANAS 

The simplest way to bake bananas is in the skins. It takes 
just 20 m. in a moderate oven. To eat, strip a piece of skin 
about an inch wide from the top side and partake of the baked 
fruit from the remaining skin in teaspoonfuls. 

Bananas may be baked whole with a little water after peeling, 
and served with orange or cream sauce. 

A little melted butter may be poured over bananas before bak- 
ing or they may be rolled in lemon juice and sugar and baked. For 
a richer dish, turn mixed melted butter, sugar and lemon juice 
over bananas in lengthwise halves in agate pan. Bake 15-20 m. 
in slow oven. Serve with meat dishes sometimes. 

BAKED CRUMBED BANANAS 

Roll peeled bananas in fine granella, cracker or zwieback 
crumbs mixed with sugar. Bake in moderate oven till just ten- 
der. Serve at once. 

BANANAS BAKED WITH TOMATOES 

Put a thin layer of stewed or sliced tomatoes in the bottom of 
a baking pan. Cover with bananas sliced crosswise. Bake. 

CRANBERRIES 

Cranberries are said to "promote digestion and purify the 



5O THE LAUREL 

blood.' There is no question but they are a desirable fruit and 
should be used freely in their season. 

Stewed Cranberries 

i qt. berries, 24 cup sugar, 1-1^2 cup water. 

Pour boiling water over cranberries, let stand 2m., or until 
cold; drain, add sugar and water, cook covered, until boiling all 
through. Rub through colander if the skins are objectionable. 
2-3 tablespns. of lemon juice and more sugar may be added. 

Baked Cranberries. 

Make syrup of I pt. of water and i% cup of sugar; boil, cool. 
Pour over I qt. of cranberries in baking dish. Bake until clear. 

Cranberries With Raisins 

i qt. berries i cup sugar 

y\-\ cup seeded raisins i pint water 

Stew raisins in water until nearly tender; pour boiling water 
over cranberries and drain; cook all together until berries are 
done. 

A larger proportion of raisins and less sugar may be used. 

BAKED PEACHES 

Whole, pared, cling-stone peaches; sugar, butter and lemon 
juice. Bake 40 m. May be served with meat dishes, or as 

dessert. 

BAKED QUINCES Delicious 

Wash, pare, halve, core. (Save skins and cores for jelly). 
Cover with a large quantity of thin sugar and water syrup. Bake 
covered, basting often and turning occasionally until tender and 
the syrup rich. Uncover at the last for a short time. 

PLAIN BAKED QUINCES 

Pare and core quinces, bake with water only, basting. Serve 
with hard or creamy sauce or with nut cream and sugar. 

RHUBARB 

Rhubarb is not a fruit but the stalk of the plant and as its acid 



FRUITS 5 I 

is oxalic, it is a somewhat questionable article of diet. At all 
events it should not be used freely. 

Stewed Rhubarb 

i qt. rhubarb /^ cup sugar 

Wash rhubarb, do not peel, cut into % in. pieces; cook with 
sugar, on the back of the stove until juicy; then stew till tender. 

Stewed Rhubarb, No. 2 

i qt. rhubarb i tablespn. lemon juice 

scant ^3 cup sugar /^ cup water 

Cook all together. 

Baked Rhubarb 

Put rhubarb in baking dish with sugar and lemon juice as for 
stewing, with or without a little water. Cover and bake until 
tender. 

It is said that if young cherry leaves are scalded and the juice 
added to cooked rhubarb, it will impart the flavor of cherries to 
the rhubarb. 

STEWED DRIED FRUITS 

The flavors of dried fruits are more natural and delicate with 
prolonged soaking and short (if any) cooking. Choice dried ap- 
ples and apricots are especially enjoyable soaked over night or 
longer without any cooking. The juice from them makes an 
exceedingly refreshing drink. 

Pour boiling water over fruit that requires washing to more 
perfectly loosen the dirt, then quickly add cold \vater. Wash 
thoroughly, cover with \varm water and let stand for from 12 to 
48 hrs. When perfectly swollen and soft, add sugar, if it is to 
be used, bring to the boiling point quickly and remove from the 
fire. These directions if followed will cause apples, apricots and 
peaches to seem almost like fresh stewed fruit. 

A few fresh grapes stewed with peaches give them a nice flavor. 
Raisins also (previously cooked) are nice with dried peaches. 



52 THI. LAUREL 

The most delightful combination with dried apples is /^ pru- 
nelles. Raisins are also nice with apples. 

Stewed Dried Apricots 

YZ Ib. apricots 3% cups water /^ cup sugar 

Follow general directions. 

PRUNES SWEET CALIFORNIA 

These require no sugar but will bear a little longer cooking 
than peaches and apricots. 

y prunes and X apricots make a nice combination, also 
raisins or rigs and prunes. 

Prune Marmalade 

Cook prunes with a small amount of water and rub through 
colander. This removes the skins or breaks them up so that 
many can take them who otherwise could not. Served with 
almonds, beaten white of egg or almond or whipped cream, the 
marmalade makes a nice dessert. 

Steamed Prunes par excellence 

Soak large prunes in a very little w r ater, stirring occasionally 
so that all will be moistened. Steam ^ of an hour. Cover as 
soon as removed from the steamer. Serve w 7 arm for breakfast. 
They may be steamed an hour without soaking. 

Stewed Figs 

Wash, soak, cook until tender, reduce liquor to syrup and 
pour over fruit. Serve with wafers or nuts or with whipped 
cream flavored with vanilla or almond. 

Steamed Figs best of all 

Wash figs and steam 25-35 m. according to dryness. Long 
steaming gives them a strong flavor. Cover, and serve warm. 
The figs may be soaked the same as prunes before steaming. 

Fruit Butter 
Stew together I ^2 Ib. prunes and I Ib. of dried apricots, no 



FRUITS 53 

sugar. Rub through colander and cook to the consistency of 
butter. 

TO CAN FRUITS 
Suggestions 

} 

The best quality of aluminum is the ideal material for the 
preserving kettle; but granite, porcelain or earthenware may be 
used. 

Thorough sterilization of the jars or cans is one of the most 
important parts of fruit canning. I always wash and sterilize 
mine when I empty them. 

After washing the covers of Mason jars, bake them in a mod- 
erate oven for 2 or 3 hours; scrape them on the inside if neces- 
sary but do not wet them, and screw them on to the jars, which 
should have been well washed, scalded, wiped with a clean 
towel and thoroughly dried by standing right side up in a warm 
place. 

The rubbers should be put on when the covers are, so that the 
jars will be all ready for use. 

AYhen old rubbers are in good condition they are just as good 
as ne\v ones. Sometimes two thin ones may be used together. 

There is a certain black rubber that should not be used with 
delicate flavored fruits as it injures their flavor. It does not im- 
prove the flavor of any fruit. 

New rubbers should be washed and rubbed well in soapsuds 
and rinsed before using. 

Keep the jars in a dry place and when you come to use them 
turn them over once in a pan of boiling water, scalding the cov- 
ers the same. 

Do not waste time, strength, jars or sugar on imperfect, de- 
cayed or unripe fruit. The probabilities are that it will not keep; 
and if it does the appearance and flavor \vill be inferior. 

Put the fruit into the jars boiling hot and seal immediately. Do 



54 THE LAUREL 

not try to remove the froth or air bubbles (pure air will do no harm 
in cans, and it will be pure when the fruit is at boiling heat all 
around it and will remain so if the can is well sealed), because 
while you are trying to let the air out the fruit is cooling on top 
and the germs from the outside air are settling upon it. 

If the fruit gets below the boiling point while filling the jars, 
return it to the fire and reheat it. Fill the jars to overflowing, 
Fasten the covers on perfectly tight, press the edges down all 
around into the rubber of Mason jars, if inclined to leak. Do 
not tighten the covers after the fruit is cold. 

With Lightning jars it is sometimes necessary to slip little 
splinters of wood (bits of berry boxes) under the wires to make 
the covers tight enough. 

When the covers are perfectly adjusted, invert the jars and 
leave them until cool. This not only shows whether any are 
leaking or not but fills any spaces there may be. 

Keep canned fruit in a dark place. The light will cause it to 
lose its flavor as well as color. Wrap jars in paper if necessary. 

The simplest way to fill jars is to set them in a row on a towel 
wrung out of cold water and folded so that it is thick. The jars 
must be cold also. Or, the towel may be wrung out of hot water 
and the jars rinsed in hot water before filling. In either case 
have the covers warm. 

Bear in mind that "sugar, when largely used, is more injurious 
than meat, ' 

Some fruits, rich fine-flavored pears and peaches, whortleber- 
ries and others are excellent canned without sugar. They taste 
more like fresh fruit. 

I always can whortleberries without water, so as to have them 
for pies. For sauce, water may be added after they are opened. 

Gooseberries canned without water or sugar make delightful, 
fresh tasting pies in winter. 

Never fail to secure black currants if possible for pies. 



FRUITS 55 

Always label fruit before putting it away, giving the year in 
which it was put up. 

Canned fruits and vegetables should be opened two hours or 
more before serving, to give the fresh taste which comes with 
the restoration of oxygen. 

There is much work at the best connected with fruit canning, 
so I have tried to simplify it as much as possible. The methods 
given here are those which I have used for years with good 
results. 

TO CAN SOLID BERRIES 

Cherries, whortleberries, red and black currants and all ber- 
ries that do not crush easily may be put into the kettle in layers 
with sugar (never more than ^ pt. of sugar to 2 qts. of fresh 
fruit and usually less), brought to the boiling point slowly and 
put into jars with very little trouble. The following is an aver- 
age proportion of sugar and water to use with this class of berries: 

Blackberries 2 qts. berries, Y^-^A cup sugar, 2 cups water. 

Blk. Raspberries 2 qts. berries, Y^-^A cup sugar, 2 cups water. 

Gooseberrries, green 2 qts. berries, 1-1/^2 cup sugar, 4 cups 
water. 

Gooseberries, ripe 2 qts. berries, i-i/4 cup sugar, i-i/4 cup 
water. 

Whortleberries, 2 qts. berries, /4 cup sugar (if any), i table- 
spn. water. 

Rhubarb i qt. rhubarb in % in. lengths, /4 cup sugar, no water. 

TO CAN PEACHES AND FRUITS OF THAT CLASS 

Peaches 

Wash peaches, rubbing well, drain, pare as thin as possible 
and drop into cold water to keep them from turning dark. If 
the peaches are very ripe, put a few at a time into a wire basket 
and plunge into boiling water. Hold them there a moment, 
then quickly turn them into cold water; after which the skins 
will slip off easily. 



56 THE LAUREL 

This is a quicker method and does not waste the peaches, but I 
have thought they were more apt to turn dark. 

For each rounded quart of peaches, make a syrup of X~/^ CU P 
of sugar and 1-1% cup of water, the water in which the peaches 
w r ere standing. Bring the syrup to the boiling point, drop the 
peaches in (if in halves the cut side down), boil until thoroughly 
heated through, or until tender; drop the peaches into the jars, 
pour boiling syrup over, seal, following ^Suggestions" carefully. 

Pears 

i rounded qt. (8 or 9) pears i tablespn. lemon juice 

in halves I-I/4 cup water 

y$-% cup sugar 

Finish the same as peaches. 

The lemon juice gives character to the pears. 

I once had some pears that were so flavorless it seemed hardly 
worth while to can them, but I tied ground anise seed in small 
pieces of cheese cloth and cooked with them, besides adding 
lemon juice, and they w r ere excellent. Small pears and those 
with thin skins may be canned without paring. They are richer 
but the skins sometimes cause flatulence. 

Do not can pears while they are hard. 

Plums 
i qt. plums /^-/^ cup sugar X-/^ cup water 

It is a good plan to prick the plums on all sides with a fork 
before cooking. 

Quinces and Sweet Apples 

6 qts. quinces in eighths 5 qts. water 

6 qts. sweet apples in quarters 4-6 cups sugar 

Cook quinces in water until tender, remove with skimmer; 
cook apples in same water, remove apples, measure water, add- 
ing more if necessary; dissolve sugar in water, heat to boiling, add 
fruit, simmer a few r minutes and put into jars. 

Quinces are much improved by combining with sweet apples. 



FRUITS 57 

When the apples are cooked with them, the quinces become 
more tender. 

Quinces and citron and quinces and pears may also be com- 
bined. 

Cranberries and Sweet Apples 

i qt. cranberries /"i qt. cold water 

i% qt. sweet apples in 24-i cup sugar 

quarters 

Cook sugar, water and cranberries together, until the cran- 
berries begin to crack; add the apples and cook all slowly until 
the apples are soft. Put into jars and seal. 

To Can Strawberries 

Also red raspberries and all delicate berries. 

For each 2 qts. of hulled berries (just enough to fill one quart 
jar), use I cup of granulated sugar. Put a layer of berries into 
an earthen or granite ware dish, sprinkle with sugar, cover with 
another layer of berries and so on. (Strawberries are so juicy 
they will not bear any water). Let berries and sugar stand to- 
gether in the ice box or cellar for several hours. They may be 
prepared late in the afternoon and put into the jars the first 
thing the next morning. 

When ready to can the fruit, drain off the juice, heat it to 
boiling, turn the berries carefully into it and shake and turn the 
dish once in a while to keep the fruit heating evenly. When 
just boiling all through, dip carefully into cans with a handled 
cup. Put the covers on quickly, no matter how many bubbles 
of air there are nor how much froth there is in the jars, and screw 
down tight with a can opener. After pressing the edge of the 
covers down if neccessary, lay the jars on the side (instead of 
inverting, for strawberries) and turn over occasionally while 
cooling. 

When perfectly cold, set jars upright and you will find the 
berries evenly distributed through the jars and they will never 
rise to the top. 



THE LATRKL 

Allowing the berries to stand in sugar and afterwards putting 
them into boiling syrup hardens them so that they keep their 
shape. It is better to heat just enough at once to fill each jar. You 
can have several dishes (milk crocks, granite, porcelain and alumi- 
num kettles ) on the stove at once at different stages of heating 
so that you can fill one jar after another. 

This was my auntie's method and I have never seen it excelled. 

Pineapple 

y\.- 1 ? cup sugar ^4 cup water 

/^-i tablespn. lemon juice i pt. pineapple 

Prepare pineapple as for fresh pineapple, put into stone jars or 
earthen vessels with layers of sugar; stand in ice box a few hours 
(not long enough to ferment), drain off the juice, add lemon juice 
and water, heat to boiling, add fruit. Let all just boil up, fill 
jars, seal as other fruits. The delicate flavor of pineapple is 
lost by long cooking. 

Grated pineapple canned with ^2 cup of sugar to the quart is 
suitable for ices and other uses. 

Rhubarb -cooked 

Put stewed rhubarb into jars as soon as it boils up well. 

Rhubarb Without Cooking---for pies 
A reliable method which gives the natural flavor. 

\Yash rhubarb and cut into inch pieces without peeling, pour 
boiling water over, drain at once, cool, pack in cans and fill with 
boiled, strained, ice-cold water. Seal cans, invert in cold place 
and cover from the light. Set upright after a few hours. To 
use, drain, let stand in fresh cold water ^ hour and drain again. 

Cranberries may be canned in the same way. 

Watermelon Rind or Citron 

Pare off the thin green rind, cut into pieces I in. square, or 
into strips, stand in cold water for two or three hours, changing 



FRUITS 59 

the water occasionally; drain thoroughly, make syrup of I pt. 
water to I or I ^ pt. sugar, according to the richness desired. 
(3 or 4 tablespns. of lemon juice may be used with the larger 
quantity of sugar). When syrup is boiling, add rind, simmer 
until pieces can be pierced easily with a broom straw, or until 
they are clear, put into jars and seal. 

One part raisins to five or six of the rind gives a nice flavor. 
Or, orange flowers, rose leaves or rose water may be used, but 
the fruit is nice without any flavoring. 

Green melons \vhich did not have time to ripen before the 
frost, are excellent prepared in this way. 

The rind may be steamed before putting it into the syrup, 
and less water used for the syrup. 

Concord Grapes 

2 qts. grapes 24 cup sugar % cup water 

Pulp the grapes, run skins through the food cutter and cook 
for 20 m. in the water. Boil pulp until tender and rub through 
colander to remove the seeds. Add pulp and sugar to skins, heat 
to boiling and put into jars. The juice may be strained from 
the pulp and used to cook the skins in. 

Barberries 

i qt. berries 2 cups sugar %-i cup water 

Very nice for garnishing fruit salads, desserts on cakes. 

Tomatoes 

Select only perfectly fresh, well ripened tomatoes, wash and 
drop into kettle of boiling water, remove with skimmer, drop 
into cold water, peel, leave whole or slice. Boil well and put 
into jars the same as other fruit. Long boiling frees the acid 
and takes away the fresh, delicate flavor. When tomatoes are 
very watery, drain off some of the liquid and can it separately 
for use in soups and broths. 



6O THE LAUREL 

Tomatoes for Soups and Sauces 

Wash and slice tomatoes without peeling. Heat to boiling, 
rub through fine colander or sieve to remove skins and seeds. 
Reheat and put into jars. 

Whole Tomatoes 

Pack peeled or unpeeled tomatoes in wide-mouthed jars. 
Cook a few nice ripe tomatoes, strain and pour the liquid, 
cold, over tomatoes in jars, seal, set jars in cold water as in can- 
ning vegetables, bring slowly to boiling point and boil ^ hour. 
Remove from water, tighten covers and invert jars as usual. 

FRUIT JUICES 

Begin with the earliest fruits and can some of the juice of 
each kind through the summer until you come to grapes and 
apples in the autumn. When diluted with water, these juices 
are delightful beverages for sick or well. A little lemon juice 
gives character to the drink. Without diluting, they make nice 
flavorings for fruit salads, egg creams and pudding sauces. Blue- 
berry, black raspberry and other sweet juices make excellent 
dressings for grains instead of milk or cream. 

Grape Juice 

Concords or some of the dark purple grapes are the richest 
and most satisfactory for juice. Pick the grapes from the stems, 
wash and drain, put into a preserving kettle without water, cov- 
er and put on back of stove on an asbestos pad or a ring so they 
will heat slowly. When the skins are broken and the juice is 
free, bring just to the boiling point, put into jelly bags and drain 
without squeezing. To each quart of juice add from ^ to I cup 
of sugar. Very ripe grapes w r ill require no sugar. Heat to boil- 
ing and can the same as fruit. 

Add more water to the pulp that is left in the jelly bag, reheat, 
strain, boil and put into large jars for a drink, or, rub the pulp 
through a colander, sweeten, heat and can for marmalade. 



FRUITS 6l 

To Bottle Juices- -Nearly fill bottles, standing on cloth wrung 
out of cold water, with boiling juice, through hot funnel. Press 
clean cork into bottle, cut off even with the top of the bottle 
and cover immediately with sealing wax made by melting together 
resin and oil. Use only enough oil to make the resin soft enough 
to spread over the cork and around the edges of the bottle. If 
too soft, the wax will run off. 

Condensed Fruit Juices 

Cook apple and other fruit juices rapidly until thick, then 
simmer slowly over the fire or in the oven until as thick as de- 
sired. Seal in jars or put into glasses or cups as jelly. Conven- 
ient for travelling, diluted. 

APPLES 

When apples are plentiful or likely to spoil, make into any of 
the apple sauces, put hot into jars and seal. 

Baked Apples 

Bake unpared apples, sweet or sour, in halves or quarters, 
leaving them rather juicy, put into jars and seal. On opening, 
put apples into oven in baking dish and dry out a little more. 

Combinations of Fruits for Canning 

Red or black raspberries with currant juice. 

Red or black raspberries w r ith cherries. 

Plums with sweet apples. 

Currants or currant juice with pineapple. 

Orange, strawberry and pineapple juices with sugar, for straw- 
berries and pineapple canned together, or for pineapple alone. 

Strawberries with pineapple. 

Pears and barberries. Cook barberries in water, rub through 
colander, add sugar, 1-1% cup to the pint of pulp. Return to 
the fire and when hot, lay in halves or quarters of nice ripe 
pears. Cook until pears are tender. If the pears are not quite 



62 THE LAUREL 

soft, steam, or cook in pulp without sugar first. Sweet apples 
may be used instead of pears. 

JELLIES 

Because of the large proportion of sugar required in jellies it 
is not best to use them freely. 

Fruit for jelly should always be a little underripe and should 
not be picked just after a rain. Combine the juices of such fruits 
as do not jelly easily, or of the more expensive fruits, with apple 
juice which jellies the easiest of all. With strong flavored fruits, 
apple makes the jelly more agreeable. Jellies may be made in 
the winter of canned fruit juices and the juice from apple skins 
and cores. The addition of lemon juice to sweet fruits will con- 
vert them into jelly-making products. A few pieces of rose 
geranium leaves dropped into apple jelly just before putting it 
into glasses and removed in a minute, give the jelly a nice flavor. 

Always boil the juice the required length of time before add- 
ing the sugar. It requires longer boiling on damp days. 

Heat sugar in flat pan in oven before adding to jelly. 

Thorough straining is necessary to make clear jelly. For the 
finest jelly, use first a double thickness of mosquito netting; then 
the same of cheese cloth, and lastly, one thickness of flannel. 

Wet the cloth before putting the fruit in, to save the waste 
of juice. Hang in a warm place to drain. 

It is said that if a little jelly dropped into cold water falls im- 
mediately to the bottom, the jelly is done; or, if it jellies on the 
spoon it is done. 

Glasses for jelly may be set cold on a cold cloth, or warm on 
a warm cloth. Fill to the brim, as the jelly shrinks. 

When the jelly is soft, set in the sun for a day or two, cov- 
ered with panes of glass. When ready to set away, turn hot 
melted paraffine over the jelly. The heat destroys any germs 
which may have settled on the top. Cover with paper or with 



FRUITS 63 

tin covers and set in a dark place. When using the jelly, wash 
and save the paraffine. 

If jelly is to be moved or shipped, use a covering of Y^ inch 
of powdered sugar instead of the paraffine. 

Or, cut rounds of toilet paper, two for each glass, large enough 
to overlap an inch; dip one at a time into a saucer of cold boiled 
milk, cover glass and press down, then put on the second piece 
quickly. 

One thickness of Manila paper may be used instead of the 
toilet paper. When dry, a thick parchment-like cover will be 
formed and the jelly will keep well. Some housewives cover 
jelly while hot, thinking it keeps better. 

To Make Jelly Tumblers 

Soak a cord in turpentine, tie it tight around bottles and 
set fire to the cord. 

Currant Jelly 

Wash and drain currants. They are usually left on the stems 
but strain more easily if stemmed. Crush the berries, a few at 
a time and throw into the preserving kettle. Do not add any 
water. Set on back of range and heat slowly to nearly, not 
quite, boiling. Strain, measure juice, return to kettle and set 
over fire. At the same time put into a moderate oven in broad 
bottomed pans, sugar in the proportion of ^-i pt. to each pint 
of juice (^ is sufficient). After juice begins to boil, boil 20 m., 
skimming as the scum rises. Add hot sugar, stir until sugar is 
dissolved, remove from fire and put at once into glasses. 

Y^ white currants may be used with red. 

A thinner jelly to be used with meats and over puddings un- 
derneath the meringue, may be made wit ^ pt. of sugar to the 
pint of juice. 

A little celery salt may be added when jelly is to be used with 
meats. 



64 THE LAUREL 

Currant and Raspberry Jelly 

7^3 currant juice and % raspberry or ^ currant and 7^ rasp- 
berry makes a delightful combination. 

Black Currant Jelly 

Prepare stemmed currants as for red currant jelly. Use X to 
7^2 cup of water to each quart of currants and -% pt. of sugar to 
a pint of juice. 10 m. boiling is sufficient. 

% or 7^ apple juice will make a more delicate flavored jelly. 

Jelly of Apple Parings and Cores 

Measure skins and cores by pressing firmly into the measure. 
Add Yi (no more) as much water as of fruit- -you will think it 
is not enough. Boil 20 m., stirring often. Strain. Measure 
juice, boil 20-30 m., according to juiciness of apples, skimming. 
Add % as much sugar, hot, as of juice, boil 5-10 m., or until 
foamy. Put at once into glasses. 

If apple jelly is as thick as desired when it first cools, it will 
be too thick after standing a few days. If apples are very juicy, 
use only one-half as much water. 

Apple Jelly 

Wash apples and cut into quarters or eighths. Do not pare or 
core. Add 74 as much water as of apples in the kettle. Cook, 
stirring occasionally until apples are tender, not too soft. Fin- 
ish as in jelly of parings. It is difficult to give the exact time 
for cooking, as apples vary in jellying properties. Use less water 
if apples are very juicy. One quince to every 10 or 12 apples 
gives a nice flavor. A few green grapes combined with apples 
or crab apples make a nice jelly. 

Crab and Baldwin apples may be combined. 

Apple and Cranberry Jelly 

Stew i qt. of apple parings with I cup of cranberries and a 
pint of water until tender. Strain. There should be about ^ 



FRUITS 65 

of a pint of juice. Boil 5 m; add ^ pt. sugar, boil 2-4 m. Or, 
use i doz. large tart apples to I qt. of berries, or equal parts ap- 
ple and cranberry juice. Proceed as in other jellies. 

Elder-berry and Apple Jelly 

Cook elder-berries with ^ cup of water to each quart of berries. 
Strain and combine with apple juice in the proportion of % elder- 
berry juice to % apple juice. Use ^-i pt. of sugar to each pint 
of juice. Finish as for currant jelly. Elder-berries alone make 
a strong flavored jelly, but this combination is delightful. 

Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, cherries, wild cherries, 
pineapple, barberries, peaches, plums and some other fruits, all 
make better jelly by combining with apple juice in proportions 
according to flavor. Use no water with any of the fruits but 
the apple. 

Currant juice may be combined with these fruits instead of 
apple juice. 

Green Gooseberry Jelly 

2 qts. berries, ^ qt. water; stew, mash, strain; boil 20 m. 
for each quart of juice, add I qt. of hot sugar, boil 2-3 minutes. 

Quince Jelly 

Wash quinces, cut into quarters or eighths, remove part or all 
of the seeds, use X~^ as niuch water as of fruit and % as much 
sugar as of juice. Cook and finish as apple jelly. 

y*>~yz apple juice with quince is better. 

Cranberry Jelly 

Use one cup of water to each 4 qts. of cranberries; cook until 
the berries are tender, strain and use equal quantities of sugar 
and juice. Boil the juice 10-12 m., add the sugar hot, stir till it 
is dissolved and turn the jelly into glasses or a mold. The jelly 
may be molded in a shallow pan and when perfectly cold cut 
into cubes. 



66 THE LAUREL 

Jellied Cranberry Pulp 

Rub stewed cranberries in the preceding recipe through the 
colander, boil 8 m., add sugar, stir carefully until dissolved, mold. 

Jellied Cranberry Sauce 

i qt. berries, I pt. sugar, l /2-i cup water. Pour water over 
berries with sugar, in kettle, cover, cook 10 m. without stirring. 
Put into large or individual molds. Unmold at serving time. 

Blueberry Jelly 

If berries are very dry, add a little water, heat, strain; use 
l /2-^/i as much sugar as of juice. 

Blueberry Jelly No. 2 

4 qts. berries, I cup water; cook and strain, add 2 tablespns. 
of lemon juice to each pint of juice. Cook 20 m., add ^ as much 
sugar, hot, as of juice, boil up well, pour into glasses. 

Grape Jelly 

\Yild grapes are preferable, but underripe Concords, Catawbas, 
and other varieties may be used. 

Proceed as for currant jelly, using only 2 /$ as much sugar as of 
juice. If necessary, boil 5 m. after sugar is added. Use no 
water with cultivated grapes, but with underripe wild grapes, */> 
cup of water may be added to each quart of stemmed grapes. 

Raspberry and Currant Jam 

Take ^ their weight of sugar to berries. Mash berries in 
kettle over fire, add I pt. currant juice to each 2 qts. of berries, 
cook until thickened, 40-45 m., stirring and skimming, add sugar 
hot, boil, put into glasses or seal in jars. 

Strawberry Jam 

Allow Y^ their weight of sugar to berries; cook in a little of 
the sugar, stirring, 20-30 m. Add remainder of sugar hot, cook 
10-20 m., if necessary. Small berries may be used for jam. 



FRUITS 67 

Gooseberry Jam 

Press the juice from 3 oranges and shave off the rind, being 
careful not to get any of the white part. Remove blossoms and 
stems from 5 Ibs. gooseberries, seed 2 Ibs. of raisins, and chop 
all together very fine. Add 3-4 Ibs. sugar and the orange juice 
and cook slowly for an hour. Turn into jars or tumblers and 
when cold spread a layer of powdered sugar on top of glass and 

seal. 

Mrs. Chandler's Rhubarb Jam 

3 Ibs. (3/^2 qts.) of rhubarb /^ Ib. of figs or raisins, chopped 
in inch lengths juice of i lemon 

i% Ib. (3 cups) sugar i cup water 

Let rhubarb and sugar stand together over night, add other 
ingredients and cook slowly for about 3 hours. 

Rhubarb and Pineapple Jam 

6 Ibs. (7 qts.) rhubarb i large pineapple, grated 

in inch lengths 3 Ibs. (3 pints) sugar 

Cook rhubarb and sugar Y^-^A of an hour, add pineapple, boil 
up, put into jars, seal. 

Melrose Apple Butter 

7 Ibs. pared, quartered and cored apples, 3 Ibs. molasses sugar 
if obtainable, if not, dark brown sugar. Put apples and sugar in 
layers in a kettle, cover tight, let stand 12 hours or over night. 
Then let come just to boiling and simmer without stirring, or 
uncovering for 5-12 hours. 

Apple juice made by boiling the skins of apples in X their bulk 
of water, as for jelly, with lemon juice to taste, is a valuable ad- 
dition. Finely-ground coriander seed may be added. A little 
date or prune marmalade may also be used. 

A delightful butter may be made by combining plums and apples. 

Elder-berry and Apple Butter 

To each 2 qts. of elder-berry juice prepared as for jelly take 2 



68 THE LAUREL 

Ibs. brown sugar and ^2 peck sour apples. Put juice and sugar 
on to boil and add the apples pared, quartered and cored; simmer 
slowly until thick. May be put into jelly glasses. 

Equal quantities tomato and apple make a nice butter. 

Grape Marmalade 

Pulp the grapes and put the skins through the food cutter. Cook 
the pulp and rub through the colander to remove the seeds. 
Take /^-^ as much sugar as there is of fruit, cook 20 m. The 
skins improve the flavor. 

Lemon Peaches 

i cup lemon juice i cup brown sugar 

i cup water peaches to fill 3 pint jars 

Wash and rub the peaches well, drop into boiling syrup of 
lemon juice, sugar and water, cook until tender, put into jars 
and seal. 

Ripe Cucumber Pickles 

Pare and seed cucumbers and cut into eighths if large. Soak 
over night in lemon juice and water; in the morning drain, add 
to hot syrup and boil until soft; skim out of syrup and put into 
jars standing in hot water. Keep hot. Boil syrup 10-15 m., 
pour over fruit and seal ; let stand three or four weeks before using. 

Syrup 3 cups brown sugar i cup water 

3 cups lemon juice /^-i tablespn. salt 

Flavor with celery salt or seed, ground coriander or anise seed, 
and raisins to taste. (Use anise seed sparingly). The cucum- 
bers may be steamed tender, put into jars and the reduced syrup 
poured over. 

Watermelon rind may be prepared the same. 

To Dry Blueberries 

For buns, puddings and cakes, 
i qt. berries /^-/^ cup sugar i teaspn. water 



PRESERVING VEGETABLES 69 

Mix, heat in preserving kettle until juice begins to exude. 
Spread on buttered plates, dry carefully, stirring often. 

I prize this recipe highly, as all will, I am sure, after trying it. 
Cherries, peaches and pears are better with sugar sprinkled over 
them before drying. 

Dried fruits make a pleasant change from canned ones, besides 
not requiring jars. Home-dried fruit far excels factory products. 

TO CAN VEGETABLES 

While vegetables require a little more care than fruit in can- 
ning, if they receive that care one will be rewarded with nice 
fresh canned vegetables, free from harmful preservatives, all 
through the \vinter. 

In the first place, vegetables must be fresh, especially corn 
and peas. Corn gathered early in the morning ought to be in 
the cans and on the fire before noon, and peas the same day. 

If one is alone with all the housework to do, it is better to put 
up a few jars at a time. 

Always use new rubbers on jars in canning vegetables. 

"Blanching", in this connection, means a short boiling in a 
weak brine (/^ cup of salt to 3 qts. of water) and is used with 
vegetables to eliminate the acids which they contain. 

Place the vegetables in a wire basket or a cloth bag and dip 
into the boiling brine, then into cold water. 

Prepare nearly all vegetables as for the table, before blanching, 
(okra and corn are exceptions). 

After blanching, pack as close as possible in jars. Fill jars to 
overflowing with water with or without salt, according to special 
directions; fasten covers on tight (do not be afraid the jars will 
burst), and set into a kettle or boiler with a board containing 
holes or with several thicknesses of cloth or with thin tin rings 
underneath. Surround jars ^{of their depth with water, cover 
the vessel close so that the steam will be retained, bring to the 



JO THH LAUREL 

boiling point and boil rapidly and continuously the required 
length of time. 

Use wrench for tightening covers of Mason jars during the 
cooking. If Lightning jars do not seem to be air-tight, thin bits 
of wood may be placed under the wires. With corn and peas, 
it is better to have the water deep enough to cover the jars, for 
boiling after tops are tightened. 

Invert jars after removing from the water, cover to exclude 
light, cool. 

Store in dark, rather cool place. 

Use cold water to surround jars at first if contents are cold 
and warm water if contents are warm. 

The length of time given is for cooking quart jars. ^-i hour 
less will be required for pints and I hour more for 2 quarts. 

Asparagus- -Prepare asparagus as for the table; blanch tips 
3 m., other parts 5 m., dip in cold water, pack in jars the tips 
in one, the middle of the stalks in a second, and the inferior 
ends for soups, in a third. 

Fill jars with cold water to which salt has been added in the 
proportion of I teaspn. to the quart. 

Fasten covers and cook according to general directions for 
two hours, tighten covers and cook for one hour longer. 

Asparagus in Full Lengths- -Place stalks in jars, heads up, 
and pack as close as possible. 

To Use Open jar, add y& teaspn. salt, set jar in cold or luke- 
warm water, heat to boiling, pour water off (save for soups), and 
draw 7 stalks out carefully on to slices of prepared toast. 

Shelled Beans- -Follow directions for canning asparagus. 

Sfn'/ig Beans- -Prepare as for the table or leave whole, blanch 
for 2 m., and follow directions for canning asparagus, using 
water without salt to fill the jars. 

Greens- -Narrow dock, milkweed, pigweed, purslane or spinach. 
Wash the greens thoroughly, drop into boiling salted water and 



PRESERVING VEGETABLES J\ 

leave just long enough to wilt. Remove from water with skim- 
mer, pack into jars, cover with cold salted water and proceed as 
with other vegetables. 

There are no vegetables that we enjoy more in winter than 



our "greens.' 



Okra- -Wash young tender okra, cut off stems and tops, blanch 
10 m., dip in cold water, cut in transverse slices or leave whole, 
and finish the same as asparagus. 

Peas- -Blanch fresh-gathered, mature, but not old peas, for 5 
m. (old for 8 m.), dip in cold water, proceed as for canning as- 
paragus, using sugar, I teaspn. to quart of water if peas are not 
sweet. Boil 3-4 hrs. in all; I hr. after tightening covers, with 
water covering jars if possible. 

V/v/- -Prepare fresh-gathered corn as for drying. Pack at 
once (filling all spaces) in clean jars to within an inch of the top, 
cover to the depth of a half inch with slightly salted water, fas- 
ten covers on as tight as possible, cook 3 or 4 hours, screw cov- 
ers down again, cover jars with boiling water and boil for I hour 
longer. Remove boiler from fire and let jars cool in the water. 

Ears of corn may be boiled in clear water 5 m. and dropped in 
cold water before removing kernels. 

Corn No, 2- -Prepare as in preceding recipe and cook for 
I hr. after the water is boiling; tighten covers, invert and leave 
until the next day. Cook for I hr. the second day and again 
the third day, that is, I hr. each for three consecutive days. 

Beefs- -Boil small dark red beets for 30 m., drop into cold 
water and rub the skins off. Place in jars, cover with cold water, 
fasten covers, boil I hr., tighten covers and boil for I hr. longer. 

MusJirooms- -Pour boiling salted water over mushrooms and 
allow them to stand in a warm place until withered; cool, drain, 
pack close in jars and cover with the water in which they were 
standing; seal and cook i l /> hr. Tighten covers and cook l /2 hr. 
longer. Invert jars until cool. 



THK LAURE1 

TO DRY VEGETABLES 

Corn- lioil corn 2-5 in., score down the center of each r<>\\ 
of grains with a sharp kniie. \\'ith a large sharp knife cut off the 
thinnest possible layer from each two rows, then with a dull case- 
knife scrape out the pulp from the hulls on the cob. Mix pulp 
with that which was cut off, spread on plates or granite pans 
and dry in a warm oven, stirring often. If the oven is too warm, 
the corn will turn dark. Corn may be dried in the sun if it is 
hot, but must be brought in before the dew begins to fall and 
spread out in the house. It is better to dry a little at a time in 
the oven and have it out of the way in a few hours. \Yith proper 
care it can be done in an afternoon. 

\Yhen dry, put at once into dry clean jars and seal, or into 
paper sacks tied tight so that no insects can get at it. 

\Yith care to keep it from souring, the corn may be dried with- 
out cooking. 

Any dried corn has a richer flavor than canned corn, but 
words are inadequate to express how rich and fine flavored the 
yellow^ sw^eet corn is when dried. 

Corn for drying should be nice and tender; a little younger, 
if anything, than for cooking green. 

Directions for cooking dried corn are among the vegetables. 

Shelled Beans- -Lima and all green beans may be dried after 
shelling by being spread out in a dry, airy place and stirred oc- 
casionally, and are quite different in flavor from dry, ripened 
beans. 

String Beans Cook beans until half done; drain, dry in sun, 
pack in paper bags, keep in cool place. To cook soak over 
night, cook shorter time than usual. 

Mushrooms String mushroom caps, also stems, on a cord 
the same as apples, for drying, hang in sun and wind until just 
before the dew begins to fall and finish drying over the stove, or, 
dry entirely over the stove. 



PRESERVING VEGETABLES 73 

Put into dry, close covered jars or thick paper sacks. (May 
wrap in waxed paper before putting into sacks). Keep in dry 
place. 

When first dried, mushrooms may be pulverized in a mortar 
and the powder put into clean, dry jars. It is delightful for 
flavoring soups and sauces. 

String Beans in Brine 

Put layer of salt i in. deep in bottom of stone jar or cask; then 
a layer of nice, tender string beans 3 in. deep; continue layers 
until cask is full. Cover beans with a board a little smaller 
around than the inside of the cask or jar and put a heavy stone 
on it so that the beans will be well covered with the brine. The 
beans may be put in at different times, but must be covered with 
the board from the first. 

To Cook Soak over night in cold water, changing the water 
several times in the early part of the evening. Cook the same 
as fresh beans, changing the water once or twice while cooking. 

They are as nice and fresh as when picked. 

Corn in Brine 

Put layers of fresh picked corn, cut from the cob, in crock the 
same as string beans except that the layers of corn should be I 
to 2 in. deep only, and salt ^ in. deep. Have the top layer of 
salt, and thicker than the others and keep the corn well under 
the brine with a board and stone. 

Soak over night for cooking, changing the water 2 or 3 times. 
Cook in unsalted water. 



ooaomoo 



SOUPS 



"The more liquid there is taken into the stomach with the 
meals, the more difficult it is for the food to digest, for the liquid 
must first be absorbed.' 

Consequently, the most perfect hygiene in the use of soups, 
would call for a few sips only, at the beginning of the meal, 
which in some cases stimulates the flow of the digestive juices. 

With a hearty dinner of other foods, a small portion of some 
light soup or broth should be served, while a legume soup a chow- 
der or a puree may make the principal dish of the meal. 

We seldom make a soup after a recipe. When we serve soups 
every day, we purposely cook more than is required for other 
dishes of such things as will make good ingredients for soups; or, 
if used occasionally only, we make soup at a time when there 
are left-overs that are suitable. We get better results from these 
combinations, both from the variety of flavors, and because, 
with few exceptions, reheating develops richer flavors in foods. 

"Our Famous Soups" are some that we have made, at differ- 
ent times, after this plan. 

Under the head of soups are classed, bouillons or consommes, 
bisques, purees and chowders; though some of them are not soups 
in the strictest sense. For instance, a chowder is often made 
of the consistency of a stew, with a small proportion of liquid, 
and, as Francatelli says, "a puree is a kind of pulpy maceration 
of legumes, vegetables, etc., which have been passed through a 
fine colander, ' but both of these are sometimes made with a 
larger proportion of liquid and served as thick soups. 

The word 'bisque" means rich soup, so in using it we do not 
say ' 'tomato bisque soup' ' because the word soup is comprehended 
in bisque. 

Bouillons (boo-yon" or bool-yon') or consommes are broths. 

(74) 



SOUPS 7 5 

Suggestions 

Do not put everything through the colander, (celery and oyster 
plant, never). Mastication in connection with soups is an aid 
to their digestion as well as being more satisfying. 

Use potatoes seldom in any but potato soups; potato water, 
not at all. The addition of potatoes to an otherwise wholesome 
soup might convert it into a fermentable combination: as well as 
to remove it from the dietarv of those who cannot use starchv 

*" w 

foods. 

Cook turnips and carrots by themselves and drain before add- 
ing to soups. The flavor of turnip in soup is often disagreeable. 

Utilize the food cutter in preparing vegetables for soups. 

As a rule, use oyster plant in slices, /^ in. thick in the largest 
part and a little thicker toward the end; but if desired fine, grind 
it before cooking. In this way it retains its characteristic flavor. 

Often the best way to thicken a soup is to heat the flour in 
oil or butter (without browning) and add some of the hot soup 
to it as for gravy, so avoiding a scorched taste. 

Dried mushrooms washed well, soaked 2 to 4 hours, simmered 
5 m., cut fine and added, with their juice, give a fine flavor 
to many soups. Three or four small pieces are sufficient for 
i*/2 to 2 qts. of soup. 

Always keep a quantity of consomme or bouillon on hand, for 
soups or sauces, or to pour over hash, or chopped potatoes, or 
to moisten roasts. 

Serve bouillon or consomme in cups with or without the 
beaten white of egg in teaspoonfuls on each. 

Whipped cream may be added to bouillon just before serving 
or dropped by teaspoonfuls on the cups, with a leaf of parsley 
laid on each. 

When soups are lacking in character, the addition of water 
and salt will develop a meaty flavor, relieving the 'porridgy" 
taste. 



7 6 THE LAUREL 

Raw nut butter may be added to any of the combinations of 
vegetables in the proportion of I or I ^ tablespns. to each quart 
of soup. 

The water drained from boiled peanuts may be used in place 
of raw r nut butter, taking care not to use too much. 

If you should have the thick nut stock, use not more than 2 
tablespns. to each quart of soup. 

Use herbs sparingly, some, such as mint and thyme, in minute 
quantities. 

In putting corn through a colander, first crush the kernels in 
a pan or grind them through a food cutter, and put a very little 
into the colander at a time. 

Use poor or top parts of stalks of celery, crushed, for flavor- 
ing soups. 

Okra is a valuable addition to some soups, tomato soups espe- 
cially. When using it, take about V^ less water for the soup, 
and add from /^-/^ of a pint can to each pint of soup. Heat 
carefully and serve at once. 

The water from spinach is an invaluable addition to vegetable 
soups, and with the addition of a little cream it alone makes a 
delightful broth'. The water from nearly all greens is desirable 
in soups. 

A little stewed asparagus adds very much to any vegetable 
soup or chowder. 

If soup has thickened J^y standing, add water or milk before 



serving. 



WATER SOUPS 

jr Nut Bouillon 

1/^2 tablespn. raw nut butter 2-3 /4 teaspns. browned flour 

3-4 tablespns. chopped onion i-iX teaspn. salt 

/4 cup strained tomato i qt. water 

Rub the nut butter smooth \vith part of the water, simmer all 



SOUPS 77 

ingredients together i>2-2 hrs., strain vegetables out, add water 
to make i j qt., heat, serve. 

7^7 Clear Add water for one quart only, cool, beat with the 
white and shell of one egg, set over a slow fire and stir often 
until the broth boils rapidly, then boil without stirring until it 
looks dark and clear below the scum. Let stand off the fire 
about 10 m., strain through 2 or 3 thicknesses of cheese cloth 
laid over a colander; pour through wire strainer on to the cheese 
cloth. Add more water if necessary after straining, to develop 
a meaty flavor. Reheat, serve. 




Vegetable Consomme 

With or without 2-3 tablespns. raw nut butter or soup stock. 

1-2 large onions, sliced /^ level teaspn. thyme 

/{ cup dried celery tops pressed i level tablespn. browned flour 

down 2-3 cloves garlic, if desired 

2 large bay leaves 2^2-3 teaspns. salt 

2 large tomatoes or /4-/4 cup 2 qts. water 

stewed tomato 

Cook together 1-2 hours, strain, add water to make 2 quarts, 
more salt if necessary, heat, serve. 

if Vegetable Consomme, No. 2 

Omit browned flour and garlic in preceding recipe, substitute 
celery salt for celery tops, and add a trifle of sage. 

White Stock 



cup raw nut butter or meal ^ level teaspn. thyme 

i large onion, sliced i medium bay leaf 

i/4 level teaspn. celery salt 1/4-2. teaspns. salt 

or seed 2-3 qts. water 
X level teaspn. powdered sage 

Mix dry ingredients, add nut butter which has been stirred 
with water, simmer all together 1^-2 hours, strain, and add 
water to make 2*4 pints, heat, serve. 



7<S THE LAUREL 

Dark Stock 

X cup raw nut butter or meal i level tablespn. browned flour 

i medium bay leaf i cup sliced onion 

i level teaspn. celery salt i clove garlic 

/4 level teaspn. powdered sage 2/^2 qts. water 

l /i level teaspn. thyme /^ cup strained tomato 

i level tablespn. salt 

Finish the same as white stock, leaving 2 l / 2 pts. of stock. 

Vegetable Stock 

X cup each beans and split peas 1-2 tablespns. chopped parsley 

i each medium onion and car- /^ level teaspn. thyme 

rot, sliced /^ level teaspn. leaf sage 
i stalk celery or ~/i cup celery or l /i powdered 

tops or YA, teaspn. celery Salt 

seed or salt 

Simmer all together 3-4 hours; strain, serve. Parsley maybe 
added after straining soup. Savory, marjoram and other herbs 
may be used, or the herbs may be omitted altogether. 

Other legumes may be substituted for the ones given. Tomato 
or browned flour or both may be added. This stock is excel- 
lent for gravies and sauces. A thick soup may be made by rub- 
bing the vegetables through the colander instead of straining 
them out. 



^ Cereal Bouillon 



2^2 pts. nice fresh bran pressed down. 2^ qts. boiling water 
Simmer together 2 hours or more; strain, add 

i pint strained tomato i large onion, sliced 

i bunch celery stalks, crushed /^ teaspn. powdered mint in a 

muslin bag 

Simmer together $4-1 hour, strain, salt to taste, heat, serve. 
This should make 2 ^ qts. of soup. Other flavorings may be used. 

In using the bran put up in packages, sift it and use only the 
coarse part. 



SOUPS 79 

Tomato Broth 

i qt. stewed tomato salt 

i onion, sliced i pt. water 

i bay leaf 

Simmer all together about 20 m., strain and add water for 
i y> qt. of broth. Use plenty of salt. This broth may be cleared 
the same as bouillon, leaving i qt. only. 3 or 4 teaspoons of 
browned flour may be used 

Legume Broths 

Cook beans, lentils or whole green peas, until the water looks 
rich, but not until the skins begin to break. Strain, making i pt. 
of broth from each pint of legumes. (The legumes remaining 
may be used for stews and soups). Add salt, heat and serve. 
These broths are very satisfying. They may be varied by add- 
ing different flavorings to legumes while cooking or to broths 
after straining. Tomato, celery, onion with or without browned 
flour, or thyme are suitable. Brown beans with onion have 
quite a different flavor from white beans with onion. 

if Nut French Soup 

2 tablespns. raw nut butter i large bay leaf 

2 cups stewed tomato X teaspn. powdered sage 

6 cups water /^ teaspn. thyme 

/4 tablespn. browned flour 2/^-3 teaspns. salt 

~/4 large onion, sliced 

Simmer ^-i hour, strain, reheat, serve. An English woman 
in sampling this soup after I had made it up, remarked that it 
tasted like some of the French soups, hence its name. 

Egg Soup 

Add salt and butter to water, break eggs into a cup, one for 
each cup of water, leave whole and turn slowly into the rapidly 
boiling water, beating briskly with fork or wire whip until the 
egg is in white and yellow shreds. Boil up well and serve with 
crackers and celery. This is an emergency soup. Cream may 
be added to the water instead of butter, or part milk may be used. 



8O THE LAUREL 

if Nut and Barley Soup 

4 tablespns. raw nut butter 2 small sticks celery, or 

2 qts. water a few celery tops 

2/4 tablespns. coarse pearl 2/^2-3 teaspns. salt 

barley 
/4 bay leaf 

Cook barley and nut butter in part of the water for 3-5 hours. 
Add water to make 2 qts., with celery and bay leaf. Simmer 
from 15-20 m., no longer. Remove celery and bay leaf, serve. 
Bay leaf may be omitted. 

^ Cabbage and Tomato Soup 

Cook chopped or finely-shredded cabbage in boiling salted 
water until tender; add stewed tomatoes, simmer 15-20 m., add 
necessary salt and water, serve. Excellent. 

if Celery and Tomato Soup 

Use stewed celery instead of cabbage in cabbage and tomato 
soup. A delightful combination. 

if Savory Rice Soup 

4 tablespns. raw nut butter i teaspn. chopped onion 

2 qts. water /^-/4 teaspn. sage 

2/4 tablespns. rice 2/4 teaspns. salt 

Blend nut butter and water. Heat to boiling, add rice, onion 
sage and salt. Boil rapidly until rice is tender. 

It may be necessary to add 1-2 cups of water after rice is 
cooked. 

Onion Soup 

Simmer sliced onions in butter without browning; add water, 
boiling, cook until onions are tender, thicken slightly with flour, 
rub through colander, add salt and a little browned flour, more 
water if necessary, and chopped parsley. 

May cook raw nut butter with onion instead of using dairy 
butter. 



SOUPS 8 i 

Split Peas and Onion Soup 

Split peas, water, salt, raw nut butter and onion, a little to- 
mato sometimes. Cook all ingredients together until peas and 
onion are tender. Strain or not as preferred. 

Potato Soup with Onion or Celery 

Simmer chopped onion in oil or butter, add boiling water, 
potatoes cut in small pieces, and salt. Cook until potatoes are 
tender, add water to make of the right consistency, salt, and 
chopped parsley. 

Serve with shelled nuts and croutons. 

Finely-sliced celery may be cooked with the potatoes, and 
onions omitted. 

Vegetable Soup No. 1 

1 cup each carrot, turnip and 2 tablespns. raw nut butter 
parsnip in small pieces 2 qts. boiling water 

2 cups each onion and celery salt 

/^ cup rice 

Cook all except rice for ^ hour, add rice and cook until it is 
tender; add i tablespn. parsley, more salt and water if necessary. 

Vegetable Soup No. 2 

Equal quantities carrot and turnip in small pieces, twice as 
much onion and celery, w r ith raw 7 nut butter and water. Cook 
until vegetables are tender; add salt and necessary water. In 
their season, asparagus, peas, and string beans may be added. 

Vegetable Soup No. 3 

Simmer sliced onions, celery or carrots and cabbage in water, 
with raw nut butter, until tender. Add browned flour, salt and 
necessary water; heat. 

Mashed legumes may be used in place of nut butter in these 
vegetable soups. Or they may be made into cream soups by 
using milk instead of nut butter and water, with or without 
thickening. Chopped parsley may be used in any of them. 



82 



THE LAUREL 



Tomato Soup 



1 tablespn. oil or butter 

2 tablespns. flour 
i teaspn. salt 



i pt. boiling water 
i qt. stewed tomatoes 



Add flour to melted butter in saucepan, pour boiling water 
over, stirring, add tomatoes and salt. Boil up well. 

Chopped onion may be simmered in the oil before adding flour. 



Nut Gumbo 



3-4 tablespns. raw nut butter 

i */$ qt. water 

' J 3 cup nutmese in small ob- 
long pieces 

/ X 3 cup trumese in small oblong 
pieces 



*/$ pt. stewed or canned okra 
2 3 cup finely-sliced celery, 

stewed 

i tablespn. rice, cooked 
^2 tablespn. chopped parsley 
salt 



i tablespn. oil 

i tablespn. flour 

**/?. tablespn. browned flour 

i cup boiling w r ater 

i cup stewed tomato 

3 tablespns. raw nut butter 



Cook raw nut butter in part of the water, add other ingredi- 
ents, heat well. Cooked noodles may be used instead of rice. 

^ Tampa Bay Soup 

i-ij4 qt. water 
/4 cup sliced okra 
/4 cup sliced onion 
/4 cup trumese in dice 
X cup nutmese in dice 
chopped parsley 

Cook tomato, raw nut butter, the I /^ qt. of water, okra and 
onion all together, rub through colander and add to sauce made 
with oil, browned and white flour and the i cup of water. Add salt 
and more water if necessary, and when boiling, the trumese and 
nutmese, with chopped parsley. Throw egg balls into the soup 
just before serving, or serve separately in each dish. Or, pass a 
dish of boiled rice with the soup. 

if Mother's Soup 

i qt. clean wheat bran pressed 

down in the measure 
3 qts. boiling water 



2 large onions, sliced or 

chopped 
/^ cup grated carrot 



i bay leaf 

1-2 tablespns. browned flour 

cup chopped turnip 

teaspn. thyme 
salt 



SOUPS 83 

Cook all except turnip and thyme together i l />-2 hours. 
About 20 m. before removing from the fire add the turnip, and 
in 10 m. the thyme; after another 10 m., strain, add salt and 
more water if necessary, heat. 

When soup is boiling rapidly, turn in slowly, in a slender stream, 
batter for cream noodles, stirring constantly. Boil up well, re- 
move from fire, serve at once. 

3-4 tablespns. raw nut butter may be used for stock instead of 
bran, and I ^ teaspn. lemon juice added when soup is done. 

^ Bean Soup 

Put the beans into boiling water and cook rapidly until the 
skins begin to break, then simmer until tender and well dried 
out. The longer and more slowly the beans are cooked the 
richer the soup will be. Rub beans through colander, keeping 
them where they will remain hot during the process. Return 
to the fire, add boiling water and salt, and simmer for an hour. 
Stir well and serve. 

There are three things essential to the perfection of bean soup: 
ist., cook the beans without soaking or parboiling, 2nd., dry out 
well after they become tender, 3rd., do not let the beans or soup 
get cold at any time before serving. Warmed-over bean soup is 
very good, but there is a certain meaty flavor lost by cooling 
and reheating. Left-overs of bean soup, we usually combine 
with other ingredients. Brown beans and red make very rich 
soups, much better than black. One pint of beans will make 
about 3 qts. of soup. 

if Chick Peas Soup 

Make the same as bean soup (except that peas require longer 
cooking), or cook in consomme. Very rich in flavor. 

^ Unstrained Bean Soup 

Cook nice tender white beans until partially cooked to pieces. 
Add salt, and water to make of the right consistency, and simmei 
slowly y% hour or longer. 



84 THE LAUREL 

^ Swiss Lentil Soup 

i pint lentils 2-4 tablespns. browned 

i large onion salt [flour 

Cook lentils and sliced onion together until lentils are tender 
and well dried out, rub through colander, add the browned flour 
and salt, with water to make of the right consistency. (There 
should be from 2^-3 qts. of soup). Heat l /2-i hour. This 
makes an unusually meaty-flavored soup. 

The idea of combining onion and browned flour with lentils 
was given me by one who had spent some years among the 
French in Switzerland. 

Swiss Peas or Swiss Bean Soup- -May be made the same. 

if Canadian Peas Soup 

Cook whole ripe peas with onion and a little garlic, rub 
through colander, add salt, a little browned flour and powdered 
sage, with water to make like a broth, Unusually good. 

if Green Peas Soup 

Cook green peas until tender, put ^ of them through the col- 
ander, add water and salt, boil up, thicken with a little flour and 
butter rubbed together, add the whole peas, heat to boiling and 

serve. 

CREAM AND MILK SOUPS 

Cream soups do not necessarily contain cream, though the 
addition of a little improves their flavor. 

The simplest ones consist of milk thickened to the consistency 
of very thin cream, salt, and a vegetable or some other ingredient. 
If the vegetable is mashed, or is one that does not break to 
pieces easily, the milk may be added to it, and the whole brought 
to the boiling point and thickened. In a few exceptional cases 
the ingredient may be cooked in the milk; nice tender green corn, 
for instance. 

A richer sauce is made by making a roux of 2 level tablespns. 
of butter, and 1-1^2 level tablespn. flour, with a pint of milk, 



SOUPS 8 5 

put together in the regular way for sauces; but you will be sur- 
prised to see how much better soups (with few exceptions) are 
without thickening, being free from the porridgy taste of those 
thickened a trifle too much. 

A little cream with the water in which the vegetable was 
cooked often gives a finer flavored soup than milk and is no more 
expensive. 

Sour cream makes a delightful as well as wholesome substitute 
for sweet cream in corn, cabbage, tomato, in fact, nearly all 
vegetable soups. 

The following is a list of soups in i^Jiicli tlic general direc- 
tions are understood wlien no exceptions are noted. Salt is un- 
derstood in all. 

^ Cream of Asparagus Cook tougher parts and rub through 
colander. Throw cooked tips in last unless desired for some 
other dish. The very toughest parts only make a nice, delicate 
flavored soup. This is one which favors cream and water instead 
of milk. 

Cream of Bean- -Lima, common white, or colored. Cook 
as for \vater bean soup, rub through colander or leave in bro- 
ken pieces. Milk, or cream and water, no flour. I cup beans to 
I ^2-2 qts. soup. 

Cream of Bouillon- /^-/4 cup cream salted and whipped, 
to each quart bouillon just before serving, either stirred in, or 
laid on top of each cup in spoonfuls with a leaf of parsley. 

if Cream of Cabbage, or Celery and Tomato Cabbage or cel- 
ery, and tomato soup, with a little heavy cream added. 

Cream of Carrot--! cup of ground or grated carrot, cooked, 
3 pts. milk and water, 1^-2 tablespns, butter, i% tablespn. 
flour; or, I cup strained tomato, /4-%{ CU P cream, with water to 
make 3 pts., and no butter. 

Without the tomato, soup may be flavored with onion or celery, 
and bay leaf, with chopped parsley. 



86 THE LAUREL 

Cream of Celery- -I pt. finely-sliced celery, stewed, milk and 
cream added to make 3 pts., i-i l /2 tablespn. flour with or 
without I or 2 tablespns. of butter. Do not strain. When soup 
is thickened, crushed stalks of celery may be steeped in it for 
15 m., then removed. 

if Cream of Celery No. 2 Steep leaves or poor stalks of cel- 
ery in milk for 15 m., add cream and flour, or flour and but- 
ter, to make of the consistency of thin cream. Strain. May 
add a little celery salt. 

Cream of Chestnut Mashed boiled chestnuts, milk to thin, 
cream, plain or whipped, or, milk and butter. May be fla- 
vored with celery or onion or both. 

if Cream of Corn- -I pt. canned or grated corn to 3 pts. 
rich milk, I level tablespn. only, of flour, a very little salt. Do 
not let soup stand long before serving. A little onion improves 
the flavor. If fresh corn is used, the milk may be heated in a 
double boiler, the corn added and cooked 20-30 m., or it may 
be boiled in a small quantity of water 6-10 m. The cobs may 
be boiled in the water for 10 m. before and removed; or they 
may stand in the milk while it is heating and be removed before 
corn is added. 

Fine fresh cracker meal gives a nice flavor to cream of 
corn soup when used instead of flour for thickening. 

A very little strained tomato imparts a delightful flavor and 
makes a different soup. 

Cream of Dried Corn Soak corn, grind, add to hot milk, or 
cream and water. Heat in double boiler I hour, add salt, serve. 
If necessary, thicken a trifle. 

Cream of Dried Corn and Carrot Add cooked grated carrots 
to corn and milk in above recipe and heat. Delicious. 

Cream of Leek Boil sliced leeks to pulp or cook only until 
tender. 

Cream of Lentil I cup lentils cooked and rubbed through 



SOUPS 87 

colander. 1^-2 qts. soup. No flour. May flavor with celery 
and onion. 

Cream of Onion Cook sliced onions in salted water. Do not 
strain. Nice thickened with tapioca instead of flour. 

Cream of Oyster Plant Cook sliced oyster plant in water 
until just tender, not soft; add salt, simmer 5 m. Add cream 
and more water if necessary. Or, grind oyster plant before 
cooking. May thicken a trifle. 

Cream of Peas, dry Canadian, dried green, split or chick; 
I cup to 1^-2 qts. of soup. Cook, rub through colander; milk, 
or cream and water. No flour. Celery or onion flavor or not. 

Cream of Potato, or Sweet Potato- -I ^2-2 qts. of milk, or 
cream and water, for each pint of mashed potato. Flavor with 
onion, celery salt or bay leaf. 

Cream of Spinach- -Use a very small proportion of cooked 
spinach rubbed through a colander, \vith rich milk, or with cream 
and the water in which the spinach was boiled. Whipped cream 
may be added just before serving. Thicken with tapioca some- 
times. 

Cream of String Beans Cook beans in small pieces, add rich 
milk, thicken with flour or tapioca. 

Cream of Succotash Soup 

Use I part of beans to 2 parts of corn; put either, neither or 
both through a colander; add rich milk and salt. 

For variety, flavor the soup with celery or onion or both, and 
add a sprinkling of chopped parsley just before serving. 

Cream of Corn and Celery Soup 

Equal quantities cooked celery and corn, rich milk thickened 
a trifle if desired, salt. 

Cream of Corn and Peas Soup 

i cup dried green peas 2 or 3 stalks of celery 

i cup canned corn milk 



88 THE LAUREL 

Cook peas, rub through colander, corn also if preferred. Add 
milk to make of the right consistency. Put over fire in double 
boiler with salt and the stalks of celery crushed. Heat for i 5 m., 
remove the celery and serve. I pint of canned green peas may 
be used instead of dried ones. 

Okra Soup with Cream 

i pt. canned okra, vegetable consomme to make of the right 
consistency, l /2-i cup cream, salt. If the okra is in large pieces, 

cut smaller. 

Cream of Rice Soup 

YZ cup rice : M pt. milk 

i^ teaspn. salt Y* cup cream 

i Y* pint water 

Cook rice with salt and water in a double boiler or in a pan in 
the oven until the water is absorbed, add the milk hot, and cook 
stirring often, on top of stove or in double boiler till rice is soft 
and creamy. Add cream and more salt and water if necessary. 
Soup may be flavored with 2 teaspns. finely-chopped onion, a 
crushed half clove of garlic, or Y^A teaspn. sage, or with a bay 
leaf, or crushed stalks of celery. All milk may be used. 

^ Paris Onion Soup 

Cook sliced onion with browned flour in salted water until 
tender. Rub through colander, add cream or butter, milk and 
salt. Thicken a trifle, heat and add chopped parsley. 

Soup of Peas Pods 

Wash peas pods, stew 3 hours with a small sprig of mint. Rub 
through a coarse wire sieve (a few at a time) until nothing is left 
but the membrane. Add milk and butter, or cream and water, 
with a little flour to thicken if desired, then a few whole peas; 
season with salt. 

Split Peas Soup 

i pt. split peas, I onion sliced; cook in water till soft. Add 



SOUPS 89 

milk to make of the right consistency and salt to season. Good 
without onion. 

^ Peas and Tomato Soup 

i cup dried green peas i% qt. water 

(2 cups after being 2-4 cups tomato 

cooked and mashed) /4 cup cream 

Salt 

Cook peas and rub through colander, add water, tomato, 
cream and salt. Heat. Serve. 

Cream of Green (or canned) Peas Soup 

I pt. stewed or canned, well matured green peas, 1-1^/2 qt. 
rich milk, salt. Heat peas, rub through colander, add hot milk 
gradually, stirring, then salt. Heat well, serve. If peas are 
not sweet, 2 teaspoons of sugar may be added. The soup may 
be thickened with I level tablespn. of flour. It also may be fla- 
vored with stalks of celery or slices of onion, for variety; but 
nice-flavored peas do not require any additional flavoring. 

if Tomato Cream Soup 

i qt. rich milk I cup strained tomato 

i-i/4 tablespn. flour i teaspn. salt 

Heat milk, thicken with flour, add tomato, then salt ; serve hot. 

Cream of Tomato Soup 

Same as Tomato Cream Soup, with 2^ cups of tomato instead 
of i cup, and i l /2-2 teaspns. salt. 

if Another 

i tablespn. butter i cup milk 

i level tablespn. flour i cup strained tomato 

i cup water /^ teaspn. salt 

Heat butter, add flour, then water, milk, tomato and salt, 

stirring smooth. 

Cream Broths 

Cauliflower, cabbage or spinach water, with a little cream, 
make delightful broths; also barley or rice water or juice of 
tomato. 



9O THE LAUREL 

Brazil Nut Soup 

% Ib. ( i large cup) ground 1% cup finely-sliced celery 

Brazil nut meats (crashed stalks of celery 

1-1% pt. water may be used) 

i cup chopped onion 2 cups milk 

Salt 

Cook ground nuts in the water for 2 hrs., add onion and celery, 
and cook 15 m., to l /2 hr., add the milk, heat, strain, add salt 
and more milk or water if necessary, reheat. Other flavorings 
may be used. 

This may be used as a white stock with or without the milk. 

Sister Cooley's Brown Potato Soup 

i pt. of potato, in small pieces, cooked, mashed and well 
beaten, 3 tablespns. butter and oil mixed, 4-6 tablespns. chopped 
onion, 2 or 3 teaspns. browned flour, i % teaspn. white 
flour, 3 cups milk, salt. Heat onion in oil, add flour and mashed 
potato, then milk and salt with a little chopped parsley. If too 
thick, add a little more milk or water. 

Sliced Potato Soup 

1 pt. of potato in thick slices, i medium sized onion chopped, 
salt. Cook until potatoes are tender but not soft ; add i tablespn. 
butter, or 2-3 tablespns. cream w 7 ith milk to make i/^-i/^ qt. 
of soup, salt, and chopped parsley. Finely-sliced celery may be 
used in place of onion. 

For parsnip soup substitute parsnip for half or all of the potato. 

Vegetable Soup Milk 

1/^2 tablespn. oil, or 2 table- scant /^ cup stale bread 

spns. melted butter crumbs 

4 tablespns. finely-sliced 2 cups boiling water 

celery i/^ cup milk 

2 Y* tablespns. chopped cabbage salt 

2/^2 tablespns. chopped carrot i tablespn. parsley 

2 medium sized onions sliced thin 

Simmer, but do not brown, vegetables in oil 10-20 m., add 
boiling water and bread crumbs and cook till vegetables are very 



SOUPS 9 i 

tender. Rub through colander or not as preferred. Add milk, 
salt and parsley. Reheat. If too thick add more milk or water. 
Soup may be thickened slightly with pastry or rice flour instead of 

crumbs. 

Mayflower Soup 

3 level tablespns (/^ cup) raw i tablespn. butter 

nut butter or meal i-i/4 tablespn. flour 

1 cup each tomato, onion and i qt. milk 
corn salt 

2 cloves garlic /4 teaspn. celery salt 

Cook nut butter, onion and garlic in salted water; when tender 
add tomato and corn; heat. Rub butter and flour together, pour 
hot milk over gradually, stirring. Boil up well, combine with 
vegetables, add salt and celery salt, and if necessary, water to thin. 

A little cream may be used in place of butter, but the soup is 
excellent without either. 

if Oyster Bay Soup 

i qt. sliced oyster plant (about %-% pt. cream 

20 roots, 3 bunches or less) I-I/4 tablespn. flour 

i-i/4 pt. chopped cabbage 2-2/4 teaspns. salt 

i pt. milk /4-i teaspn. olive oil 

Cook oyster plant in i ^ pt. water; when nearly tender, add 
salt. Cook cabbage till tender (20-25 m.), in so little water that 
it will be nearly dry when done. Add milk, heat, strain; add 
liquid from oyster plant. There should be 3 pts. of liquid in all. 
Boil, stir in flour rubbed smooth with the oil and part of the 
cold milk. Boil up well. Add cooked oyster plant. Heat. 
Do not make too thick. The flour may be omitted entirely. 
The oil may be cooked with the oyster plant. 

Milk Stew of Cabbage White or Red 

i pt. chopped cabbage 2 level tablespns. butter 

i tablespn chopped onion i/4 level tablespn. flour 

i pt. water i pt. boiling milk 

chopped parsley 

Cook cabbage and onion in the water 20-25 m. leaving j/2 pt. 



92 THE LAUREL 

of liquid. Blend butter and flour and pour hot milk over; boil, 
add cooked cabbage and chopped parsley. Heat. Serve. 

Milk Stew of Oyster Plant 

Cook i qt. of sliced oyster plant in a small quantity of water. 
Add salt when nearly tender; drain, add rich milk to liquor to 
make I qt. Pour over oyster plant, heat, add salt. Turn into 
tureen containing % cup heavy cream, or I tablespn. butter. 

Cream Stew of Oyster Plant 
Cook oyster plant in water and add heavy cream. 

Oyster Plant and Celery Soup 

Equal quantities sliced oyster plant and celery cooked; water, 
cream, with or without a little flour to thicken, salt. 

Oyster Plant and Corn Soup 

2 3 qt. (i bunch) sliced $% cups water 

oyster plant 3 A-i tablespn. flour 

K cup corn /^ cup cream, salt 

Cook oyster plant, drain, add water to liquor to make 3^2 cups, 
when boiling, thicken and add corn, oyster plant and cream, 
with salt. Heat, serve. 

BISQUES 
Bisque of Corn 

i pt. corn I-I/4 tablespn. butter 

Q./2. pts. water Y^-^A cup cream, whipped 

1 tablespn. flour 

Heat butter, add flour, then hot water; stir into corn with 
salt; heat, turn over whipped cream in soup tureen and send to 
table at once. 

Butter may be omitted, and the water thickened with flour; 

Bisque of Cucumber 

2 tablespns. raw nut butter i pt. rich milk 

1 pt. water, salted i level tablespn. flour 

2 small onions, sliced %-% cup cream 
4 large cucumbers, grated salt 

/^-i teaspn. celery salt 



SOUPS 93 

Cook onion in nut milk (made by blending raw nut butter and 
water) until tender, add the cucumbers and cook 5 m., add celery 
salt and milk, thicken with flour; rub through colander, add salt, 
milk or water to thin if necessary, and cream, whipped or plain. 
Serve immediately. 

^ Milk and Tomato Bisque 

i pt. chopped cabbage i qt. stewed tomatoes, strained 

i pt. milk i tablespn. flour 

1 tablespn. butter /4 cup cream 

2 teaspns. flour salt 

Cook cabbage 20-25 m., in just enough water to cook it tender. 
Add milk, heat, strain. Heat butter and the 2 teaspns. of flour 
and add cabbage flavored milk. 

Thicken tomato with i tablespn. of flour and add thickened milk 
just before serving. Add salt the last thing. Turn over whipped 
cream in soup tureen or serve the cream by teaspoonfuls on each 
plate of soup. Cream may be omitted. 

Milk may be flavored with onion instead of cabbage, or not 
flavored at all, but the cabbage gives an exceptionally fine flavor 
to the combination. Equal quantities of milk and tomato ma}' 
be used, or twice as much milk as tomato, remembering to thicken 
both milk and tomato (if all the flour is put into the milk it 
makes it too thick to blend well w r ith the tomato), to combine 
just before serving, and to add the salt last. 

Milk and Tomato Bisque, with Eggs Starchless 

i /^2 cup rich milk 2 eggs 

K cup water i cup strained tomato 

/4 tablespn. oil or melted butter salt 

Cook milk, water, oil and eggs the same as a boiled custard. 
Remove from fire, add the hot tomato gradually, stirring, then 
salt. Serve at once. 

if Nut and Tomato Bisque 

Y!> cup roasted nut butter 3 cups water 

i cup rich strained tomato salt 



94 THE LAUREL 

Stir butter smooth with tomato, add boiling water, heat and 
add plenty of salt. This soup requires no flavoring, but onion, 
garlic, mint, caraway, or a delicate flavoring of thyme, are all 

nice with it. 

if Nut and Tomato Bisque No. 2 

2 tablespns. raw nut butter cooked in water ^2 to I hr., in- 
stead of the roasted nut butter. Flavor with onion, garlic, or 
delicately with thyme, if desired. 

Bisque of Spinach 

2 qts. spinach 1/4 tablespn. chopped onion 

3 pts. milk 1-3 stalks celery 
I-I/4 tablespn. oil or melted y\ teaspn. celery salt 

butter salt 

i% tablespn. flour 

Heat milk, onion and celery in double boiler for 20 m., strain, 
pour liquid over oil and flour heated (without browning) in sauce- 
pan; add salt and celery salt and turn on to spinach (which has 
been cooked and chopped fine or rubbed through a cola-nder) 
gradually, stirring. Serve hot. 

CHOWDERS 

Many of the chowders are almost a 'full meal" in themselves. 
I can think of no luncheon more delightful than a nut chowder 
with finger croutons, beaten biscuit or whole wheat wafers, with 
fruit or other not too rich, dessert. 

Raw nut butter may be used in all these chowders in place of 
butter or oil, giving a meaty flavor. 

A smaller proportion of liquid may be used when desired. The 
vegetable strainings left from a consomme, rubbed through the 
colander, make an excellent foundation for chowders. 

if Seashore Chowder Corn 

i pt. to i qt. milk 5 small onions sliced 

i pt. water i qt. potato in small pieces 

i pt. corn grated or chopped (not slices) 

2-3 tablespns. oil or melted butter 



SOUPS 95 

Heat oil (without browning) in kettle, add onions, simmer 
10 m., then add the water, boiling, with salt and potatoes. 
Cook until potatoes are just tender, not soft; add the milk, hot, 
and then the corn. Heat to boiling and serve with crackers. 
When fresh grated corn is used, of course it should be cooked in 
a double boiler for 10-15 m. before adding to chowder. 

The chowder may be thickened a trifle if the larger quantity 
of milk is used, but the smaller is the usual quantity. Sometimes 
only one-half as much potato as of corn is used. 

Dried corn chopped after soaking makes an unusually fine 
chowder. 

Water and cream are better than milk. 

A little browned flour is thought by some to be an improvement. 

Fine chopped trumese gives the chowder a little more of 
the seashore effect. 

Corn and Carrot Chowder- Unusually Fine 

i-i/^ tablespn. oil or melted butter %-i cup corn 

i medium onion, sliced 2/^-3 cups rich milk 

i cup carrot in small, thin pieces salt 

i pt. water 

Heat onion and carrot in oil, add water, cook tender, add hot 
milk, and corn with salt. Heat. 

/"2-^ cup of tomato may be added for variety. 

^ Nut Chowder 

2-3 tablespns. raw nut butter /^-i cup trumese, shredded 

i medium onion, sliced fine or in dice 

/^ cup carrot in small pieces 2 hard boiled eggs, shredded 

(fancy shapes if convenient) parsley, chopped or picked 
/^ cup finely-sliced celery into small pieces 

i cup stewed tomato /^-i cup cream 

i cup nutmese, shredded or water 

in dice salt 

Rub nut butter smooth with water, add the tomato and more 
water; cook */2 hour. Cook together carrots and onion and add 
without draining to nut butter stock. Cook celery till perfectly 



96 THE LAUREL 

tender and add with the water in which it was cooked; add salt, 
nutmese and trumese, eggs, parsley and cream, with more water 
if required. Let stand a few minutes and serve. 

One cup of oyster plant with the water in which it was cooked 
is a great improvement. J4 cup of turnip in dice, cooked by 
itself and drained, and a few pieces of cooked red beet, in fancy 
shapes, may be added just as the chowder goes to the table. 

Potato and Onion or Celery Chowder 

2 tablespns. raw nut butter i pt. water 

i pt. potato in small pieces 2 or 3 onions, sliced 

Rub nut butter smooth with water, heat to boiling, add salt 
and onions, cook 10 m., add potatoes and cook until tender. 
Finish with water and cream, or water alone. i cup finely-sliced 
celery may be cooked with the potato instead of the onion, and 
chopped parsley added at the last. 

Nut butter may be omitted and cream used. 

^ Tomato Cream Chowder 

2-3 tablespns. oil or butter i pt. stewed tomato 

2 large onions, sliced i pt. thin cream sauce 

Salt 

Simmer onion, carefully, in oil until tender, add tomato, heat 
and add cream sauce with necessary salt. Onion may be cooked 
in a small quantity of salted water and oil omitted. 

Add stewed celery for Celery and Tomato Chowder. 

if Oyster Plant Chowder 

1/4 tablespn. oil or butter i/4 pt. water (including that in 
i large onion, sliced which the oyster plant was 

i pt. potato, in small pieces cooked) 

i pt. oyster plant, partly i/4 pt. rich milk or thin cream 

cooked salt, crackers 

Simmer onion in oil, add water, potato and oyster plant, with 
salt; cook; add hot milk and more salt if necessary. Pour over 
split or whole crackers in tureen. 



SOUPS 97 

if Another 

Leave out potato and use more oyster plant and onion. 
String Bean and Celery Chowder 

I part cooked celery and 2 parts string beans with rich milk, 
thickened a trifle. Salt. 

Celery, Onion and Corn Chowder 

Equal parts celery and corn. Cook onion and celery in butter 
(or salted water only), add water, then milk and cream, corn 
and parsley. Heat. Serve. 

Rice and Vegetable Chowder (of things on hand) 

split peas soup tomato and okra soup 

string beans hard boiled eggs 

celery in tomato boiled rice 

Slice hard boiled eggs, mix all ingredients, heat and serve. 

if Royal Vegetable Chowder 

a few mashed green or canned asparagus tips 

yellow split peas tomato 

carrot parsley 

onion milk, a little 

canned peas cream, a little 

A little canned okra w r hen convenient. 

PUREES 

The term "puree," as used in this connection, means a thick 
soup of ingredients rubbed through a fine colander. Thicker 
purees of cooked nuts, fruits, legumes or vegetables are served 
as true meat dishes, entrees, side dishes or relishes, according to 
their nature. 

Almond Pureesmall quantity 

Very nourishing and digestible for invalids. 

Rub 2 tablespns. of almond butter smooth with i-i % cup of 
water. Just boil up over the fire (or cook in double boiler till 
thick), add salt, serve. The proportion of water may be varied 



98 THE LAUREL 

Split Peas Puree 

i cup split peas i small onion, sliced 

3-4 tablespns. raw nut butter salt 

YZ large bay leaf water 

a few celery tops or % teaspn. i tablespn. butter 

celery seed in piece of muslin /^ tablespn. flour 

a pinch of sage i teaspn. grated onion 

Cook peas, raw nut butter, bay leaf, celery tops and onion all 
together in salted water, rub through colander, turn on to butter 
and flour which have been heated together (or the butter and 
flour may be rubbed together and stirred into the puree), add 
necessary water, salt, sage and the teaspoon of fresh grated onion ; 
simmer for 5 m. Serve with strips of bread, or finger croutons. 
The teaspoon of onion at the last is very important. 

Puree of Potatoes 

Boil potatoes cut in small pieces, sliced onion, stalks of celery 
and a sprig of parsley in plenty of salted w r ater till potatoes are 
tender. Rub through colander, reheat, thicken just enough to 
hold the ingredients together, turn over whipped cream in the 
tureen and sprinkle with chopped parsley. Raw nut butter gives 
a fine flavor to this puree, cook it with the potatoes and use less 
or no cream. 

Puree of Sago 

K cup sago a sprig of parsley 

i pt. water i/i-i/^ pt. milk 

Y^ small bay leaf salt 

i large stalk of celery, crushed, yolk of i small eg-g 

or a few celery tops X cup cream 

i medium onion, sliced chopped parsley if desired 

Wash sago and cook with bay leaf, celery, parsley and onion 
in the water until clear; add hot milk, rub through colander, add 
salt and keep hot. Just before serving, beat together the yolk 
of the egg and the cream, stir several spoonfuls of hot soup into 
the mixture, turn all into the soup, stir well, but do not boil, 
add chopped parsley, serve at once. 



SOUPS 99 

OUR FAMOUS SOUPS 

This is the list of soups, made from left-overs, for which people 
most often ask our recipes. 

They are from a small institution, with a family of from 
twenty-five to thirty members. 

The cream is usually a little from the top of the can, but it 
gives the finishing touch. 

The ingredients are usually heated together and put through 
the colander. 

No. i- -Seashore chowder with fine trumese and nutmese, 
and onion and tomato stew. 

No. 2--Nut and tomato bisque, with remains of above, put 
through colander. 

No. 3 Asparagus on toast put through colander; milk, con- 
somme, a trifle of tomato, --oyster flavor. 

No. 4 Consomme, strainings from consomme, chick peas, 
trumese and gravy from trumese pie. 

No. 5- -Cream of asparagus soup, dry Lima beans and dried 
corn succotash, consomme, baked beans, green peas, milk and 
cream. 

No. 6 Baked beans, Lima beans, cream of peas soup, milk. 

No. 7- -Strainings from consomme, put through colander, 
thin cream, tomato. 

No 8- -Left-overs from above, string beans, lentils, milk; 
thickened a little. 

No. 9 Consomme of nut butter instead of stock, lentils, 
water, cream. 

No. io--Left-over from above, tomato, creamed onions. 

No. 1 1- -Consomme, spinach water, carrots, onions, garlic, 
tomato, chopped parsley. 

No. 1 2- -Left-over from above, baked beans, skimmed milk. 
No. 13 Carrot water, onions, garlic, tomato, browned flour. 



TOO THE LAUREL 

beans, bay leaf. This tasted like beans with tomato sauce. 

No. 14 Corn chowder, peas and tomato soup, pilau, milk and 
water. 

No. I 5- -Baked beans, string beans, milk and cream. 

No. 1 6 Cream of peas soup, lentil, spinach water, tomato, a 
little consomme. 

FRUIT SOUPS 

Served with nuts, nut wafers or popped corn, are very refresh- 
ing often, for luncheon or supper. 

And when something must be served in the evening, those 
not too tart, may be served \vith cocoanut crisps, pastry in fancy 
shapes, cookies or sponge cakes and nuts. 

Fruit soups are served hot, in cups, and cold or slightly fro- 
zen, in glasses. 

Sea moss, sago or tapioca (J^ to ^2 cup sago and X to X CU P 
tapioca to each 3 pts. of soup) make the most suitable foundations 
for them. 

Honey instead of cane sugar may be used to sweeten. 

The white of egg beaten, sweetened a trifle and flavored deli- 
cately with rose, lemon or orange may be put on to each cup in 
roses with a pastry tube or dropped on by teaspoonfuls. 

Whipped cream may be used with some. 

Berries, pieces of orange or slices of banana are sometimes 
served in the soup. 

Odds and ends of sauces can be utilized, and in the summer, 
all sorts of fresh fruits. 

Thin slices of Brazil nuts, crisp toasted almonds, English 
walnuts, pecans or hickory nuts are suitable accompaniments. 

Strawberry and Pineapple Soup 

YI-% cup of sago i /^ cup pineapple juice 

or X cup lemon juice 

K-/^ cup of tapioca sugar, if necessary 

2/^2 cups strawberrj T juice salt 



SOUPS IOI 

Put sago or tapioca into the inner cup of a double boiler with 
i cup of warm water. Soak sago I hr., tapioca 10 m. to 2 hrs., 
according to the kind. When soaked, pour I cup of boiling 
water over, add a little salt and cook until transparent. Add 
strawberry, pineapple and lemon juice, and sugar to make deli- 
cately sweet. Heat to just below the boiling point and serve at 
once, or cool. 

Small pieces of pineapple make a pleasant addition. 

Cherry or currant juice may be used in place of the straw- 
berry. 

If too thick, a little water or juice may be added. 

Other suitable fruit juices may be substituted for the ones 
given: with those of strong and positive flavor a larger propor- 
tion of water may be used. Of course, with some tart juices, 
no lemon juice would be required. 

Cherry Soup 

X cup tapioca, 3 cups water, I pt. juice from dark red canned 
or stewed cherries. Flavor with oil of lemon or orange rind if 
desired. 

May add some of the cherries just before serving. 

Sea Moss Fruit Soup 

2 cups diluted red raspberry juice /<3 cup orange juice 

2 level teaspns. sea moss farine if 3 or 4. teaspns. lemon juice 

soup is to be served cold, or 2 tablespns. sugar flavored 
5 if warm with the oil of the orange 

Stir moss into cold fruit juice, heat in double boiler 25-30 m., 
stirring often; add lemon and orange juice and sugar, stir till 
sugar is dissolved. Serve warm or cold. 

Scandinavian Fruit Soup 

/^ cup sago /^ cup stewed raisins 

5 cups water /^ cup tart fruit juice 

i cup cooked prunes in pieces /^-i cup sugar 

Soak sago in I cup warm \vater, add the quart of water boiling. 



IO2 THE LAUREL 

with salt, and cook until sago is transparent. Add other ingre- 
dients, heat, serve. 

Dried peaches, apricots or apples may be used sometimes. 
Grape, currant or cranberry are suitable juices. 

Grape Juice Cream Soup 

i pt. water 2 tablespns. finely-sliced citron 

i cup Concord grape juice 2 tablespns. sugar 

4 tablespns. raisins YZ cup cream 
4 tablespns. currants 

Stew raisins, currants and citron together, add other ingre- 
dients, heat, serve. 

Excellent without cream. 

Raisin and Almond Broth -small quantity 

Stew i tablespn. raisins cut fine, in i cup of water ^ to I 
hour. Add 2 teaspns. almond butter stirred smooth with 2 
tablespns. of water, a trifle of salt and a little sugar if desired 
or allowed. 

Blueberry and Cocoanut Soup 

Steep grated cocoanut in rich blueberry juice in a not too hot 
place for 20 m. Strain. Add sugar as required and a little 
lemon'juice if necessary, with or without dairy cream. Serve 
cold with sponge cake or cookies. Rich cocoanut milk may be 
used instead of grated cocoanut. 

Tomato and Raisin Soup 

i cup seeded raisins; stew till tender. Drain and add to the 
liquid, water to make i Y* cup, I ^ cup strained tomato, salt, 4 
tablespns. cream w r ith 2 teaspns. sugar. 

SOUP GARNISHES AND ACCOMPANIMENTS 

Croutons 

Of all the accompaniments to soups, croutons (crusts of bread) 
are perhaps the most desirable as well as most practical. To make 
them, cut slices of bread, not too fresh, into any desired shapes, 



SOUPS 103 

dry, slowly at first, in a warm oven, then gradually increase the 
heat until they are of a delicate cream color, for such soups as 
bean, Swiss lentil or bouillon; but for cream soups, dry to crisp- 
ness without browning. 

A favorite shape is made by cutting rather thin loaves of bread 
into half inch slices, laying 3 or 4 together and cutting them 
diagonally across the narrow way of the slice. This gives dainty 
strips, convenient and attractive. The most common way is to 
cut slices straight across each way, leaving the bread in dice. 

Miscellaneous 

Croutons, however, are not suitable for very delicate flavored 
soups, such as cream of corn or cream of rice. For these, there 
is nothing equal to dainty cream or nut-shortened sticks, or little 
soup crackers. 

Cook some of the small Italian pastes (you can be sure that 
they are Italian only by buying them of the Italian dealer him- 
self), vermicelli, soprafini, ditalini, acini di pepe, or others, in 
boiling salted water until tender (from 10 to 15 m.), drain and 
add to suitable soups in the proportion of one ounce to Y^-i qt. 
of soup. 

Add a few kernels of popped corn to each plateful of corn soup. 

Roll lettuce leaves in tight rolls and cut off in slender rings; pick 
up with the fingers and drop into hot soup; or cut lettuce with 
vegetable cutter, round or in any not too fine shapes and scatter 
into plates of soup as served. 

Cut left-overs of pie crust into fancy shapes. Bake and drop 
into each plate of soup in serving. They must not stand in the 
soup long or they will dissolve. 

Dice Royale 

Coat y^. in. dice of bread with beaten egg. Bake just before 
serving. Serve a few in each dish of soup, or throw into tureen 
just before sending to table. May roll cubes in finely-chopped 
onion or parsley. 



fO4 THE LAUREL 

Cream Soup Balls 

i large tablespn. oil 4 tablespns. finely-sliced cel- 

/^ cup pastry flour ery, or 

i cup boiling water X teaspn. celery salt 

Y% teaspn. salt 2 teaspns. chopped parsley 

(parsley may be omitted) 

Heat oil in frying pan until hot, not brown. Add half the 
flour and rub to a paste, then add boiling water gradually, stir- 
ring until smooth, Stir in remainder of flour dry. 

When the sauce is smooth and creamy and well cooked, 
remove from the fire, cool a little, and stir in celery, parsley 
and salt. The mixture will be very stiff. 

Stand in cool place until perfectly cold, then shape into balls 
I X to i % in. in diameter, or cones I ^ in. at the base, or cubes 
of iX m -> or sticks 3>2 to 4 in. in length by ^ of an inch in 
diameter. Roll in fine zwieback or cracker crumbs, then in 
beaten egg (add salt and a tablespoon of water to each egg), then 
in crumbs again. 

Place on oiled tins a short distance apart, and set in cool place 
till i 5 m. before serving, then put into a quick oven and bake 
until a delicate brown and cracked a little. Serve immediately. 

If baked too long or too slowly, they will not keep their shape. 

This makes 12 to 14 balls. % a beaten egg may be added 
when the celery is, but the balls are more creamy without it. 

The balls may be made the day before required, kept in the 
ice box and baked at serving time. 

Variation No. i. Use 2 tablespns. of small pieces of hickory 
or other nut meats instead of the celery. 

Variation No. 2. Use 2 tablespns. of black walnut meal (made 
by rubbing meats through a fine colander with a potato masher), 
and a little onion. 

Variation No. 3. Use /^ to ^ teaspn. grated lemon rind, in- 
stead of other flavorings. 



SOUPS 105 

Variation No. 4. Use chopped trumese, with sage and onion 
in place of the celery. 

The savory balls are used with the plainer soups, and vice 
versa; or if both soups and balls are highly seasoned, use con- 
trasting flavors; for instance, the balls with lemon rind in Nut 
French soup. 

The egg balls should be used with care as they destroy the 
flavor of many soups. They, poached eggs, and hard-boiled 
yolks of eggs are especially suitable for some cream soups. 

if Soup Balls---Choux batter 

1 cup water i cup pastry flour 

2 tablespns. butter or oil 4 eggs 

Heat water and oil to boiling, stir flour in dry, stirring and 
beating well with batter whip. When nearly cold, add eggs, 
one at a time, mixing well, until all are in. Beat for 5 m., stand 
in icebox for from i to 12 or more hours. Drop small quanti- 
ties from point of spoon into boiling soup, or bake or boil in tiny 
balls, flattened. 

Excellent baked, but unusually fine boiled, so delightfully free 
from stickiness or doughiness. 

Egg Balls 

Rub 4 poached yolks of eggs to a paste. Beat with salt and 
the white of i raw egg. Form into balls ^ to i in. in diameter. 
Roll in browned flour No. i, bake just before serving. May 
beat white ot egg first. 

The raw yolk is sometimes used in place of the white. The 
balls may be boiled for 5 m. in the soup, instead of being baked. 

if Royal Paste 

Beat together 4 eggs, ^ cup thin cream, $4 teaspn. salt. 
Pour into oiled tin, place in pan of water; bake slowly until firm. 
Turn from molds at once. 

When paste is to be cut into fancy shapes with vegetable cut- 



IO6 THE LAUREL 

ters it should not be over /^ in. deep in the pans; but if for dice, 
it may be any depth. 

This quantity is sufficient for 6 qts. of soup. 

I often tint parts of paste with vegetable or fruit colors, 
spinach green, parsley, carrots or cranberries. 

The left-overs fr )m cutting may be chopped for another soup 
or a roast. 

Use I % tablespn. of cream for I egg. 

Royal may be flavored with onion juice. A little very fine 
chopped parsley may be added to it before baking. 

Consomme is sometimes used in place of cream. 

4 yolks of eggs and I white may be used instead of 4 whole 
eggs with the same quantity of liquid, and rich milk will do in- 
stead of cream, but the paste will not be as tender. 

Spun Eggs 

Break eggs into cup (2 for each quart of soup). Leave whole 
and turn slowly into rapidly boiling soup, beating briskly w^ith 
fork or wire batter whip, until egg is in white and yellow shreds. 
Boil up well and serve soup at once. Or, beat eggs and let them 
stand until the froth subsides, then add to the soup in the same 

way. 

Thickening for Potato Soup 

i tablespn. flour /^ cup cold water yolks 2 eggs 

Blend flour and water, add to boiling soup, boil up well. 

Turn some of the hot soup slowly on to the beaten yolks, stir- 
ring, add them to the soup, do not boil, serve at once. 

Whipped cream may be added to potato soup just before serving. 

Rice Timbales 

YS cup rice >2 teaspn. salt 

i cup water /^ teaspn. oil or melted butter 

Soak rice in water for half an hour, add salt and oil, stir well 
and steam without stirring, ^ to i hour. Press into small oiled 



SOUPS 107 

molds. Set in a pan of hot water covered, for 10 m. Put one 
in the center of eajh plate of soup, with or without a small leaf 
of parsley on top. Rice may be boiled. 

Dumplings 

Cut bread or universal dough into small rounds or make into 
very small balls; let rise and steam 20 m. or boil 10 to 15 m. in 
rich soup just before serving, or boil in water and add to soup. 

Noodles 

I have had equally good success with all three of the following 
combinations:- 

4 eggs, salt, 17^-2 cups bread flour. (Always use bread flour.) 
3 eggs, 2 tablespns. water, salt, i teaspn. melted butter, about 2 
cups flour. 

Yolks 4 eggs, 2 tablespns. water, salt, about i/ cup flour. 

Beat eggs a little with salt, add water if used, and flour for 
stiff dough. Knead on floured board until dry but not flakey. 

Then cut into three or four pieces and knead each piece, with- 
out more flour, until very smooth. Roll each piece as thin and 
as large as possible, some say to the thickness of a fifty cent 
piece, hang on clothes bars, away from the fire, turning often 
until dry but not brittle. 

Roll up without flour and cut into fine slices from the end; or 
fold in I J/2 in. accordion pleats and cut fine, or cut into strips 
of any desired width and cut these into narrow match-like pieces; 
or cut into rounds or fancy shapes with vegetable cutters. If 
cut in the first two ways, shake out upon a cloth or board and 
dry y?. to i hour. 

Add noodles to boiling consomme and boil rapidly, stirring 
occasionally with a fork, for 10 to 20 m., or until tender. 

Serve soup at once or noodles will become pasty. 

Noodles may be cooked in boiling salted water, drained and 
added to soup, or cooked for 5 m. in water and finished in soup, 
giving a clearer consomme. 



IO8 THE LAUREL 

Noodles may be cooked in Mother's and Nut French soup, as 
well as in bouillon or consomme. 

Noodles may be dried thoroughly and stored in jars or close- 
covered box, almost indefinitely; but will require a much longer 
cooking. 

if Cream Noodles 

Beat i egg light, add I tablespn. milk and a pinch of salt; 
then beat in 3-4 J4 tablespns. flour. 

Turn slowly in a slender stream into rapidly boiling soup, 
stirring constantly; boil up well and serve at once. 

When the mixture is poured slowly from the point of a spoon, 
it will be in shreds, and when cooked will be firm enough to 
hold its shape, but not hard. 



. . 



Cooking is not drudgery it is an art. . . . No one who stands 
by a hot stove ever cooks. That party only waits. The cook is 
always on the qui rive. In the exaltation and exhileration of his 
artistic services, he forgets that the stove is hot.' 

-Dr. Harvey W. Wiley. 



ENTREES AND BREAKFAST, LUNCHEON AND 

SUPPER DISHES 

"Entrees are the dishes served between any of the regular 
courses, "one writer says. Another, "Entrees a conventional 
term for side dishes.' Entrees proper may or may not have a 
large proportion of strength giving elements; but in this book 
we are placing the foods richest in proteids under the head of 
"true meats.' 

As many entrees make good breakfast, luncheon and supper 
dishes and vice versa, it seemed best to group these all together. 

CROQUETTES 

Egg for dipping croquettes should be slightly beaten with a 
pinch of salt and I teaspn. to I tablespn. of water to each egg. 

The whites of eggs alone (beaten just enough to mix with the 
water), also yolks alone or crumbs without egg may be used. 

Crumbs may be cracker, zwieback, dry bread or granella. 
Corn meal, flour, or a mixture of crumbs and flour are used for 
dipping. For vegetable and cereal croquettes, the nut meals 
are excellent. 

Mix fine chopped onion and parsley with egg or crumbs some- 
times for croquettes. 

Full directions for shaping and baking are given with trumese 
croquettes. 

Suitable croquettes or patties may be served on beds of pilau, 
or on plain boiled rice with gravy, or with macaroni in cream 
sauce, and some are used as garnishes or accompaniments for 
true meat dishes. 

Croquette Sauce 
To be used with different additions. 

1-2 tablespns. butter i cup hot milk 

2-2/4 tablespns. flour 24-i teaspn. salt 

(109) 



IIO THE LAUREL 

I teaspn. grated onion may be used when suitable and also i 
egg, but croquettes are more creamy without the egg. 

Rub the butter and flour together, add boiling milk, stirring; 
boil, remove from fire, add whatever is to be used for croquettes, 
cool thoroughly, shape into cones or rolls, set in cold place until 
ready to use. 

This quantity is sufficient for the equivalent of 2 cups of fine 
chopped meat. 

Corn Croquettes 

i pt. grated corn, (or 2 tablespns. flour. 

i can of corn welt drained) i egg 

i pt. stale bread crumbs salt 

Mix, shape, bake. These croquettes may be breaded only. 
They may be used as garnish for a timbale if shaped in cones or 
balls, or served with cream sauce as a separate course. 

Celery Croquettes 

i cup mashed potato 2 tablespns. chopped nuts 

Y cup finely-sliced celery (not too fine) 

i-i/^ teaspn. butter salt 

Do not cook celery. Mix all ingredients while potato is hot. 
Cool, shape, egg and crumb. Stand in cold place until ready 
to bake. 

Rice Croquettes cold boiled rice 

Add 2 or 3 tablespns. milk to 2 cups cold boiled rice. Heat 
in double boiler until softened; then add i tablespn. butter, I 
beaten egg and salt. Cream may be used instead of milk and 
butter. Cool, shape, roll in nut meal, bake. Serve as garnish 
for a ragout, or with stewed green peas, cream or lentil gravy, 
or maple syrup or jelly. 

Rice Croquettes No. 2 

Cook i cup of rice in a quart of milk with a level teaspn. of salt, 
in a double boiler until rice is tender and milk absorbed. Add 
yolks of 4 eggs or 2 whole eggs, and 2-4 tablespns. sugar. Cool, 



ENTREES I I I 

shape, egg, crumb, bake. Serve with strawberry or fig sauce, 
or with quince, elderberry, or some not too tart jelly. May 
cook rice in half milk and half water, and if desired add a little 
butter. Sugar may be omitted. 

Rice and Fig Croquettes 

Add i cup of fine cut or ground fresh figs to the preceding 
recipe, with less or no sugar: i teaspn. of vanilla also if desired, 
and serve with orange or cream sauce as dessert at luncheon. 

Bread Croquettes 

1 tablespn. butter i egg 

2 tablespns. flour salt 

i cup milk bread crumbs 

Heat, do not brown, butter, add flour and stir smooth; pour 
milk in hot, when smooth, remove from fire, add salt and egg 
and enough bread crumbs to shape. Cool, shape into balls or 
rolls, bake. Serve as a garnish or as a separate dish with or 
without sauce. The mixture may be flavored with some of the 
sweet herbs or minced onion. 

Oyster Plant Patties 

1 pt. cooked pulp of oyster plant 2 eggs, or about l /i cup 

2 tablespns. cream, with oyster cracker crumbs 
liquor to make a large half-cup salt 

(or i tablespn. butter with milk 
and the liquor) 

Mix all ingredients; sprinkle buttered shells or scallop dishes 
with crumbs, put a spoonful of the mixture in each and sprinkle 
tops of patties with crumbs. Bake in moderate oven on top 
grate 5-10 m., serve at once. 

Patties may be served as a second course at dinner, or for a 
luncheon dish. 

For pulp, grind about three bunches of oyster plant through 
the medium cutter of a food chopper. Cook in a small amount 
of water until just tender, adding salt about 5 m. before remov- 
ing from the fire. 



112 THE LAUREL 

Asparagus en Croustade 

Cut the top crust from gems baked in flat oblong, or round 
gem pans, and remove the soft inside part. Warm in oven. 
Have ready one cup hot cooked asparagus tips. 

Siinct 3 tablespns. butter 3 cups hot milk 

5-6 tablespns. flour salt 

i egg 

Prepare the sauce as usual, adding beaten egg last, heat with- 
out boiling, carefully stir in the asparagus tips, fill the crusts and 
serve. A few tips may be reserved and pressed into the sauce 
after crusts are filled, leaving the heads sticking up. Green peas 
or stringless beans may be substituted for asparagus. Patty pan 
pastry crusts may be used. 

Oyster Plant en Croustade 

Remove soft inside crumbs (they will go into a roast) from 
gems. Fill with oyster plant in cream sauce, sprinkle with 
crumbs and chopped parsley. Heat in oven, serve with celery 
plain or fringed. 

May use pastry crusts. 

Vegetable Cutlets 

Grate or grind carrots; cook, salt, drain. Cut young tender 
string beans into small pieces and cook in salted water. Mix 
with nicely seasoned mashed potato, add grated onion, a trifle 
of crushed garlic if liked, chopped parsley, and salt if neces- 
sary; shape into oblong cakes, egg, crumb or dip into corn meal 
or flour. Pour a little melted butter over them in the pan and 
brown in a quick oven. Serve with cream sauce, at once. 

The mixture may be enclosed in pastry crust as surprise biscuit. 

if Squash Cutlets 

Cook young, tender Fordhook or crook-neck squash in J/2 in. 
slices. Dip in egg and flour or crumbs. Bake, covered at first, 



ENTREES 113 

on well oiled griddle or in covered pan in rather hot oven 
25-35 m - or until squash is tender. Serveas soon as done asan en- 
tree or as a garnish. 

May soak slices in ice water l /2-i hour; drain and wipe dry be- 
fore dipping. 

Cucumber Cutlets 

Slice cucumbers in thick slices across, or if small cut into 
halves lengthwise. Wipe dry with a towel if soaked in ice water. 
Dip in egg and crumbs or cracker dust. Bake covered in hot 
oven until tender, 20-30 m. Serve as luncheon dish or as garn- 
ish for a meat dish. 

A little fine chopped onion may be sprinkled over before 
baking. 

^ Cutlets of Corn Meal Porridge, or Hasty Pudding 

Make corn meal porridge just thick enough to mold, not stiff. 
Cook thoroughly and turn into bread tins or other molds which 
have been wet in cold water. When cold, slice, egg and crumb, 
or dip in flour. (No. I, browned, best). Brown in hot oven. 
Serve plain or with mushroom sauce or maple syrup for supper, 
breakfast or luncheon. In small round or square slices it may 
be used as a garnish for creamed vegetables or true meat dishes. 

For variety, coarse chopped nuts may be stirred into the 
porridge before molding. 

Porridge may be molded in small egg cups and finished the 

same as slices. 

Rice Cutlets 

Put hot boiled rice (cooked in water or part milk) into square 
mold or brick shaped bread tin which has been wet in cold water, 
cover close and stand in cold place. Slice, dip in oil or melted 
butter and crumbs and bake in quick oven. Serve with green 
peas, mushroom or any desired sauce, or with jelly, honey or 
maple syrup. 

Dip in egg and crumbs, or in French toast mixture when pre- 
ferred. 



I 14 THE LAUREL 

Corn Cakes 

Mr*. George S. Hopper 

i can corn, chopped (or i cup milk 

1 pt. fresh grated) 7-7 /^ level tablespns. cracker 

1 egg crumbs or enough to thicken 

Bake in thick cakes on griddle on top of stove or in oven. 

Corn Cakes No. 2 

2 cups grated corn 2 tablespns. milk. 

(about 8 ears) salt 

3 eggs cracker crumbs to thicken 

Bake on griddle on top of stove or set in oven on grate 
after being dropped on to hot griddle, or bake in shallow gem pans. 

if Corn Oysters 

2-2 /^ cups (8 small ears) 2 beaten eggs 

grated corn not too young salt 

Drop batter in small spoonfuls on hot buttered griddle. Brown 
delicately on both sides and serve at once. Fine cut celery may 
be added to the batter before baking. Add a few cracker crumbs 
(not bread crumbs or flour) if corn is very milky. Canned corn 
does not make good oysters. 

if Oyster Plant Griddle Cakes 

r cup mixed rich milk and i egg 

oyster plant broth salt 

2 lvel tablespns. flour about /4 cup rolled 
i Y? cup oyster plant cooked in slices cracker 

Bake on hot buttered griddle on stove or top grate of oven. 

if Corn Custards 

Y* cup grated corn 24 -i teaspn. salt 

1-2 teaspns. sugar 2 eggs 

i cup milk 

Beat eggs and mix with other ingredients, turn into oiled cus- 
tard cups, set in pan of water in oven and bake until firm in the 
center. May be served in the cups, or turned out carefully after 
standing a few minutes. Serve with wafers or as accompani- 
ment to meat dishes. 



ENTREES 115 

^ Celery Custards 

2 eggs i tablespn. melted butter 

1 cup milk /4 tablespn. chopped onion 
24 cup fine cut celery /4 teaspn. salt 

Simmer onion and celery in butter without browning. Beat 
eggs and mix all ingredients. Turn into custard cups; bake in 
pan of water, covered, until egg is set; after standing a few min- 
utes, turn out of cups on to individual dishes. Serve with ripe 
olives and wafers or as a garnish to meat dish. May turn on to 
broiled rounds of trumese. 

^r Onion Custards 

2 cups fine sliced onion 2 eggs 

a little fine sliced celery 2 tablespns. cream 

salt 

Cook onions in very little water until tender; drain slightly, 
add celery and other ingredients. Bake in custard cups or indi- 
vidual souffle dishes until firm in center. Unmold on to platter 
or chop tray and surround with green peas in cream sauce. On- 
ions may be rubbed through colander after cooking. 

Celery and Mushrooms a la Creme 

i% qt. celery in inch i cup mushrooms in quarters 

slices or eighths 

Cook celery and mushroons separate and drain. 

Sauce /^ cup oil and melted Y^ cup flour 

butter i egg or yolk only 

^A-Y^ cup chopped onion i teaspn. chopped parsley 

salt 

Simmer onion in oil and add flour, then boiling water to leave 
stiff (perhaps about I pt.); when smooth remove from fire, add 
salt, parsley and beaten egg. Use liquid drained from celery 
and mushrooms with water in the sauce. Put layers of sauce, 
cooked celery and mushrooms in baking dish with sauce on top. 
Sprinkle with crumbs or corn meal, heat and brown in oven. A 



Il6 THE LAUREL 

little garlic may be used and sometimes a small quantity of cream 
with a very little strained tomato in the sauce. 

Young Lima Beans a la Creme 

Cook young tender Lima beans and use in place of celery and 
mushrooms in above. 

Asparagus Tips a la Creme 

Use cooked asparagus tips with the heads sticking up out of the 
cream a little, instead of celery and mushrooms, in Celery and 
Mushrooms a la Creme. 

Oyster Plant and Mushrooms a la Creme 

Cook sliced oyster plant (large slices cut in quarters) not too 
soft in a small quantity of water. Drain and use in place of 
trumese in Trumese and Mushrooms a la Creme, of Trumese 
Dishes, using oyster plant liquor instead of water in the sauce. 

Macaroni and. Mushrooms a la Creme 

Use one of the smaller varieties of macaroni, one that will 
make the desired size when cooked, in place of trumese in Tru- 
mese and Mushrooms a la Creme, of Trumese Dishes. 

Green Corn Pudding 

Accompaniment to roasts, timbales or other meat dishes, or a 
luncheon or supper dish. 

3 cups (12 ears) grated corn 2 tablespns. butter if desired 

i tablespn. sugar if corn is i qt. milk 

not sweet i teaspn. salt 

4 eggs 

Rub butter and sugar together, add yolks of eggs, beat a little, 
add corn and salt, mix; add milk, and when smooth chop in the 
stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. Bake in slow oven about i hour. 
Cover until near the last. 

Corn Pudding no milk 

3 cups corn pulp i tablespn. sugar if necessary 

2-3 tablespns. melted butter i egg salt 



ENTREES II/ 

If corn is very old a little liquid may be required, or if very 
milky a few cracker crumbs. Bake in pie plates or pudding dish 
to a nice brown. 

Corn Pudding no eggs 

3 cups corn pulp i tablespn. melted butter 

1 pt. milk i tablespn. sugar if required 

i teaspn. salt. 

Bake one hour in moderate oven. 

Canned corn may be used in winter. Add ^ cup of sugar and 
serve as a dessert sometimes. 

Oyster Plant Pudding---no eggs 

8 large roots of oyster plant i tablespn. cream 

(i pt. after cooking ) i tablespn. oyster liquor 

2 level tablespns. butter i tablespn. milk 

salt 

Grind scraped oyster plant through medium cutter of food 
chopper, cook in as small an amount of water as possible until 
tender, not soft; add salt, drain and add the other ingredients. 
Put into a baking dish, sprinkle with cracker crumbs or granella 
and chopped parsley. Turn a little melted butter over and 

brown in oven. 

/ 

Sweet Potato Pudding 

i large sweet potato i tablespn. butter 

i qt. milk 4 eggs 

salt 

Peel and grate raw potato. Pour hot milk over and let it boil 
up. Remove from fire, add salt, butter and beaten eggs; bake 
in buttered pudding dish in moderate oven 20 m. or until firm in 
center. 

This dish (with the eggs and milk) may serve as the meat dish 
of a meal. 

Squash Pudding 

To each pint of mashed winter squash add i-i/^ tablespn. 
almond or dairy cream (and if squash is very dry, a little milk), 



I I 8 THE LAUREL 

Y-\ teaspn. salt, I teaspn. sugar and I beaten egg. Bake in 
pudding dish in moderate oven about 20 m. May sprinkle with 
bread crumbs. A little minced onion may be used in the pudding. 

if Carrot Pudding 

i cup mashed carrot i tablespn. chopped onion 

]/? cup corn 2 eggs 

y?, cup stewed tomato from which salt 

the juice has been drained chopped parsley 

Mix all ingredients, beating eggs slightly, turn into baking 
dish, sprinkle with crumbs and parsley. Bake until firm in the 
center. 

Scalloped Asparagus 

Make a thin cream sauce of cream and the water in which 
the asparagus was cooked, cover the bottom of a serving dish with 
sauce, put in a layer of asparagus cooked in short pieces (the tips 
may have been used for croustades) and sprinkle with cracker 
crumbs; continue layers, cover top with thin or split crackers, 
pour sauce over, sprinkle with chopped parsley, bake 15-20 m. 

Sister Ford's Scalloped Cabbaga Delicious 

Chop a nice head of cabbage or shave it fine and put it into a 
baking dish with alternate layers of bread or zwieback crumbs. 
Turn over it enough rich milk, to which a little salt has been 
added, to half cover it. Let it boil up once and then set where 
it will stew slowly until the cabbage is tender, but no longer. 

Scalloped Egg Plant 

Cut egg plant into slices %-^/i in. thick. Peel and put into a 
large quantity of cold water over the fire and bring to the boiling 
point, boil 5 m. and drain. Repeat the process, add salt to the 
third water, boil 10 m. and drain. Put into scallop dish in 
layers with bread or cracker crumbs just a few, cover with 
rich milk or thin cream and bake covered until the slices are 
tender, % hr. or longer. Uncover, brown and serve. The egg 
plant may be cut into large cubes. 



ENTREES IIQ 

Armenian Scallop of Egg Plant 

i large egg plant chopped parsley 

1/^-2 cups strained or unstrained tomato salt 

/^ cup sliced or chopped onion 2tablespns. butter or oil 

3 or 4. cloves of garlic, fine a few bread crumbs 

Prepare egg plant as in preceding recipe; mix onion, garlic, 
salt and a part of the crumbs. Sprinkle mixture in bottom of 
baking dish, and between and on top of layers of egg plant. 
Turn the tomato over all, cover with crumbs, sprinkle with pars- 
ley, dot with butter or pour oil over. Cover and bake 1/^-2 
hours. Brown on top grate of oven. 

Scalloped Onions 

Stew sliced onions until tender, drain and put in baking dish 
with layers of bread crumbs ; add salt and a little melted butter 
to each layer, nearly cover with milk, sprinkle with crumbs and 
bake until well browned. The butter may be omitted and a 
little cream added to the milk. 

Scalloped Raw Potatoes 

Slice potatoes very thin, put in layers into scallop dish, 
sprinkling each layer lightly with flour or cracker crumbs and 
salt until dish is % full. Nearly cover with milk, sprinkle with 
crumbs, bake I hour or until potatoes are tender. Cover at 
first and watch that milk does not boil over. A very little 
chopped onion in the potatoes improves them. When flour is 
used it is better to mix the milk and flour and pour over the 
potatoes. 

A quicker way is to cook the sliced potatoes in boiling salted 
water for 10 m., before putting them into the scallop dish. 

Potatoes Scallopedraw nut butter and onions 
Cooked sliced potatoes for TO m. in boiling, salted water, 
drain, put into baking dish in layers with fine chopped onion, 
and pour a liberal amount of nut milk (made in the proportion 
of 4 tablespns. of raw nut butter, with salt, to each qt. of water) 
over them. When the potatoes are tender and the milk just 



120 THE LAUREL 

creamy, sprinkle the top with browned flour No. I, pour a little 
oil over, and brown on top grate of oven. Serve at once. 

Scalloped Cooked Potatoes 

Potatoes cooked in their jackets until nearly done are best for 
this purpose and it is a good way to use up small and irregular 
shaped ones. Slice or dice the potatoes, put into dish in 
layers with thin cream sauce, chopped parsley and onion, have 
sauce on top, sprinkle with crumbs, bake 20 m. \Yithout the 
onion they are called Cottage Potatoes. 

Scalloped Sweet Potatoes 

Prepare and cook the same as scalloped Irish potatoes, with- 
out onion. 

Scalloped Squash 

A squash that is not as good cooked in other ways may be used 
for this dish. Pare and cut into small pieces, boil or steam 
until just tender, not soft. Arrange in layers in oiled baking 
dish w r ith salt, a little sugar and if used, a little butter. Pour 
over a very little milk or (if no butter is used) thin cream, not 
more than ^-/^ of a cup for a good sized dish. Bake covered 
at first, then brown. Sprinkle with chopped parsley before 
serving. A trifle of ground coriander or anise seed may be used, 
but the natural flavor of the squash is best. 

Scalloped Oyster Plant 

i qt. cooked sliced oyster plant iK cup milk 

( i /^ qt., 2 bunches, before cooking) 2 tablespns. melted 

*/$ cup cracker crumbs I egg [butter 

i/j cnp oyster liquor salt 

Mix oyster plant liquor, milk, butter and salt. Put oyster 
plant into a baking dish with a sprinkling of cracker crumbs be- 
tween layers, pour part of mixed liquid over. Sprinkle crumbs 
on top and turn the last cup of liquid over, after beating the 
egg with it. Bake covered until just bubbling, then remove 
cover and brown by setting on top grate of oven. 



ENTREES 121 

Scallop of Oyster Plant 

Cook i Y^ qt. sliced oyster plant in ij qt. water, adding salt 
before draining. To the water drained off add %-i cup heavy 
cream. Boil and thicken with flour to the consistency of thin 
cream; add salt and pour over oyster plant which has been ar- 
ranged in baking dish with a slight sprinkling of stale bread 
crumbs between the layers and on top. Be careful not to use 
too many crumbs. Bake a half hour or until well heated through 
and nicely browned. Sprinkle with chopped parsley before or 



after baking. 



Oyster Plant Scallop 



1 pt. cooked oyster plant pulp i cup cream 

prepared as for patties (or /^ cream and /^ oyster 

2 level tablespns. butter salt [liquor 
2 level tablespns. flour 2 eggs 

Rub butter and flour together; add cream hot. Boil, remove 
from fire, add beaten eggs, salt and oyster pulp. Put into patty 
cases, other individual dishes or baking dish, buttered. Sprin- 
kle with crumbs and chopped parsley, heat to bubbling and 
brown, in oven. 

Scalloped Tomatoes 

Place equal quantities of salted stewed tomatoes and deli- 
cately browned croutons in dice as for soup, in layers in baking 
dish with a little melted butter poured over each layer. Cover 
with the croutons and sprinkle with melted butter. Bake, cov- 
ered part of the time, i 5-20 m. Crumbs or thin slices of zwie- 
back, or granella may be substituted for dice. 

Scalloped Tomatoesonion flavor 

Thin layers of bread or zwieback, or of cracker or bread 
crumbs, with thick slices (or double layers) of peeled tomatoes, 
salt and onion juice. Cover with crumbs, turn a little melted 
butter over, sprinkle with chopped parsley. Bake, covered most 
of the time. 



122 THE LAUREL 

Scalloped Celery and Tomato 

i qt. finely-sliced celery X-/^ cup chopped onion 

i /^ qt. stewed tomato with a little 2-3 teaspns. salt 
of the juice drained off 

Put half the celery, onion, tomato, and salt into a baking dish 
in the order given, and repeat with the remaining half. Cover 
with small dice or coarse crumbs of bread. Turn a little cream 
or melted butter over the top, cover and bake i^-i*^ hr. in 
moderate oven. The onion may be omitted. 

Tomatoes Scalloped with Rice and Onion 

Put layers of boiled rice and tomato with thin sliced onion, 
salt and a little butter or oil in baking dish, sprinkle with crumbs 
and parsley. Bake, covered, in moderate oven, brown on top 
grate just before serving. 

Creamed Sweet Potatoes 

Cover sliced, cooked sweet potatoes in serving dish with 
cream or thin cream sauce. Sprinkle \vith crumbs and parsley 
if desired. Heat gently in oven until a delicate brown. 

if Baked Creamed Tomatoes 

i pt. strained stewed tomatoes /^-/^ cup sweet cream 
i% cup stale bread crumbs salt 

Let crumbs stand in tomato until well softened, rub through 
a colander, add cream and salt. Bake in serving dish until deli- 
cately browned on top and well heated through. Let stand in 
warm place 10-20 m. before serving. 

Spinach Souffle 

1/2 peck spinach (2 cups cooked). Cook; drain very dry and 
rub through a fine colander. Add I teaspn. oil or melted butter, 
beat in the yolks of 2 eggs and fold in the whites beaten moder- 
ately stiff. Fill well oiled mold about ^ full. Set in pan of 
hot water and bake (covered until nearly done) in moderate or 
slow oven until firm in the center, 45-60 m. Do not bake too 
rapidly or too long. When done, set the mold out of the water, 



ENTREES 123 

let it stand a moment to settle, and invert carefully on to a plat- 
ter or chop tray. Serve at once with quarters or sixths of 
lemon or with one of the cream sauces, or with Sauce Ameri- 
caine. 

Baked tomatoes are very suitable for a garnish or accompan- 
iment. 

Individual Daisy Souffles make pretty garnishes for timbales 
and molds. Small custard cups, or the imported tin molds, be- 
ing suitable for them. Oil molds well with cold oil or softened 
(not melted) butter and leave in a cool place. 

Prepare daisies by cutting a small round piece from a slice of 
hard-boiled yolk of egg and six diamond shaped pieces from the 
poached white, for each, and arrange like daisies in the bottom 
of the mold, the oil holding them in place. 

Press the spinach mixture into the molds, taking care not to 
displace the daisies, and bake the same as the large mold, only 
a shorter time, 30-35 m., or until puffed in the center and firm 
to the touch. Invert on to rounds of toast and place as de- 
sired. 

Mashed Potato Loaf 

Add grated onion to nicely seasoned mashed potato; put 
into a long, well buttered tin; brown in hot oven, turn out on 
to a platter and serve cut in slices for luncheon or supper. 

Timbale of Carrot- unusually desirable 

2 cups mashed carrot i pint rich milk 

1 teaspn. salt whites 3 eggs 

2 teaspns. chopped parsley 

Add stiffly-beaten whites of eggs to other ingredients which 
have been mixed. Bake in buttered mold in pan of water, until 
firm in center, about /^ hour. Let stand a moment after re- 
moving from oven, unmold on to platter or chop tray, surround 

with spinach leaves or garnish with other green and serve with 
sour sauce. 



124 THE LAUREL 

Corn and Egg Timbale 

iX qt. milk 4 chopped hard boiled eggs 

3 cups flour 4 beaten raw eggs 

1 pt. corn, drained dry 2 teaspns. chopped onion 

2 teaspns. salt 2 teaspns. chopped parsley 

Blend flour with I pt. of the milk, heat remainder of milk in 
oiled frying pan, stir in flour, remove from fire, add other in- 
gredients, bake in well oiled mold. Serve with sauce 16, 23, 
28, or 31. 

Timbales of Corn -individual 

1^2 cup corn (cut from cob) put salt 

through fine chopper i/^ tablespn. melted butter 

2 eggs i pt. hot milk 

Set molds in pan of hot water, cover, bake. 

Vegetable Pie 

Prepare vegetables (half or whole quantity) as for Trumese en 
Casserole, of Trumese Dishes, use a little more liquid, thick- 
ened a trifle. Cover and bake until vegetables are nearly or 
quite tender, i-i /^ hours. Remove from fire, cool to just warm 
(if universal crust is to be used), cover with crust, let rise, and 
bake; or, the crust may be baked or steamed in a pie plate sepa- 
rately and laid over the baked filling. If steamed, it will be 
dumplings. 

A combination of equal quantities potatoes, turnips, parsnips, 
carrots and onions covered with consomme, or very fresh milk, 
and baked, may be used for a pie. Sometimes, when no pota- 
toes are used, lay sliced tomatoes on top of the vegetables. 

Chopped parsley is suitable for all combinations. Garlic, if 
liked, is nearly always an improvement. 

Cooked instead of uncooked vegetables may be used. 

Sliced hard boiled eggs give variety and add to the nutritive 
value of pies. 

When liquid is not thickened, sprinkle a little fine tapioca 
between layers of vegetables. 



ENTREES 125 

Oyster Plant Pie 

i-i/^ qt. sliced oyster plant i/^ qt. boiling water 

(2 large bunches) i teaspn. salt 

Cook oyster plant until nearly tender, add the salt, boil up 
well and drain. 

Sauce 

4 tablespns. oil or melted butter % cup cream 

6-6^ tablespns. flour /^ teaspn, salt 

i qt. and % cup of oyster plant broth and water 

Heat oil, add flour, then liquid, and when smooth and well 
cooked, the cream and salt, and a little chopped parsley if 
convenient. 

Crust- -Universal crust of Y/^-i cup of liquid, or one cup of rice 
as for rice and trumese pie, or dish lined and covered or covered 
only, with pastry crust. Pour part of the sauce into the baking 
dish, sprinkle the cooked oyster plant in and pour the remainder 
of the sauce over. Cover with the crust. Let rise until very 
light (if universal crust). Bake l /2-^ hour. 

May make small individual pies. 

Sauce ivitliout Cream- -Y* cup of raw nut butter maybe rubbed 
smooth and boiled up w r ith the oyster broth and the cream 
omitted. With this, i teaspn. of celery salt may be used, or 3 
level tablespns. chopped onion and i level teaspn. sage. 
Chopped parsley with either. 7 or 8 tablespns. of cracker dust 
may be used for thickening the sauce instead of flour. 

Oyster Plant Pastry Pie 

Cook oyster plant in small quantity of \vater, add salt when 
nearly tender, boil up well and drain; thicken liquor slightly, add 
a little butter and the cooked oyster plant. AYhen cool, put 
into custard pie pan lined \vith pastry, cover, bake. Serve hot 
with celery stew r ed in tomato if desired. 

Mushroom and Celery PieRice or pastry crust 

i/i qt. celery in inch lengths chopped parsley 

I-I/4 pt. mushrooms in quarters or eighths 



126 THE LAUREL 

Cook and drain celery. Cook mushrooms 10-15 in. in salted 
water and drain. Arrange cooked celery and mushrooms in 
baking dish with parsley sprinkled between layers. Pour over 
the following sauce, cover with rice (as for rice and trumese pie) 
or pastry crust, bake. 

--$ tablespns. melted butter, 5/^-6 tablespns. flour, the 



liquid drained from the mushrooms and celery with water to 
make I qt., salt. Rub the butter and flour together, pour boil- 
ing liquid over, boil up well, add salt. 

Carrot Pie. Excellent 
i qt. cooked sliced carrots chopped parsley 

Saitct 

5 tablespns. oil or melted butter 5^ tablespns. flour 

2 tablespns. chopped onion i qt. boiling water 

Simmer, not brown, onion in oil, add flour and water, pour 
into baking dish with carrots and parsley and cover with any 
desired crust- -universal, pastry, rice, mashed potato, dressing, 
or mashed dried green peas. With the last, one would have a 
hearty meat dish. 

Potato Pie 

Use potatoes instead of carrots and more onion in preceding 
recipe. Celery may be used (without simmering in oil) instead 
of the onion. %-% cup of ra\v nut butter, instead of the oil, 
rubbed smooth with water and boiled with it would give a meaty 
flavor with the potatoes and onions. A mashed lentil crust, 
when desired, adds to the nutritive value of the pie. 

Stuffed Winter Squash 

^-/^ of a medium sized, nice shaped sliced onion 

winter squash garlic if desired 

3 cups dry bread crumbs chopped parsley 

Sauce 

3' tablespns. oil or melted butter 3-3 /^ tablespns. flour 

3 cups rich consomme 



ENTREES I2/ 

Heat oil, add flour, then consomme, and salt if necessary. Saw 
squash in two in the middle, or a little above the middle as re- 
quired. Scrape out the seeds and stringy pulp and rub with salt. 
Let stand while preparing other ingredients; drain before stuff- 
ing. Mix crumbs and flavorings, leaving out a little parsley; 
pour part or all of the sauce over the crumb mixture. (The 
quantity of the sauce will depend on the quality of the squash. 
If it is a dry one it will probably take it all, and if it is quite a 
large one, more of all the stuffing will be required). Fill the 
squash, sprinkle, with crumbs or corn meal, and chopped parsley. 
Set into covered baker or cover with waxed paper and bake 
until squash is tender which will be in 2-3 hrs. according to the 
squash. Give it plenty of time. Serve on chop tray and send 
plain onion sauce to be served with it. 

Coarse chopped nuts may be put into the dressing and the top 
of the squash garnished after baking with halves of nuts. This 
makes a beautiful as well as palatable dish. 

Baked Squash with Celery Stuffing 

Make a thick sauce of rich milk and browned flour No. I. 
Add to it chopped onion, minced garlic if liked, a few coarse 
bread crumbs and a large quantity of fine sliced celery. Fill the 
squash which has been prepared as in the preceding recipe, 
sprinkle with crumbs, cover with slices of tomato from which 
the seeds have been removed, or with pieces of canned tomato. 
Finish with chopped parsley ; bake covered until time to brown 
over the top. 

Nuts may be used with this also, and unbrowned flour in the 
sauce if preferred. 

A simple dressing of bread or cracker crumbs and milk with a 
little cream or butter and chopped onion is nice in squash. 

\Yith such summer squaslics as are of the right shape to bake, 
the greater part of the inside may be scraped out, chopped and 
put in with the dressing. 



128 THE LAUREL 

Claudia's Stuffed Egg Plant 

YV large egg plant ~A-\ tablespn. browned flour 

*/$ cup boiled rice % cup fine cut celery 

4 tablespns. tomato 3-5 truffles cut fine 

4 tablespns. grated onion 2 tablespns. oil or melted butter 

(or 3 of chopped) salt 

I dozen chopped ripe olives may be used instead of truffles, or 
3 or 4 soaked dried mushrooms chopped, or all may be omitted. 

Boil whole egg plant in unsalted water 20 m. Cut in halves 
lengthwise, or if only one piece is to be baked cut a little one 
side of the middle, using the larger piece for stuffing. The 
quantity of stuffing given is for one piece only. Scrape out the 
pulp with a spoon, leaving a wall %-%. in. thick. Chop pulp 
and mix with the other ingredients, using only half the oil or 
butter. Rub a little salt over the inside of the egg plant, press 
the stuffing in firmly, sprinkle with crumbs and chopped parsley 
and pour oil over. Bake in quick oven about % hour, covered 
when sufficiently browned. 

Stuffed Potatoes 

Cut slices off the sides of nicely baked potatoes (if large they 
may be cut into halves, or they may be cut in tw r o in the middle 
crosswise, or a piece may be cut off from one end), scrape out 
the inside, leaving a thin coating of the potato so that the skin 
will not be broken. Prepare the same as mashed potato and 
beat very light, refill the skins, brush with cream or sprinkle with 
crumbs and chopped parsley, set in shallow tin and brown on 
top grate in oven. To serve, arrange on a napkin on a platter, 
with sprays of parsley. 

Meringued Stuffed Potatoes 

Add i or more yolks of eggs to the mashed potato, fill skins 
and heat as in preceding recipe, then pile the salted, stiffly-beaten 
whites of eggs on the tops and brown delicately. 

Stuffed Tomatoes 

Select large firm tomatoes, cut out the stem end, remove the 



ENTREES 129 

inside with a teaspoon and turn upside down on a drainer for the 
liquid to drain out. 

Stuffed tomatoes may be served as a garnish for meat dishes 
or on rounds of toast as a separate course, often the second 
course. When suitable, they may be served on rounds or 
squares of broiled trumese. Sometimes they are set into a rich 
cream sauce on a platter, or in ramekins, and sprinkled with 
chopped truffles. Chopped nuts and parsley may be substituted 
for truffles. When desired, a half nut meat may be laid on top 
of each tomato before sending to the table. 

Fillings for Stuffed Tomatoes 

Buttered crumbs, the tomato pulp and salt: to this maybe 
added grated onion or onion and sage. Cracker crumbs instead 
of bread are sometimes used. 

Crumbs, chopped nuts or trumese or nutmese, garlic, onion 
and salt. Or, ripe olives and celery salt with chopped parsley 
in place of onion and garlic. 

Boiled rice, onion, browned flour, melted butter, tomato 
pulp. Salt tomatoes well inside and sprinkle with chopped pars- 
ley after stuffing. 

Soaked dried mushrooms chopped, butter, crumbs, tomato 
pulp, onion, salt. 

Fresh mushrooms chopped, crumbs, cream or butter, salt. 

Macaroni or spaghetti, tomato pulp, onion, butter, crumbs on 
top. 

Left-overs of macaroni may be chopped slightly for filling, 
with small rings as top finish. 

Always fill tomatoes to the top and finish with crumbs or 
something suitable. 

Bake 10-30 m. (according to the filling, and the ripeness of 
the tomatoes) on oiled pans without water. 

Fruit and Nut Tomatoes 

Mix equal parts chopped nuts, currants and fine cut citron 



I3O THE LAUREL 

with two parts raisins cut fine and a little sugar. Fill hollowed 
and drained tomatoes. Bake, serve plain or with cream or 
whipped cream. Raisins and cocoanut with sugar, may be used, 
or either one alone. 

Stuffed Green Tomatoes 

Mixture of onion, garlic, salt, sage, a trifle of thyme and the 
chopped pulp of tomato in bottom of hollowed out tomatoes; 
then each tomato partly filled with dice of nutmese, covered with 
some of the mixture, and the top finished with a slice of ripe 
tomato or pieces of canned tomato. Bake covered I ^2 hour or 
until tomatoes are tender. Serve on crisped large crackers with 
Tomato Cream sauce or Chili sauce sprinkled \vith chopped 
parsley. Use large tomatoes turned a little white. 

Peeled Tomatoes Baked 

Set whole peeled tomatoes in pudding dish, sprinkle generously 
with salt, cover with buttered crumbs and bake: or, omit crumbs 
and when tender, pour over them a thin cream sauce; sprinkle 
with parsley and leave in oven 10-15 m. 

Rich Baked Sliced Tomatoes 

Cut tomatoes that are not too ripe into thick slices (halves if 
thin), sprinkle with salt, chopped onion and garlic if liked, and 
pour a little melted butter over. Bake. After laying slices of 
tomato on to rounds of toast, add butter and flour to liquid in 
pan, then a little cream; boil up and pour around tomatoes 
on toast. 

Oil and nut milk or cream may be used instead of butter and 
dairy cream. 

Broiled or Baked Tomatoes 

Dip thick slices of not too ripe tomatoes in Mayonnaise or 
Improved Mayonnaise dressing, then in fine sifted bread or 
cracker crumbs. Brown in wire broiler or lay in agate pan and 
bake in hot oven. 



ENTREES 131 

Tomato Short Cake 

Cover layers of split hot short cake crust of universal dough 
with Cream of Tomato sauce and serve. Or, prepare unstrained 
tomatoes the same as for sauce and serve over the crust. 

Pilaustewed rice 

i cup rice 2-4. cups tomato 

3-5 tablespns. oil or melted butter 3-5 cups water 

i onion 1/4-2 /4 teaspns. salt 

Simmer sliced onion in 'oil (without browning), add salt, boil- 
ing water and rice. Cook until rice is about half done, then 
add tomato hot, and finish cooking slowly without stirring. If 
convenient, set into the oven after the tomato is added. When 
the larger quantity of tomato is used, the smaller quantity only 
of water will be required. 

i/4 cup sliced celery may be substituted for the onion. 

Spanish rice calls for 2-3 cloves of garlic in addition to Pilau 
with six cups of water and one only of tomato. 

Macaroni with Onion or Celery, and Tomato 

Substitute i/^-i/4 cup of macaroni for the rice in pilau. 
Hominy also may be used in place of rice. 

Parsnip and Potato Stew 

Cut potatoes in quarters lengthwise, then across the center, 
and cut parsnips into about the same size; cook separately or 
together and drain; add both to cream sauce, heat, and serve on 
toast, or put small slices of toast (zwieback) in the stew. This 
is a delightful dish though simple. 

Succotash -Corn and Beans 

In the summer cook shelled Lima or other beans until tender. 
Add corn which has been cut from the cob, boil 10-15 m - pour 
in a little heavy cream, heat but do not boil; add more salt 
if necessary. Succotash is one of the dishes which calls for 
cream. Just a few spoonfuls is all that is required for a large 
quantity of succotash, but that little perfects it. 



132 THE LAUREL 

Corn and beans may be cooked separately, combined and 
seasoned. All sorts of corn and all sorts of beans may be com- 
bined with great satisfaction, but the richest and most delight- 
ful of all is nice dried corn (the yellow sweet corn is best) and 
dry common white beans. Raw nut butter cooked to a cream 
is good with the dry bean succotash. 

Dried and Hulled Corn 

A very near relative (which some prefer) to succotash is the 
combination of dried and hulled corn; 2 parts dried and I part 
hulled corn, finished with cream the same as succotash. 

Vegetable Hashes 

My first experience with a vegetable hash was at a hotel in 
one of the new towns in North Dakota where the landlady her- 
self did the cooking. The hash was made from the different 
vegetables left from a boiled dinner chopped and heated, and 
was one of the happy gastronomic surprises. 

Just such a surprise is in store for the vegetarian who utilizes 
the remains of the trumese boiled dinner. 

One rule with few exceptions to be followed in hashes, is not 
to chop the ingredients too fine; they should be distinguishable 
one from another. 

Always finish hashes in the oven when possible, either in frying 
pan or baking dish. 

Cold baked potatoes or those boiled in jackets are preferable 
for hash, but steamed or plain boiled ones will do if not too soft. 
Rice may be substituted for potato. Do not be skeptical in 
regard to these dishes; try them. 

Acushnet Hash 

Heat chopped onion in oil or butter, add 2 parts chopped 
potatoes and /^-i part coarse zwieback crumbs or granella, \vith 
salt. Pour a little nut milk or dairy cream, and \vater over. 
Cover and heat well, then brown in oven uncovered. A little 
sage may be used sometimes, or both onion and sage may be 
omitted. 



ENTREES 133 



Cabbage and Potato Hash 

i or 2 parts cold boiled or steamed cabbage and 2 parts 
potato, with cream, or butter and water makes a very meaty 
flavored combination. Do not brown this hash. Heat slowly, 

covered. 

Use parsnips or carrots in place of cabbage for other varieties. 

Cream is used to advantage in these dishes. The recipes given 
are merely suggestive of the many combinations possible. 

Hash with Poached Egg 

Nicely poached eggs, one for each serving, may be laid on to 
any of the hashes spread on a platter. 

Savory Hash 
Equal quantities mashed or whole stewed lentils and rice or 

chopped potato, with sage and onion, cream, or butter and 

water, salt. 

Toasts 

We learn from Dr. Vaughn of the Michigan University, and 
other eminent authorities, that yeast bread browned on the two 
cut surfaces only, is as unwholesome as w T hen fresh baked, the 
slice being soggy and indigestible on the inside. So, for all 
dishes where the ordinary toast is usually used, we recommend 

the following: 

Zwieback 

Cut slices of light yeast bread into any desired shape or size. 
(Square slices cut diagonally across are convenient and attract- 
ive). Lay in a flat pan or wire dish drainer and put into a 
warm oven. Dry well, then increase the heat of the oven 
gradually and bake to a cream color all through. This process 
partially digests the starch and renders the bread crisp, tender, 
and nutty in flavor. Keep zwieback in a paper sack hanging 
near the fire and it will not loose its crispness. Eaten dry with 
porridge and other soft foods it furnishes material for mastication. 
It is also a suitable and delightful accompaniment to fruits and 
nuts, and may be used when toast points are called for as a 
garnish. A recipe for special zwieback bread will be found 



134 THE LAUREL 

among the yeast recipes. Salt rising bread makes especially 
tender zwieback. 

When moist toast is desired, dip the crust part of the slice 
into the liquid first, then drop the whole slice in, taking it out 
quickly with a skimmer so that it will not be mushy, and lay it 
in a covered dish to steam for a few minutes. 

Always salt the water for dipping. 

\Yhen cream or milk are the liquids for dipping, do not have 
them quite boiling as boiling milk toughens the toast. Do not 
moisten toast when the dressing is thin enough to soften it. 

Prepared toast and dressing may be sent to the table separate 
and served on individual dishes. 

With many, acid or sub-acid fruit dressings served over 
moistened toast cause acidity in the stomach. 

Never use milk for moistening toast for fruit dressings, always 
water or cream. 

When delicate fruits are to be used, strain off the juice, bring 
it to the boiling point and thicken it a very little with cornstarch. 
When perfectly boiling add the fruit, heat carefully and dip 
over toast. 

Many little left-overs of foods may be made into dainty and 
satisfying dishes by being served on toast. 

Blueberry Toast 

The blueberry is one of the most suitable fruits for toasts. 
The slightly sweetened stewed fruit may be thickened without 
straining, as the berries do not break easily. Serve with Brazil 
nuts or dried blanched almonds, or with chopped or ground nuts. 

Prune Toast 

Use sweet California prunes stewed without sugar, whole 
stoned with juice, or in marmalade. Serve with halves of 
English walnuts on or around slices when required. 

if Sister Betty Saxby's Toast 
Moisten white or graham zwieback according to directions 



ENTREES 135 

and put in layers in a tureen with the following dressing. Cover 
and let stand in a warm place 10-15 rrf. before serving. 

Dressing- -To a pint of milk take about i j tablespn. graham 
(not white) flour, or for skimmed milk, I ^ tablespn. flour, add 
salt and cook in a double boiler I 5 m. to ^ hour. 

Old-Fashioned Milk Toast 

Lay slices of zwieback in a deep dish with salt and bits of 
butter. (Butter is not a necessity if the milk is rich). Pour hot 
milk over and send to the table at once. 

Cream Toast 

Use hot thin cream without butter or salt in above recipe. 

Creamed Toast 

1-2 tablespns. butter i pt. milk 

i Y-Z tablespn. flour salt 

Heat butter, stir in flour, add milk hot, and when smooth a 
trifle of salt. Dip slices of zwieback in sauce, lay in deep dish 
and pour remaining sauce over. Set in a warm place for a few 
minutes before serving. 

Cream of Corn Toast 

Thicken cream of corn soup a little more if necessary, or, 
add corn to thin cream sauce, and serve on toast. Left-overs of 
all sorts of cream soups may be utilized for toast: celery, aspar- 
agus, string bean, oyster plant and spinach, also succotash and 
other ste\ved or creamed vegetables. 

Lentil and Other Legume Toasts 

Use any lentil gravy or thickened lentil soup, cream of peas 
or peas and tomato soup thickened, red kidney beans puree or 
thickened soup, on moistened slices of zwieback. 

Toast Royal 

i cup drawn butter sauce i cup minced trumese or nutmese 

3 eggs or /^ cup chopped nuts 

Add meat to hot sauce and pour all over beaten salted eggs; 



136 THE LAUREL 

cook as scrambled eggs. Serve immediately on moistened 
slices of zwieback, with baked tomatoes when convenient. 

The following toasts are of a different nature (though slices 
of zwieback may be used instead of bread), but they are good 
emergency dishes. 

French Toast 

Add % cup of milk with salt to 2 or 3 beaten eggs. Dip 
slices of stale bread or moistened zwieback in the mixture and 
brown delicately on both sides on moderately hot buttered grid- 
dle or in quick oven, or in frying pan covered. Serve plain or 
with any suitable sauce. 

Drain slices after dipping in egg mixture; crumb, bake, and 
serve with honey, maple syrup or jelly for Breaded French 

Toast. 

German Toast 

Add grated or fine chopped onion to egg mixture and finish 
the same as French toast. 

Spanish Cakes 

Batter 2 eggs, 2 tablespns. flour, I teaspn. of oil, milk for 
smooth thin batter. Nut milk may be used and oil omitted. 

Cut thin slices of bread into any desired shape (round with 
biscuit cutter), spread each one of half the pieces with jelly, jam 
or marmalade and press another on to it; dip in the batter, lay 
on oiled baking pan, stand 15 m. or longer in a cold place. Bake 
in a quick oven, serve with a bit of the preserve on top and 
half of a nut pressed into each, or, dusted \vith powdered sugar. 

Mamie's Surprise Biscuit 

Inclose small cakes of nicely seasoned mashed potato in pastry 
crust; bake, serve with milk gravy, drawn butter or cream sauce, 
or with celery only. This is the original recipe which leads to 
the following variations: 

Mix finely-sliced celery with the potato. 



ENTREES 137 

Use the mixture of black walnut and potato stuffing, or mashed 
lentils or mashed peas for filling. 

Serve peas biscuit with tomato or tomato cream sauce. 

Serve lentil biscuit with cream, cream of tomato or mush- 
room sauce. 

Lentil biscuit with fresh mushroom or Boundary Castle sauce, 
with or without celery, might constitute one course at a dinner. 

Make a filling of minced trumese, salt, oil, chopped parsley, 
onion and mushrooms into small cakes or balls, inclose them in 
universal crust, and when light, steam 25-30 m. Serve with 
drawn butter, flavored with onion and parsley, or as garnish for 
a meat dish. Make balls quite small for garnish. 

Yorkshire Pudding 

/^ cup flour \Yz cup milk 

salt 2 eggs 

i teaspn. oil 

Beat eggs, add milk and pour gradually into flour mixed with 
salt; add oil, beat well, turn into well oiled, or oiled and 
crumbed gem pans; bake in moderate (slow at first) oven. 

Serve as garnish or accompaniment to ragout, or if baked in 
flat cakes, with slices of broiled or a la mode meats laid on them, 
and gravy poured around. The pudding may be baked in a flat 
pan and cut into any desired shape for serving. Whites and yolks 
of eggs may be beaten separately. A large onion chopped may 
be used in the pudding. 

Rice Border 

Pack hot boiled rice into well oiled border mold and let stand 
in a warm place (over kettle of hot water) for TO m. Turn on 
to serving dish carefully. 

Or, parboil I cup of rice in salted water 5 m. ; drain and cook 
in a double boiler with 2^-3 cups of milk and salt, until the 
rice is tender and the milk absorbed, then pack into the mold. 

i tablespn. of butter and the yolks of 2 eggs may be added to 
the rice about 2 m. before it is taken from the double boiler. 



138 THE LAUREL 

Oyster Plant and Potato Omelet---without eggs 

With nicely seasoned, not too moist, mashed potato, mix 
slices of cooked oyster plant which have been simmered in cream 
or butter. Spread in well oiled frying or omelet pan. When 
delicately browned on the bottom, fold, omelet fashion, turn on 
to a hot platter, garnish. Serve plain or with cream sauce or 
with thin drawn butter. Or, grind oyster plant, cook in a small 
quantity of water, add cream or butter and mix with plain potato. 
Finely-sliced raw celery or chopped raw onion and parsley may 
be used in the potato sometimes. 

Baked Potatoes and Milk 

Wash potatoes well, scrubbing with vegetable brush. Cut 
out any imperfect spots. Bake until just done. Break up, 
skins and all, into nice rich milk and eat like bread and milk for 
supper. A favorite dish of some of the early settlers in Michigan. 

Bread and Milk with Sweet Fruits 

Add nice ripe blueberries to bread and milk for supper, also 
ripe black raspberries or baked sweet apples. They are all de- 
licious. 

^ Apples in Oil 

Simmer finely-sliced onion in oil 5-10 m. without browning; 
add salt and a little w^ater, then apples which have been \vashed, 
quartered, cored and sliced without paring. Sprinkle lightly 
with salt. Cover and cook until apples are just tender, not 
broken. Serve for breakfast or supper, or with a meat dish in- 
stead of a vegetable, for luncheon or dinner. 

The onion may be omitted. Use a little sugar when apples 
are very sour. 

Onion Apples 

Simmer sliced onions in oil, with salt, in baking pan. Place ap- 
ples, pared and cored, on top of the onions; sprinkle with sugar 
and put l /^ teaspn. in each cavity. Cover, bake; uncover and 
brown. Serve for luncheon, or as garnish for meat dish. 



TRUE MEATS 



"And God said, Behold I have given you every herb bearing- 
seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in 
the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be 
for meat.' Gen. 1 129. 

'The food which God gave Adam in his sinless state is the 
best for man's use as he seeks to regain that sinless state. 

4 ' The intelligence displayed by many dumb animals approaches 
so closely to human intelligence that it is a mystery. 

The animals see and hear and love and fear and suffer. 

"They manifest sympathy and tenderness toward their com- 
panions in suffering. 

"They form attachments for man which are not broken with- 
out great suffering to them. 

"Think of the cruelty to animals that meat eating involves 
and its effect on those who inflict and those who behold it. 
How it destroys the tenderness with which we should regard 
these creatures of God ! ' 

The high price of flesh foods, the knowledge of the waste mat- 
ter in the blood of even healthy animals which remains in their 
flesh after death, and the well authenticated reports of the in- 
creasing prevalence of most loathsome diseases among them, 
causes a growing desire among thinking people to take their food 
at first Jiand, before it has become a part of the body of some 
lower animal. 

So, the great food question of the day is- "\VJiat shall n>c 
use in t lie place of meat?' 

Nuts, legumes (peas, beans, lentils and peanuts) and eggs con- 
tain as do flesh meats, an excess of the proteid or muscle-build- 

(139) 



I4O THE LAUREL 

ing elements (nuts and legumes a much larger proportion than 
riesh), so we may combine these with fruits, vegetables and some 
of the cereals (rice, tor instance) and have a perfect proportion 
of food elements. 

It must be borne in mind, however, that protcid foods must 
be used sparingly, since an excess of these foods causes some of 
tlic most serious diseases. 

The bulk of our foods should be made up of fruits and vegeta- 
bles and some of the less hearty cereals and breads. 

NUTS 

As nuts occupy the highest round of the true meat ladder, we 
give a variety of recipes for their use, following with legumes 

and eggs in their order. 

With nuts, as with other foods, the simplest way to use them 
is the best. There are greater objections to foods than that 
they are difficult of digestion, and in the case of nuts, that ob- 
jection is overcome by thorough mastication; in fact, they are 
an aid to the cultivation of that important function in eating. 

For those who are not able to chew 7 their food, nuts may be 
ground into butter. 

Another aid to the digestion of nuts is the use with them of 
an abundance of acid fruits. Fruits and nuts seem to be each 
the complement of the other, the nuts as well, preventing the 
unpleasant effects felt by some in the free use of fruits. 

"No investigations have been found on record which demon- 
strate any actual improvement in the digestibility of nuts due 
to salt.' M. R. Jaffa, M. 5., Professor of Nutrition, Univer- 
sity of California. 

Be sure that nuts are fresh. Rancid nuts are no better than 
rancid butter. Shelled nuts do not keep as well as those in 
the shell. 

Almonds stand at the head of the nut family. It is better to 
buy them in the shell as shelled almonds are apt to have bitter 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 



141 



ones among them. Almonds should not be partaken of largely 
with the brown covering on, but are better to be blanched. 

To Blanch Almonds- -Throw them into perfectly boiling water, 
let them come to the boiling point again, drain, pour cold water 
over them and slip the skins off with the thumb and finger. 
Drop the meats on to a dry towel, and when they are all done, 
roll them in the towel for a moment, then spread them'on plates 
or trays to dry. They must be dried slowly as they color easily, 
and the sweet almond flavor is gone when a delicate color only, 
is developed. For butter they must be very dry, really brittle. 

Brazil Nuts castanas cream nuts, do not require blanching, 
as their covering does not seem to be objectionable. They are 
rich in oil and are most valuable nuts. Slice and drv them for 

/ 

grinding. 

Filberts hazelnuts cobnuts Barcelonas, also may be eaten 

J 

without blanching, though they may be heated in the oven 
(without browning) or put into boiling water and much of the 
brown covering removed. They are at their best unground, as 
as they do not give an especially agreeable flavor to cooked 
foods. They may be made into butter. 

Brazil nuts and filberts often agree with those who cannot use 
English walnuts and peanuts. 

English Walnuts- -The covering of the English walnut is ir- 
ritating and would better be removed when practicable. This is 
done by the hot water method, using a knife instead of the 
thumb and finger. The unblanched nuts may however, be 
used in moderation by nearly every one. 

Butternuts and black walnuts blanch more easily than the 
English walnut. 

\Yhen whole halves of such nuts as hickory nuts, pecans or 
English walnuts are required, throw the nuts into boiling water 
for two or three minutes, or steam them for three or four min- 
utes, or wrap them in woolen cloths wrung out of boiling water. 



142 THE LAUREL 

Crack, and remove meats at once. Do not leave nuts in water 
long enough to soak the meats. 

Pinemits come all ready blanched. When they require wash- 
ing, pour boiling water over them first, then cold water. Drain, 
dry in towels, then on plates in warm oven. 

Peanuts ground nuts, because of their large proportion of 
oil, and similarity in other respects to nuts are classed with them, 
though they are truly legumes. 

The Spanish peanut contains more oil than the Virginia, but 
the flavor of the Virginia is finer and its large size makes it eas- 
ier to prepare. The 'Jumbos" are the cheapest. 

To blanch Spanish peanuts the usual way, heat for some 
time, without browning, in a slow oven, stirring often. When 
cool rub between the hands or in a bag to remove the skins. 
The best way to blow the hulls away after they are removed is 
to turn the nuts from one pan to another in the wind. 

Spanish peanuts can be obtained all ready blanched from the 
nut food factories. 

The Virginias, not being so rich in oil must always be blanched 
the same as almonds. Be sure to let them boil well before 
draining. I prefer to blanch the Spanish ones that way, too, 
the results are so much more satisfactory. 

When peanuts are partly dried, break them apart and remove 
the germ, which is disagreeable and unwholesome: then finish 
drying. 

A FEW SUGGESTIVE COMBINATIONS 

For Using Nuts in the Simplest Ways 

Brazil nuts, filberts or blanched almonds with:- 
Fresh apples, pears or peaches; 

Dried, steamed or stewed figs, raisins, dates, prunes, apple 
sauce, baked apples or baked quinces: 

Celery, lettuce, cabbage, tender inside leaves of spinach, 
grated raw carrot or turnip; 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 

Breakfast cereals, parched or popped corn, well browned gran- 
ella, crackers, gems, zwieback, Boston brown and other breads; 

Stewed green peas, string beans, asparagus, corn, greens, po- 
tatoes, squash, cauliflower, all vegetables; 

Pies, cakes and different desserts when used. 

Nut Butter 

A good nut butter mill is an excellent thing to have, but but- 
ter can be made with the food cutters found nowadays in almost 
every home. If the machine has a nut butter attachment, so 
much the better; otherwise the nuts will need to be ground re- 
peatedly until the desired fineness is reached. 

For almond butter, blanch and dry the almonds according to 
directions, adjust the nut butter cutter, not too tight, put two 
or three nuts into the mill at a time, and grind. When the al- 
monds are thoroughly dried they will work nicely if the mill is 
not fed too fast. 

Brazil nuts and filberts need to be very dry for butter. 

Pine nuts are usually dry enough as they come to us. 

All nuts grind better when first dried. 

Rai^ peanut butter is a valuable adjunct to cookery. To make, 
grind blanched dried nuts; pack in tins or jars and keep in a dry 
place. 

For steamed butter, put raw butter without water into a double 
boiler or close covered tins and steam 3-5 hours. Use without 
further cooking in recipes calling for raw nut butter. 

Or, grind dried boiled nuts the same as raw nuts. For imme- 
diate use, boiled nuts may be ground without drying. 

When roasted nut butter is used, it should be in small quanti- 
ties only, for flavoring soups, sauces or desserts. 

My experience is that the best way to roast nuts for butter is 
to heat them, after they are blanched and dried, in a slow oven, 
stirring often, until of a cream or delicate straw color. By this 
method they are more evenly colored all through. Do not salt 



144 THE LAUREL 

the butter, as salt spoils it for use with sweet dried fruits as a 
confection, and many prefer it without salt on their bread. 

The objection to roasted nuts is the same as for browning any 
oil. Raising the oil of the nuts to a temperature high enough 
to brown it, decomposes it and develops a poisonous acid. 

Hardly too much can be said of the evil effects of the free use 
of roasted nut butter. 

"There are many persons who find that roasted peanuts eaten 
in any quantity are indigestible in the sense of bringing on pain 

and distress Sometimes this distress seems to be due to 

eating peanuts which are roasted until they are very brown.' 
Marv Hinuian Abel, Farmers'' Bulletin, No. 121, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Nut Meal 

Nut meal is made the same as nut butter except that the nuts 
are ground fewer times through the finest cutter of the mill, or 
once only through the nut butter cutter loosely adjusted. Either 
cooked or raw peanuts may be used, but a cooked peanut meal is 
very desirable. The nuts may be cooked, dried and ground, or 
cooked without water, after grinding, the same as steamed nut 
butter. 

When one has no mill, meal of many kinds of nuts may be 
made in the following manner: 

Pound a few at a time in a small strong muslin bag; sift them 
through a wire strainer and return the coarse pieces to the bag 
again with the next portion. Be sure that not the smallest 



particle of shell is left with the meats. 

A dear friend of mine used to keep jars of different nut meals 
prepared in this way on hand long before any manufactured ones 
were on the market. 

One writer says:- 'The children enjoy cracking the nuts and 
picking out the meats, and it is a short task to prepare a cupful.' 

Cooked nuts and some raw ones may be rubbed through the 
colander for meal. 



TRUE MEATS--NTTS 145 

Nut meals are used for shortening pie crust, crackers and sticks; 
and all except peanut, are delightful sprinkled over stewed fruits 
or breakfast foods. 

Nut Butter for Bread 

Nut butters (except raw peanut) may be used on bread as they 
are ground; but are usually stirred up with water to an agreeable 
butter-like consistency, and salt added. 

Strained tomato may be used instead of water for a change. 
This is especially nice for sandwiches. With peanut butter 
made from boiled or steamed nuts it has a flavor similar to cheese. 

Nut butter is more attractive for the table when pressed through 
a pastry tube in roses on to individual dishes. Use a cloth (not 
rubber) pastry bag. 

While pure nut butter, if kept in a dry place, will keep almost 
indefinitely, it will sour as quickly as milk after water is added 
to it. 

Nut Cream and Milk 

Add water to nut butter until of the desired consistency, for 
cream; then still more, for milk. 

Almond milk makes a delightful drink and can be used by 
many who cannot take dairy milk. It may be heated and a tri- 
fle of salt added. 

Cocoanut Milk 

If you have not a cocoanut scraper, grate fresh cocoanut, one 
with milk in it, or grind it four or five times through the finest 
cutter of a mill. Pour over it an equal bulk or twice its bulk, of 
boiling water, according to the richness of the milk desired or 
the quality of the cocoanut. Stir and mix well and strain through 
cheese cloth or a wire strainer. Add a second quantity of hot 
water and strain again, wringing or pressing very dry. Throw 
the fibre away. 

Use cocoanut milk or cream for vegetable or pudding sauces or 
in almost any way that dairy milk and cream are used. Stir be- 



146 THE LAUREL 

fore using. To break the nut in halves, take it in the left hand 
and strike it with a hammer in a straight line around the center. 
It may be sawed in two if the cups are desired for use. 

Cocoanut Butter 

Place milk on ice for a few hours when the butter will rise to 
the top and can be skimmed off. 

Ground or Grated Cocoanut 



Is delightful on breakfast cereals, or eaten with bread in place 
of butter. The brown covering of the meat should first be 
taken off. 

Shredded Cocoanut 

Put any left-overs of prepared cocoanut on a plate and set in 
the sun or near the stove to dry. keep in glass jars in a dry 
place. This unsweetened cocoanut can be used for shortening 
and in many places where sweet is not desirable. 

Milk and Rich Cream of Raw Peanuts 

May be prepared the same as cocoanut milk, except that cold 
or lukewarm water is used instead of hot. 

To raw nut meal (not butter) add one half more of water than 
you have of meal. Mix and beat well, strain through a thin 
cloth, squeeze as dry as possible. Let milk stand in a cool place 
and a very rich cream will rise which may be used for shorten- 
ing pie crust, crackers and sticks, or in place of dairy cream in 
other ways. The skimmed milk will be suitable for soups, stews 
or gravies. It may be cooked before using if more convenient. 
The pulp also may be used in soups. It should be thoroughly 
cooked. 

Nut Relish 

Different nut butters and meals may be combined in varying 
proportions. For instance, 2 parts Brazil nuts, I part each pine 
nuts and almonds; or I part each Brazil nuts, almonds, pecans, 
and pine nuts. Dry nuts well and grind all together or combine 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 147 

after grinding. Press into tumblers or small tins and stand in 
cool place. Unmold to serve. The relish may be used in com- 
binations suggested for whole nuts, and it is a great improve- 
ment over cheese, with apple pie. 

Toasted Almonds 

When blanched almonds are thoroughly dried, put them into 
a slow oven and let them come gradually to a delicate cream 
color, not brown. These may be served in place of salted 
almonds. 

Sweetmeats of fruits and nuts will be found among confections. 

COOKED NUT DISHES 

Nut Croquettes 

i cup chopped nuts (not too fine), hickory, pecan, pine or 
butternuts, or a mixture of two with some almonds if desired; 2 
cups boiled rice or hominy, I T A tablespn. oil or melted butter, 
salt, sage. Mix, shape into rolls about I in. in diameter and 
2^/2 in. in length. Egg and crumb; bake in quick oven until 
just heated through and delicately browned, 8 to TO m. Serve 
plain or with any desired sauce or vegetable. 

Nut Croquettes No. 2 

i cup chopped nuts, I cup cooked rice, any desired seasoning 
or none, salt; mix. 

Siiiu'c 2 tablespns. oil i egg or yolk only or 

/^ cup flour no egg 

i-i % cup milk salt 

Heat but do not brown the oil, add half the flour, then the 
milk, and when smooth, the salt and the remainder of the 
flour, and combine with mixed nuts and rice. Cool, shape, egg, 
crumb, bake. Crumb also before dipping in egg the same as 
Trumese croquettes, if necessary. Bake only until beginning to 
crack. Serve at once. 

Savory Nut Croquettes 

i cup stale, quite dry, bread crumbs, l /> cup (scant) milk or 



148 THE LAUREL 

consomme, l /\.- l /2 level teaspn. powdered leaf sage or winter 
savory, /^ cup black walnut or butternut meats, salt. Mix, 
shape, egg, crumb, bake. 

i cup chopped mixed nuts may be used and celery salt or no 
flavoring. Hickory nut meats alone, require no flavoring. 

Nut and Sweet Potato Cutlets 

1 cup chopped nut meats i tablespn. butter 

2 cups chopped boiled sweet i egg 

potato salt 

Mix while warm. Pack in brick-shaped tin until cold. Un- 
mold, slice, egg, crumb or flour. Brown in quick oven or on 
oiled griddle. Serve plain or with sauce 16 or 17. 

^ Baked Pine Nuts 

After picking out the pieces of shell, pour boiling water over 
2 Ibs. of pine nuts in a fine colander. Rinse in cold water and 
put into the bean pot, with 2 large onions sliced fine, i-iK cup 
strained tomato and 2-2^/2 teaspns. salt. Heat quite rapidly at 
first; boil gently for a half hour, then simmer slowly in the oven 
10-12 hours or longer. Leave just juicy for serving. 

Black Walnut and Potato Mound 

Mix i qt. nicely seasoned, well beaten mashed potato, ^-i 
cup chopped black w T alnut meats and 2 or 3 tablespns. grated 
onion. Pile in rocky mound on baking pan or plate. Sprinkle 
with crumbs or not. Bake in quick oven until delicately 
bro\vned. Garnish and serve with sauce 6 or 16. 

Nut and Bice Boast or Timbale 

1-2 cups chopped nuts, one kind or mixed (no English wal- 
nuts unless blanched), 2 cups boiled or steamed rice, i/^-S table- 
spns. oil or melted butter, salt. 

Mix ingredients and put into well oiled timbale mold or in- 
dividual molds or brick shaped tin. Bake covered, in pan of 
water 2^-1 */4 hr. according to size of mold. Uncover large 



TRUE MEATS- -NUTS 149 

mold a short time at the last. Let stand a few minutes after 
removing from oven, unmold, and serve with creamed celery 
or peas or with sauce 16 (cocoanut cream if convenient) or 34. 
Loaf may be flavored, and served with any suitable sauce. 

Loaf of Nuts 

2 tablespns. raw nut butter butternuts hazelnuts, and 

y$ cup whole peanuts cooked hickory nuts) 

almost tender 2 cups stale bread crumbs 

YZ cup each chopped or ground pressed firmly into the cup 

pecans, almonds and filberts (or salt 

%-i cup water or i of milk 

The quantity of liquid will depend upon the crumbs and other 
conditions. Put into oiled mold or can, cover, steam 3 hours. 
Or, have peanuts cooked tender, form into oval loaf, bake on 
tin in oven, basting occasionally with butter and water or salted 
water only. Serve with sauce 9, 10, 57. 59, or 69. Loaf may 
be served cold in slices, or dipped in egg, and crumbed, 
and baked as cutlets. 

Other nuts may be substituted for peanuts. 

One-half cup black walnuts and I ^ cup cooked peanuts, 
chopped, make a good combination. A delicate flavoring of 
sage, savory or onion is not out of place with these. 

To Boil Peanuts 

Put blanched, shelled peanuts into boiling water and boil con- 
tinuously, for from 3-5 hrs., or until tender. (When the alti- 
tude is not great it takes Virginias 4 or 5 hours and Spanish 
about 3 to cook tender). 

Drain, saving the liquid for soup stock, and use when boiled 
peanuts are called for. 

Nut Soup Stock 

Use the liquid, well diluted, poured off from boiled peanuts, 
for soups. Large quantities may be boiled down to a jelly and 
kept for a long time in a dry place. If paraffine is poured over 
the jelly, it will keep still better. Use I tablespn. only of this 
jelly for each quart of soup. 



I5O THK LAUREL 

Peanuts with Green Peas 

Boil i cup blanched peanuts 1-2 hrs., drain off the water and 
-;ive for soup. Put fresh water on to the peanuts, add salt and 
rinish cooking. Just before serving add I pt. of drained, canned 
peas. Heat well. Add more salt if necessary, and serve. Or, 
i pt. of fresh green peas may be cooked with the nuts at the last. 
Small new potatoes would be a suitable addition also. 

it Peanuts Baked like Beans 

i Ib. ( y\ qt.) blanched peanuts %-i tablespn. browned flour 
/^ cup strained tomato i/^-i/^ teaspn. salt 

Mix browned flour, tomato and salt, put into bean pot with 
the nuts and a large quantity of boiling water. Boil rapidly ^ 
hr., then bake in a slow oven 8-14 hours. Add boiling water 
without stirring, when necessary. When done the peanuts 
should be slightly juicy. 

Small dumplings steamed separately, may be served with 
baked peanuts sometimes. 

Baked PeanutsLemon Apples 

Pile peanuts in center of platter or chop tray. Surround 
with lemon apples, garnish with grape leaves and tendrils or 
with foliage plant leaves. 

Peanuts with Noodles or Vermicelli 

Cook peanuts in bouillon with bay leaf and onions, just be- 
fore serving, add cooked noodles or vermicelli. 

Nut Chinese Stew 

Use boiled peanuts instead of nutmese and raw nut butter, 
and rice (not too much) in place of potato, in Nut Irish Stew. 

Peanut Gumbo 

Simmer sliced or chopped onion in butter; add i pt. ste\ved 
okra; simmer 5-10 m. Add i pt. strained tomato, then Y^-i qt. 
of baked or boiled peanuts. Turn into a double boiler and add 
% cup boiled rice. Heat 15-20 m. 



TRUE MEATS NUTS I 5 I 

Hot Pot of Peanuts 

Put layers of sliced onion, sliced potatoes and boiled peanuts 
into baking dish with salt and a slight sprinkling of sage. Cover 
the top with halved potatoes. Stir a little raw nut butter with 
water and pour over all. Cover with a plate or close fitting 
cover and bake 2 hours. Remove cover and brown. 

Peanut Hashes 

Cooked peanuts, chopped very little if any, may be used in 
place of trumese with potatoes or rice for hash. 

Bread, cracker or zwieback crumbs may be substituted for po- 
toto or rice. 

Peanut German Chowder 

i pt. cooked peanuts i level tablespn. browned flour 

1 large onion 2 level tablespns. white flour 

2 tablespns. chopped parsley i pint milk 

/'z medium sized bay leaf i pt. thin nut milk or broth 

Y% level teaspn. thyme small biscuit of universal dough 

i small carrot oil or melted butter 

Split biscuit and brown slowly in the oven. Slice or chop 
carrots and onions and mix together; mix thyme, broken pieces 
of bay leaf, both kinds of flour and salt, and pour into them 
gradually, stirring, the milk and broth. 

Put a little oil in the bottom of a baking dish, then layers of 
the vegetables, peanuts and twice baked biscuit and pour some 
of the liquid over. Repeat layers, leaving biscuit on top. Pour 
remaining liquid over all. Sprinkle with what remains of the 
chopped parsley. Cover and bake 1/^-2 hrs. in a moderate 
oven. Uncover and brown on top at last. Serve in the dish 
in which it was baked. 

With care, the chowder may be cooked in a kettle by using 
more oil at the bottom, standing where the heat is not too in- 
tense, and replenishing with water when necessary. 

Serve on a platter or turn into a tureen with a cup of hot 
rich milk or broth added if more liquid is desired. 



152 THE LAUREL 

The flavoring may be varied; savory and marjoram are some- 
times used, garlic for some tastes, also a little tomato. The 
herbs may be omitted entirely. Crackers may take the place of 
biscuit. Xut milk only, may be used. 

Peanut and Rice Croquettes 

2 cups boiled or baked peanuts 1^2 tablespn. oil 
2 cups boiled rice sage, savory or chopped onion 

salt 

Chop nuts very little if at all. Mix all ingredients. Shape, 
egg, crumb, bake. Serve plain or with sauce 6, 44, 57, or 72. 

Peanut Pie 

Universal crust of ^-i cup of liquid, I qt. of peanuts boiled with 
salt and a little lemon juice, drained (liquid saved for soups and 
gravies). Chopped onion and parsley. 

Sa/tce 

5 tablespns. oil and melted 6 tablespns. flour 

butter or all butter i qt. boiling water 

salt 

Mix butter and flour, pouring boiling water over, boil up, add 
salt, and half of onion and parsley; pour into oiled baking dish, 
put peanuts in, sprinkle remainder of onion and parsley over, 
cool to lukewarm, lay crust on, let rise, bake. 

A pastry, rice or mashed potato crust (without eggs) may be 
used : if pastry, put a cup in the center of the pie to support 
the crust ; with potato crust it would be better to simmer th^ 
onion in the oil of the sauce first. 

Peanut Pie with Turnip Crust 

Bake or boil peanuts (leaving quite dry when done) with 
sliced onion and a little carrot, browned flour and a little tomato, 
parsley, salt and celery salt, a trifle of thyme and garlic if desired. 
Thicken slightly, turn into baking dish, cover with mashed tur- 
nip, sprinkle with crumbs and chopped parsley, dot with butter 
or oil. Bake until top is nicely browned. 



TRUE MEATS- NUTS 153 

Cups or pastry shells may be used in place of large dish for 

Nut Scallops. 

if Peanut Cheese 

YZ lb. peanuts, boiled, ground; 5-5 Y& tablespns. Nut French 
soup or consomme which has been cooked down thick; 4 eggs, I 
teaspn. salt, a trifle of sage if desired. Mix all ingredients and 
put into well oiled porcelain or glass jars (if glass, follow direc- 
tions for cooking trumese in glass), cover close and steam 

1^2-2 hrs. 

Pine Nut Cheese 

YI lb. coarse pine nut butter 3-4 tablespns. water 

4 tablespns. thick tomato pulp, 1-1/4 teaspns. salt 

either red or yellow tomatoes 

Steam 3-4 hrs. 

Pine Nut and Banana Cheese 

/4 ib. coarse pine nut butter 1-2 tablespns. water 

5 tablespns. banana pulp 1/4 level teaspn. salt 

Steam 3-4 hrs. 

Fruit and Nut Relish 

I cup fine chopped nuts shell barks, almonds, pine nuts, 
cashews and English walnuts or other combinations; I cup ba- 
nana pulp, Y teaspn. salt; mix all together, pack in mold, steam 
3 hours. Serve cold in slices, with gems, wafers, sweet fruits 
or cakes. Nice for travelling lunches. 

Almond Cheese 

Y* lb. blanched almonds 2 eggs 

4 tablespns. tomato pulp /^-/4 teaspns. salt 

Cook almonds 5 hours; grind through nut butter cutter, or 
press through fine colander; add other ingredients, mix well, 

steam I ^2-2 hrs. 

Almond Confection 

YI lb. almond butter 3 tablespns. water 

Y* level teaspn. salt - 1 cup fine cut citron 

5 r - ; tablespns. banana pulp 16 candied cherries cut fine 



154 THE LAUREL 

Bake 1-2 hours (according to size of loaves) in slow oven. 
Cherries and citron may be ground through food cutter- -finest 
knife. 

^3 cup very finely-cut raisins and % cup hickory nut meats, 
in pieces, may be used instead of citron and cherries. 

if Nesselrode Confection---Peanut 

/4 lb. raw Virginia peanut 1/4 tablespn. well washed and 

butter dried currants 

5/ / 3 tablespns. banana pulp i/4 tablespn. fine cut citron 

4 tablespns. water 2 tablespns. pieces hickory nut, 

YI teaspn. salt black or English walnut meats 

3 tablespns. raisins cut fine with shears 

Mix. Bake 1^2-2 hours in very slow, just warm, oven, on 
pad. 

TRUMESE 

Many years ago when experimenting with gluten washed from 
wheat, the thought came to me that it would be a good thing if 
it could be combined with nuts, as the nuts would supply the oil 
lacking in the gluten. From former experiments I knew it would 
be a difficult problem, but it \vas finally solved and has resulted 
in giving to the world a valuable food product, which gives me 
great joy. 

I give directions (the results of my own experimenting) for 
making this food as perfectly as it can be made in our homes 
without the aid of special machinery. 

Whether it pays to make it or not depends on the value of 
our time or whether we can procure similar foods all ready pre- 
pared. (Similar manufactured foods on the market are called 
''protose,' 'nutfoda" and 'nut cero", according to \vhere they 
are made). 

A part of the process will be entirely new to many but it is 
not at all difficult, and if directions are carefully followed the 
result will be success and soon the making of a quantity of ' 4 tru- 
mese, " as I have called it for convenience, will not be considered 
a greater task than baking a batch of bread. 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 155 

The first thing of importance in making trumese is securing a 
good, fresh bread flour one that is called a heavy flour, not 
a blended or a light flour. 

A good bread flour will yield about two pounds of gluten to 
each seven pounds of flour: but in trying a brand with which 
vou are not familiar, take %-i Ib. more if you wish to have two 

*/ +* 

pounds of gluten. 

I give the recipe for two pounds of gluten, but if you are 
making trumese for the first time it may be well to take half 
that quantity. 

The following suggestions will enable you to substitute meas- 
ures for weights if you have no scales, and to calculate the rec- 
ipe for trumese: 

i scant qt. of bread flour, laid lightly in the measure, equals I Ib. 
I scant qt. of washed gluten equals 2 Ibs. 

I scant pt. of blanched, dried, Virginia peanuts, before grind- 
ing, equals % Ib. 

i scant half pt. of Virginia butter equals l /2 Ib. 

I good Y^ pt. blanched, dried, Spanish peanuts, before grind- 
ing, equals l /z Ib. 

i good Y% pt. of Spanish butter equals l /2 Ib. 
i large ^ qt. of pine nuts equals I Ib. 
Spanish peanuts require 3 hours for cooking. 
Virginia peanuts require 4-5 hours for cooking. 

In mixing flour and water, calculate a little over i cup of water 
to each pound of flour, or 8^2-9 cups for / Ibs. 

The starch from the first one or two washings of the gluten 
dough may be used wherever thickening is required; and for 
blanc mange, by adding it to boiling (sweetened or unsweetened) 
milk until of the right consistency to mold; or, for starching 
clothes. It is much better than whole flour for anv of these 

*/ 

purposes. It may also be used in place of the corn starch in 



156 THE LAUREL 

Corn Starch Nutmese. No exact rule can be given for that, 
but a trial or two will enable one to calculate the quantity, and 
and the nutmese is superior to that made with corn starch. 

Make consommes double strength when using them for liquid 
in trumese. As a rule, it is better to make trumese plain and 
season as desired when preparing for the table. 

If cans containing trumese do not leak, cook in a kettle of 
water with something beneath the cans, otherwise use a steamer. 
\1 glass jars are used, start in cold water and afterwards put into 
steamer, if preferring not to leave in kettle. 

Trumese from peanuts is more satisfactory in flavor as well as 
cheaper, but to meet all cases I give recipes for making it of 
different kinds of nuts. The general directions will apply to all. 

Trumese 

2 Ibs. gluten 3^2 teaspns. salt 

y^ lb. raw Virginia peanut 2-2 /^ cups very strong cereal 

butter coffee 

/^ lb. Virginia peanuts cooked 4 hrs. 

If not sure of a pure cereal coffee use 4 teaspns. browned flour 
with 2 cups of water. 

Steam 6-12 hrs., or steam 5 hrs. and bake I hr. in a^r/Tslow 
oven. 

The cooked peanuts are boiled and drained and the liquid 
saved for soups. 

TO PREPARE THE GLUTEN 

When sifted flour is weighed or measured, spread about /^ of 
it on the molding board and put the remainder in a pan. To 
this add cold water, stirring, until you think the dough when 
kneaded with the flour on the board will be very stiff. Stir the 

j 

soft dough well, turn it on to the board and knead in the remain- 
ing flour. If dough is too soft it will waste in washing, and if 
too stiff (of which there % is not much danger) it will be more 
difficult to wash. 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 157 

After kneading return the dough to the pan, cover with cold 
water (or with several thicknesses of towel wrung out of cold 
water) and let it stand ^ hr. only. 

Now, set the pan in the sink with a large fine colander in the 
dish drainer beside it. Let water run from the faucet to nearly 
rill the pan (if the water from the faucet is very cold, have a 
teakettle of hot water at your right hand to take off the chill) 
and work the dough with the hands until the water is thick with 
starch. Pour that through a strainer into some vessel where it 
can settle, to be used for any of the purposes mentioned. Con- 
tinue to wash the dough, draining the water through the colan- 
der (so as to catch any particles of gluten) into the sink, until no 
starch remains in the water. You now have the part of the 
wheat which gives strength, the proteid element. Put the mass 
of gluten into a bowl, cover and let stand in a cold place about 
an hour (no longer,) draining occasionally. 

Weigh out the 2 Ibs. of gluten, run it through the food cutter 
with the finest knife, add the cooked and raw nuts which have 
been ground into butter and mixed together with the salt, and 
put all through the machine five or six times. If desired very 
fine, use the nut butter cutter the last time. Now mix with the 
cereal coffee, put into oiled cans with close fitting covers and 
steam. Sealed glass jars may be used if it is necessary to keep 
the trumese for some time, but it cannot be taken out of them 
in as good shape. 

Another way to fill the cans is to divide the nut and gluten 
mixture into equal parts, put equal parts of the liquid into as 
many different cans, and run each part of the mixture through 
the mill again into the separate cans, or drop it into the cans in 
the shreds in which it comes from the mill. This may give a 
little better fibre. 

Another way of preparing the whole. Cut the gluten into 
pieces with the shears; mix the cooked and uncooked nuts with- 
out grinding; put a piece of gluten into the mill, then a few nuts, 



158 THE LAUREL 

grinding, until all are through. Sprinkle salt over the mass and 
put it through the mill five or six times more, the last time with 
the nut butter cutter. This gives a coarser grained trumese, 
but is an easier way. 

A still easier way is to use all cooked nuts, but the trumese is 
a little tasteless to eat as it comes from the can. In making it, 
use 4^/2 teaspns. of salt and 2 cups of liquid only. 

Trumese No. 2 

Larger proportion of nuts 

i Ib. gluten 24 lb. cooked nuts or butter 

}h lb. raw nuts or butter 3 teaspns. salt 

about i % cup cereal coffee 

Steam 6-12 hrs., or steam 5 hrs. and bake I hr. When baked 
i hr., use about 1% cup cereal coffee. 

Red Kidney Bean Trumese 

i lb. gluten 3/^-4 teaspns. salt 

/^ lb. raw nut butter 7 tablespns. (large half cup) 

/^ lb. (i/^ cup) red kidney beans cereal coffee 



Cook beans until tender and dry, rub through colander, com- 
bine with other ingredients and finish as for nut trumese. 

Pine Nut Trumese 

i lb. gluten 3-4 teaspns. browned flour 

i lb. pine nuts, raw about 2/4 cups water 

3 teaspns. salt or cereal coffee and no browned flour 

Almond Trumese 

i lb. gluten 2/^2-3 teaspns. salt 

i lb. almonds, raw, blanched 2 cups water, scant 

With both Almond and Pine Nut trumese it is better to grind 
the gluten and nuts together first. 

English Walnut Trumese 

i lb. gluten 2/^2 teaspns. salt 

i lb. English walnut butter i/^-i^ cup water 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 159 

Brazil Nut Trumese 

i Ib. gluten 2/^-3 teaspns. salt 

i Ib. Brazil nut butter about 2 cups cereal coffee 

Cashew Nut Trumese 

i Ib. gluten 3 teaspns. salt 

i Ib. cashew nuts, ground about 2/3 cups cereal coffee 

A little sage or savory if desired 

TRUMESE DISHES 

Trumese may be cut down the center, if loaf is round, laid on 
its flat surface, sliced and served with celery, olives, apples, salt 
and oil, oil and lemon juice; Chili, chutney, apple or gooseberry 
sauce or jelly. 

When serving trumese to any one for the first time, prepare 
it in some of the hot ways, either broiled with a nice sauce, or 
in cutlets or pie perhaps, since many people would not be favor- 
ably impressed w r ith it cold, until their taste had been educated 
to it. 

''Taste is a matter of education.' We naturally like what 
w r e have been accustomed to. 

Trumese Salad Entree. Better than Sardines 

i tablespn. chopped parsley 24- 1 teaspn. celery salt 

y tablespn. chopped onion /^ cup olive oil 

y^-i teaspn. salt Y$ cup lemon juice 

Mix dry ingredients, add oil, then lemon juice slowly, stirring. 
Pour this over I Ib. of trumese which has been cut in suitable 
shapes and laid in a flat pan. Let stand 2 hrs. or longer. Serve 
on lettuce leaves or with garnish of tomato and lemon. 

Broiled Trumese 

Lay slices of trumese on a well oiled hot, not burned, griddle 
and brown delicately on both sides. Or, brush lightly with oil, 
lay in a shallow pan and put into a hot oven. Or, broil in a 
wire broiler over coals or over or under a gas blaze. Serve with 
sauce 6. 12. 16. 17. 51. 54. 57. or 73 or with almost any of the meat 



I6O THE LAUREL 

;md vegetable sauces; with apple sauce, baked apples, lemon 
apples or jell}"; with green peas, string beans, creamed corn or 
any creamed vegetables; with cabbage or celery in tomato or 
with stewed onions. It may also be served on or around a 
mound of boiled rice with lentil or brown gravy, or with pilau 
or mashed Irish or sweet potatoes. 

Trumese Jelly Sauce 

Add jelly or jelly and lemon juice to melted butter in a sauce 
pan and when hot dip slices of broiled trumese in the sauce, lay 
them on a platter and pour sauce over. 

Trumese and Italian Sauce on Biscuit or Dumplings 

Lay steamed dumplings or split biscuit on platter, pour hot 
sauce over and cover or surround with slices of broiled trumese. 

if Trumese with Poached Egg 

Broil round slices of trumese and serve with a nicely poached 
egg on each slice. Do not forget the parsley garnish. The tru- 
mese and soft poached egg make a delightful combination. 
Cream sauce poured over the slices of trumese before the eggs 
are put on makes a very rich dish. 

^ Trumese and Eggs 

Mix nut butter smooth with w^ater or tomato, add chopped 
ripe olives. Spread round slices of broiled trumese with the 
mixture, just warm in oven and slide a nicely poached egg on to 
each. 

if Trumese with Mushrooms 

Lay slices of broiled trumese on platter with crisp toast points 
surrounding. Place broiled mushrooms on trumese, pour hot 
(not browned) melted butter over and serve. 

if Trumese a la Mode 

Cook together chopped onion and carrot and fine sliced celery, 
drain and spread over slices of broiled trumese which have been 



TRUE MEATS NUTS l6l 

laid on an agate baking pan. Add a little fresh or stewed tomato, 
a trifle of fresh or powdered thyme and a very little chopped 
fresh mint. Sprinkle with chopped parsley. Mix salt, a little 
celery salt, browned flour, butter or oil and hot water and pour 
over all. Bake in a slow oven, covered part of the time. In 
serving, lay trumese carefully on platter, cover with vegetables 
remaining in pan and pour liquid, if any, over. 

Parsley and sliced carrots make an appropriate garnish, but 
the dish is well garnished of itself. 

A whole brick-shaped loaf, or halves of round loaves laid the 
flat side down in a pan, may be used instead of slices of trumese. 

Vegetables may be put under as well as over the trumese. 

The following combinations may be substituted for the one 
given: 

Chopped raw carrots and onion, thyme, bay leaf, browned 
flour, butter and oil and consomme. Bake, covered most of the 
time, when the raw vegetables are used. A gravy of nut butter, 
tomato and water, thickened, may be used instead of the con- 
somme. 

Celery, carrots, turnips, onions, bay leaf, parsley, salt, browned 
and white flour, oil or butter, water. 

Onion, tomato, garlic, parsley, butter or oil, browned flour, 
salt, water. This sauce may be thickened a little and the whole 
served on boiled rice, the Mexican way. 

it Trumese in Tomato 

This is one of the most satisfying preparations and is just as 
good cold as warm. 

Pour enough slightly salted, strained or unstrained stewed to- 
mato over the bottom of a granite pan to cover it well. Lay 
Y in. slices of trumese in the tomato and heat all in a moderate 
oven until the trumese has absorbed the tomato and is well dried. 
If too moist, the character is not developed. The pulp in the 
pan is all the sauce that is required. Ripe olives are an excel- 
lent accompaniment. 



10-' I' I IK LAI KKI 

Truinese with Onions 

Lay slices of broiled trumese in baking pan, rover with sliced 

onions and sprinkle with salt mixed with browned Hour. Pour 

a little oil, melted butter or nut cream over. Add a little water 
when necessary. Cover and hake until onions are tender. l\e- 
inove rover at the last. Make gravy of the remains in the- pan 
after trumese is removed by adding water and thickening. Strain 
into a bowl or over trumese. May serve on boiled rice. 

Spanish Truinese 

('over 'Trumese with Onions" with stewed, or raw sliced, 
tomatoes about ' hour before it is done and make gravy the same. 

Trumese Smothered with Bananas 

Cover slices of broiled trumese with sliced bananas, sprinkle 
lightly with salt, pour a little lemon juice over and bake until 
bananas arc- soft. Serve hot or cold. 

Trumese Baked with Onion Dressing 

Place layers of broiled trumese in a pan with a little water, cover 
with a dressing made' in the proportion of 2 cups bread crumbs, 
2 chopped onions, I level tablespn. butter or oil and 2 beaten eggs. 
Bake, covered, l /> hour, uncover and brown on top grate. Make 
gravy in pan by adding consomme and thickening, after the tru- 
mese and dressing are removed. Or, lay slices of stale bread 
over trumese, cover with sliced onions and a little oil, sprinkle 
with salt and bake I hour covered. 

if Trumese Cutlets 

Dip slices of trumese in egg beaten with salt and water, I 
teaspn. of water to each egg. Roll in fine zwieback, cracker or 
bread crumbs. Brown in hot oven. Serve at once, plain or 
with any desired sauce. 

The yolk or white of egg only with salt and a teaspoon of wa- 
ter may be used. Sometimes, substitute lemon juice for water 
with the yolk. 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 163 

Again, stir 2 level tablespns. raw nut butter with I ^4-2 
tablespns. of water and add to I egg with salt and chopped onion 
or any desired flavoring. 

i-i l /2 tablespn. cream to an egg makes a rich dipping mixture. 

Lemon Kings---Parsley Butter 

Cream butter, add finely-chopped parsley and place paste in 
pyramids in the center of thick slices of lemon; serve with plain 
cutlets. Paste to be spread on hot cutlet and lemon squeezed 
over by each individual. Many enjoy a mince of green onions 
and garlic in the parsley butter. 

Imperial Cutlets 

Dip trumese in batter of I egg, I level tablespn. thick tomato 
pulp, a little grated onion, browned flour and salt ; then in crumbs. 
Bake and serve with string beans or greens. 

Savory Cutlets Mashed Potato 

Use salt, a trifle of sage and I tablespn. grated or chopped 
onion (no water) with the egg. Crumb; bake, and serve on or 
around mound of mashed potato with drawn butter. 

it Batter Cutlets 

Batter- 2 tablespns. oil 2 eggs 

3-4 tablespns. flour stale bread crumbs 

1/4 cup boiling water salt 

Heat but do not brown oil in sauce pan, stir in flour, add 
water, stirring smooth. Remove from fire, add eggs and salt 
and a few bread crumbs. 

Broil slices of trumese on one side, turn and drop a small 
spoonful of the batter on each. When broiled on the other side, 
turn again, leaving the batter next to the griddle and drop an- 
other spoonful on the trumese, turning again when the first bat- 
ter is delicately browned. Serve (without sauce) as soon as 
second side is browned. 

Or, drop spoonfuls of batter on a hot, well oiled baking pan, 



164 THE LAUREL 

lay slices of broiled trumese on each and spread another spoon- 
ful of batter on top of each slice; bake in a quick oven. 

if Green Corn Cutlets 

Batter- - 2 tablespns. oil or butter i teaspn. sugar if corn is 
3 tablespns. flour old 

7& cup boiling water 3 tablespns. dry or toasted 
y^-^A cup grated or ground bread crumbs 

green corn i egg 

Cook batter and use with trumese the same as batter cutlets. 

Batter No. 2 

I pt. grated corn (if canned, grind through food cutter), 2 eggs, 
with dry or toasted bread crumbs to make a batter thick enough 
to bake well, salt. If corn is dry, add a little milk or cream; if 
very moist, add oil or butter only. 

Use with trumese the same as batter cutlets. 

Ragout (Stew) of Trumese 

Thicken bouillon or consomme to the consistency of thin 
cream. Add trumese cut into dice and simmer for 20 m. or 
longer. Serve plain in tureen, or on toast, or in rice or mashed 
potato border. 

When noodles, or macaroni in any form are to be added to the 
stew, simmer a bay leaf and more onion in the bouillon before 
thickening; garlic also if liked. 

One day we added some water drained from spinach to con- 
somme, thickened it and added a little cream the trumese and 
some nutmese, and we had a choice combination. 

Ragout of Trumese No. 2 

Trumese; onion, garlic, browned flour, tomato, bay leaf ; juni- 
per berries crushed, one teaspoon to a quart of stew. 

Stewed Hashed Trumese 

Simmer hashed trumese in bouillon or consomme until just 
moist. Serve on toast, thin crackers or rice: or put trumese 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 165 

into cream sauce and serve on toast with or without a poached 
egg on each slice of toast. 

Trumese for Luncheon or Second Course 

1 pt. trumese in dice /^ cup cream 

2 level tablespns. butter 2 hard boiled eggs 

2 level tablespns. flour i tablespn. orange juice flavored 

Y?, cup milk with rind of orange 

salt /^-i teaspn. vanilla 

Rub butter and flour together over the fire, add milk and salt. 
Rub the yolks of the eggs to a paste with the cream and stir 
into the sauce, then add trumese and sliced whites of eggs. 
Heat to just boiling, remove from fire, stir in quickly the flavored 
orange juice and vanilla and serve at once. y& cup mush- 
rooms may be added with the trumese. In that case, the mush- 
room liquor may form a part of the liquid instead of the whole 
half cup of milk. 

Trumese with Truffles and Mushrooms 

2 tablespns. butter 2 mushrooms 

3 tablespns. flour yolks of 2 eggs 

i pt. hot milk rings of green onion tops or 

1 teaspn. grated onion shreds of lettuce 

2 truffles /&-% teaspn. celery salt 

salt 

Melt butter in saucepan, add flour and milk, stirring until 
smooth. Add the onion and yolks of eggs, then truffles and 
mushrooms which have been cut into small pieces and simmered 
(without browning) in butter, then the onion tops or shreds of 
lettuce and the celery salt. Let all come nearly totheboilingpoint 
and serve over broiled trumese without delay. 

if Trumese and Mushrooms a la Creme 

i Ib. trumese 2 tablespns. chopped onion 

i can (i cup) mushrooms 4-5 tablespns. flour 

zwieback, cracker crumbs % cup water 

or granella /^ cup cream 

3-4 tablespns. oil 3 /i teaspn. salt 



I 66 THE LAUREL 

Simmer onion (without browning) in oil, add flour, water, 
cream and salt. When smooth, remove at once from fire and 
mix in lightly the mushrooms in halves or quarters and the tru- 
mese in small dice. Put into scallop dish, or pile in the center 
of shells. Sprinkle lightly with crumbs or granella and bake in 
a quick oven until a delicate brown and just heated through. 
When shells are used they should be set in a dripping pan and 
baked on top grate of oven. They must not bake too long. If 
the.shells are the large silver ones, they can be prettily garnished. 
Serve on small plates, with delicate unfermented bread and cel- 
ery if desired. Small patty pan shells of pie paste may be used. 

When this dish was served at a diplomatic dinner in Washing- 
ton, one of the guests pronounced it "sweetbreads" and could 
not be convinced to the contrary. 

Trumese and Celery a la Creme Substitute i/^ CU P ( T /4 pt- 
before cooking) stewed celery for the mushrooms; or for 

Trumese and Macaroni a la Creme- -Use I cup small maca- 
roni which has been cooked with a little garlic in the water; or for 

Trumese and Oyster Plant a la Creme- -Take I % cup cooked 
oyster plant, and use the liquor in which it was cooked in place 
of water for the sauce. 

Trumese en Casserole 

i qt. onions, sliced or quartered \Y\ cup water 

i pt. turnip diced 1-2 teaspns. browned flour 

i pt. carrots, quartered and sliced 2/^-3 teaspns. salt 

y\-\ pt. celery, sliced i bay leaf in small pieces 

3 tablespns. raw nut butter or meal slices of broiled 

% cup tomatoes trumese 

Put vegetables in pudding dish in order given, with a piece of 
bay leaf occasionally. Mix butter, browned flour, salt, toma- 
toes and hot water and pour over them. Lay slices of broiled 
trumese over all; cover and bake in a rather hot oven i-i /^ hour 
Sprinkle with chopped parsley. Set dish on large plate or tray, 



TRUE MEATS NUTS l6/ 

pin folded napkin around and send to table. If preferred, 
thicken liquor slightly before pouring it over the vegetables, 
and bake 15 m. longer. 

if if Trumese Pie 

Sprinkle fine chopped onion and parsley in baking dish and 
lay in slices of trumese (part nutmese if desired). Repeat the 
same until about I Ib. of trumese has been used. Sprinkle last 
with onion and parsley. 

Sauce -Rub together 5 tablespns. oil or melted butter and 5 
or 6 tablespns. of flour. Add I qt. of boiling water, boil up, 
add salt and pour over trumese. When cool enough, cover with 
biscuit of universal crust. Cover and let stand in a warm place 
until crust is very light, then bake in a moderate oven about % of 
an hour. Cover with paper or asbestos sheet if the crust be- 
comes brown before baking is finished. It is well to have some 
extra sauce to serve with the pie. This dish is a general favor- 
ite. Finely-sliced celery or I teaspn. of celery salt or ^ teaspn. 
of sage may be substituted for the onion. 

if Rice and Trumese Pie 

Boil i cup of rice in salted water. When done add ^ cup 
of milk; spread over above pie instead of universal crust and 
bake at once, covered most of the time. Use the 6 tablespns. 
of flour in making sauce for rice crust. 

Nicely seasoned, not too moist mashed potato, without egg, 
may be used for crust, A little chopped parsley mixed with the 
potato makes it more attractive. 

A pastry crust not quite so rich as for fruit pies is nice also; 
put a small cup or mold in the center of the dish to hold it up. 

Savory Sauce or Vegetable Gravy may be poured over 
chopped or sliced trumese, and a nicely seasoned stuffing used 
for the crust, for a different pie. Slices of hard boiled eggs may 
be combined with trumese. 



1 68 THE LAUREL 

All Ready Crusts 

When keeping house I nearly always have on hand crusts, 
either raised or pastry, baked on tins about the size of my pud- 
ding dish, so that I can lay them over the top of pie fillings or a 
nicely seasoned stew and just heat them through in the oven. 
Small pastry crusts, the size of individual dishes, are very con- 
venient sometimes. 

Trumese ShortcakeItalian Sauce 

Add trumese in small dice to hot Italian sauce; heat to 
boiling and pour over split hot shortcake crust, in two layers. 

Serve shortcake on chop tray or platter, suitably garnished. 

Cream of mushroom or Boundary Castle sauce may be used 
the same. 

Trumese Scallop with Cracker Crumbs 

Sprinkle cracker crumbs in bottom of dish with chopped on- 
ion and the least bit of powdered sage. Pour a little sauce 
No. 41 over and cover with a thin layer of minced trumese. 
Continue these layers, pour a larger quantity of sauce over the 
last layer of trumese, then sprinkle with crumbs, dot with but- 
ter and bake till well heated through and delicately browned 
over the top. 

Onion and sage may be omitted. Zwieback crumbs may be 
used instead of cracker, and sauce No. 8 or 46 in place of 41 for 
other scalloped dishes. 

Trumese Pot Pie 

Well oil the inside of a kettle. Place in it the filling and 
crust for trumese pie, making the sauce with I or 2 tablespns. 
less of flour. When crust is light, set the kettle covered tight, 
over a 'moderate fire, and when it comes to the boiling point let 
it just simmer for 30-35 m. without removing the cover. It may 
be necessary to very carefully place an asbestos pad under the 
kettle during the latter part of the cooking. Serve with dump- 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 169 

lings around edge of platter, and trumese with gravy in center. 

The dumplings may be steamed on a pie pan (perforated if 
convenient) and laid over the filling which has been baked in a 
pudding dish as for trumese pie. 

A nicely seasoned trumese stew may be served with a border 
of small steamed dumplings, and other varieties of pot pie may 
be made according to taste and convenience. 

^ Trumese Boiled Dinner New England Style 

Raw nut butter, a little browned flour and tomato, salt, car- 
rots in 1-2 in. lengths, according to thickness, turnips in sections 
or thick slices, cabbage in quarters or eighths according to size, I 
beet (white if possible), pared and cut into four pieces, onions, 
whole, cut at right angles ^ f tne wav U P from the root end, 
potatoes pared and cut into equal sizes, winter squash in large 
pieces, pared, slices of broiled trumese, parsley. 

Oil the bottom of the kettle. Mix in it the nut butter, 
browned flour, salt and tomato, adding as much boiling water as 
necessary to cook the dinner. When the liquid is boiling put 
in the cabbage, carrots, turnips and beet. In about an hour, 
add the onions; then in 3// o f an hour the potatoes, with the 
squash laid inside down over the whole. When all are done, 
if you have a very large platter, lay pieces of squash around the 
edge with cabbage overlapping and the other vegetables in the 
center, with slices of broiled trumese around and sprays of pars- 
ley for garnish. The liquid remaining in the kettle, with a lit- 
tle water added if necessary, may be strained and served as 
gravy for the vegetables. The more nearly dry the vegetables 
can cook without scorching the better, /;/// do not let them score Ji. 
The squash need not be used, but it would not be a boiled din- 
ner to a New Englander without it. 

Steamed dumplings may be served with the dinner. 

Timbales of Rice--Trumese Stuffing 

Line a well oiled mold /^-i inch deep (according to size of 



I/O THE LAUREL 

mold) with hot cooked rice. Fill nearly to top with mixture of 
Elsa's roll, spread rice over top. Cover with oiled lid and 
steam l /2,-^/i of an hour. Serve with sauce 8, 12, 36 or 48, or 
any desired sauce. 

Hot hominy grits (which have been cooked 2-3 hrs. in double 
boiler in proportion of I cup of grits to 3 of water) may be used 
in place of rice; also cold boiled macaroni chopped fine, with I 
egg added to each pint of macaroni. 

jc Trumese Timbale--Boundary Castle Sauce 

i^4 cup stale (or i good cup /^ cup raw nut butter 

dry) bread crumbs % teaspn. powdered bay leaf 

i cup hot water /4 teaspn. powdered sage 

^2 Ib. trumese V^-^A teaspn. salt 

2 eggs 

The nut butter may be omitted and 2 cups of stale (i % dry) 
crumbs used. Use the crust as well as the center of the loaf of 
bread. Soak crumbs in the water until soft, then stir over the 
fire until smooth and dry enough to leave the sides of the pan. 
Remove from the fire, add trumese chopped fine, bay leaf, sage, 
salt, nut butter and yolks of eggs. Beat until well mixed and if 
convenient rub through a fine colander, then add the whites of 
the eggs beaten a little. Press into a well oiled mold, which 
may have been garnished with truffles, and steam i l /> hour. Let 
stand a moment after taking from the steamer, then invert upon 
the center of the platter. Serve with Boundary Castle sauce, 
which is the crowning feature of the dish. 

The timbales may be made in a round mold, or in individual 
molds and served on a chop tray. Omit herbs if preferred. If 
truffles are used for garnishing, the cuttings may chopped and 
added to the loaf. 

if Trumese and Rice Timbale, Roast or Loaf 

This is one of the simplest and most convenient prepara- 
tions, and is as delicious as it is convenient. 



TRUE MEATS NUTS I /I 



2 cups minced trumese /-/ cup of oil or melted but- 

2 cups boiled or steamed rice salt [ter 

Mix the ingredients thoroughly and put into a timbale mold 
or brick shaped bread tin, a covered can, or individual molds; 
steam, or bake in pan of water (covered until the last) ^4-1 J/2 
hour according to size of loaf. Serve with creamed celery, peas, 
some of the mushroom sauces, a plain cream or any desired sauce. 

Rice Timbale--Trumese and Asparagus Tips 

Partly fill buttered timbale mold, round or oblong, with hot, 
nicely cooked rice. Unmold on to tray or platter, surround with 
slices of broiled trumese standing against the sides of the mold. 
Pour a little drawn butter around on the dish, and lay clusters 
of cooked asparagus tips around the edge. Serve with plenty of 
the sauce. Sauce may be flavored with onion and parsley. 

Elsa's Roll of Trumese 

3 pts. minced trumese i cup cracker dust or gran- 
2 eggs / cup milk [ella 

salt 

Shape into a large roll; bake l /2 hour, basting occasionally 
with oil or butter, and water. Serve with any desired sauce or 
accompaniment. 

Cannelon of Trumese 

i pt. minced trumese 1-3 teaspns. chopped onion 

(or part nutmese) i teaspn. chopped parsley 

iYs tablespn. butter or oil salt 

Form into roll, cover with pastry crust, fastening well at the 
ends, and bake in moderate oven 20-30 m. Serve with 16, 34 
or any desired sauce. Shelled whole hard boiled eggs may be 
put into the center of the roll for a novelty, when desired. 

Trumese Rissoles, Pasties or Turnovers 

Cut pastry crust into circles the size of a large saucer or small 
plate. Lay a spoonful of the filling of Cannelon of Trumese on 
one side of each; fold the other side over (after moistening 



1/2 THE LAUREL 

edges) like a turnover. Bake. Nice for travelling lunches. 

if Trumese Souffle 

i pt. chopped or ground trumese i tablespn. butter 

1 cup milk 4 eggs 

2 tablespns. flour i teaspn. salt 

Stir flour smooth with part of the milk, heat the remainder to 
boiling, add flour and cook until thickened. Remove from fire and 
add butter, trumese, salt and beaten yolks of eggs; then chop in 
the stiffly-beaten whites. Put into baking dish, custard cups or 
molds. Set into pan of hot water and bake (covered part of the 
time with oiled paper) in slow oven 20-30 m., or until firm in 
the center. ^ nutmese may be used. 

^ Trumese Croquettes 

/4 lb. trumese i tablespn. grated onion 

/^ teaspn. celer}^ salt, or /4 teaspn. powdered sage 

i/4 tablespn. fine cut celery 2 teaspns. chopped parsley 

Chop trumese fine, mix with other ingredients, stand in cool 
place until sauce is made. 

Sauce 2 tablespns. oil 2 tablespns. grated onion 

c/ 3 cup browned flour No. i i teaspn. browned flour No. 3 
Y?. cup white flour % cup strained tomato 

i teaspn. salt 

Mix onion, browned flour No. 3, salt and tomato in pint meas- 
ure, fill the measure with boiling water. Heat the oil, rub half 
the flour into it, add the boiling liquid, and when smooth, add 
the remainder of the flour, stirring well; cook thoroughly over a 
slow fire. Remove from fire, chop in lightly the trumese mix- 
ture and cool. When cold, shape into rolls about three inches 
long and I inch in diameter, roll in fine toasted bread or cracker 
crumbs, dip in beaten egg and roll again in crumbs. Bake in 
quick oven 10 m., or until croquettes begin to crack a little and 
are a delicate bro\vn, If baked too long, or if they stand long 
after baking they will lose their shape. Serve plain, or with 
mushroom sauce, or jelly, or jellied cranberries, or with peas 
creamed, or seasoned with butter and salt only. Well made 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 1/3 

croquettes require no sauce. I sometimes plan to have creamed 
potatoes with trumese croquettes. 

This quantity will make twelve croquettes. They may be 
shaped into cones if preferred. 

In making more than once the recipe, use a little extra flour, 
as the evaporation is less in proportion. One secret of success 
with croquettes is to have the mixture as soft as possible to shape. 
In shaping, drop the soft mixture on to the crumbs by spoonfuls, 
lift carefully from beneath (so as not to get anv of the crumbs 

fc' Cj / 

inside the croquettes), and shape deftly with the fingers; then 
roll in the crumbs, taking care that the ends are well covered. 
Drop from one hand to the other to remove the loose crumbs 
and lay croquettes on a plate or board until all are crumbed the 
first time. (With some mixtures, the fingers may be dipped in 
oil and the croquettes shaped neatly before putting into the 
crumbs). For dipping, have eggs beaten slightly with salt and 
water, I teaspn. of water to each egg. Dip the croquettes into 
the mixture with the left hand only, see that the ends are mois- 
tened with the egg, drop on to a flat dish of crumbs, with the 
right hand roll them until they are well covered, and lay on to 
the pans in which they are to be baked. 

All ready croquettes may be kept in a cold place for a day or 
two before baking when necessary. 

if Trumese Croquettes No. 2 

Chop or grind trumese to make ^-i qt. Add i l /z-2 teaspns. 
salt, 2 tablespns. each chopped parsley and grated onion. Fine 
cut celery may be used instead of onion. 

Sauce Rub to a smooth paste 5^ tablespns. of flour and 
2-3 of butter or oil. Pour I pt. of boiling milk over slowly, 
stirring. Boil well, add trumese, mix, cool. When cold, form 
into croquettes, dip in egg, roll in crumbs, bake. 

if Brother Barnett's Savory Trumese and Rice Croquettes 

Use recipe f orTrumese and RiceTimbale, p. 1 70. Flavor with sage 



1/4 THE LAUREL 

or winter savory, shape into croquettes, bake. Serve with sauce 
4, 9, 12, 44 or 54. You will be surprised to see how nice these 
are. Cooked hominy grits or chopped boiled macaroni may be 
used in place of rice. 

Russian Croquettes 

Cover small rolls of Elsa's roll, p. 171, or of filling for cannelon 
of trumese, p. 171, with pastry crust. Bake. Serve with eighths 
of red apples, sections of orange or with baked bananas, or with 
any suitable sauce or vegetable. 

if Trumese and Potato Hash 

Put trumese and double the quantity of cold potatoes (those 
cooked in their jackets until nearly tender being ideal) through 
food cutter, using next to the coarsest cutter. (If chopping by 
hand, be sure not to chop too fine, especially the potatoes.) 
Mix carefully. Simmer without browning, chopped onion in oil. 
Add the mixed trumese and potato, pour consomme or nicely 
seasoned gravy over and set in the oven to heat, and brown 
over the top. If obliged to finish on top of the stove, set back, 
on an asbestos pad, and heat slowly, covered. 

The onion may be mixed with the trumese and potato, all put 
into a baking dish, nut butter stirred to a cream with consomme 
poured over and the hash baked for Y-\ hour. Finely-sliced 
celery, celery salt, or any of the sweet herbs, powdered, may be 
substituted for the onion. Sage may be used occasionally with 
the onion. 

Trumese and Rice Hash 

Use boiled or steamed rice in place of potato in the preceding 
recipe. 

NUTMESE 

y? Ib. Virginia peanuts, raw 2 teaspns. salt 

i Ib. Virginia peanuts, cooked /'i cup water 

Grind both cooked and raw nuts into butter, add salt and 
water, mix well, put into oiled tins. Steam 5 hrs. or bake I hr. 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 1/5 

in slow oven on asbestos pad. May cook in sealed glass jars, 
following directions p. I 56, for trumese in glass jars. 

Use a trifle less w r ater for Spanish peanuts. 

Cereal coffee or consomme may be used in place of water. 

All ready prepared foods similar to nutmese are variously 
named "nuttolene", :< nutmete" 'nutcysa" and 'nut loaf ," ac- 
cording to where they are made. 

Tomato Nutmese 

X Ib. Virginia peanuts, raw 5~5/^ tablespns. thick tomato 

1 Ib. Virginia peanuts, cooked pulp (strained tomato 

2 teaspns. salt cooked down) 

Cook same as nutmese, having oven very slow in baking. 

Cornstarch Nutmese 

The following recipe makes a very palatable preparation for 
those who can use the starch; but meat substitutes should be 
made without starch. 

3 cups raw Spanish nut meal, 3-3 /^ teaspns. salt 

or coarse butter i cup cold water 

i cup cornstarch 3 cups boiling water 

Stir dry ingredients with the cold water, then add the boiling 
water gradually, stirring. Cook the same as nutmese. Use a 
little more water with Virginia nuts. See suggestion p. 155, 
for using starch washed out of gluten dough, in place of corn 
starch. 

NUTMESE DISHES 

Nutmese of nuts only, is suitable to serve with breads of all 
kinds instead of butter. It takes the place of cheese nicely with 
apple pie and may be served sliced, with Chili, apple, grape and 
different fruit sauces or with jelly. 

Nutmese Cottage Cheese 

Take the broken pieces of nutmese left from slicing, press 
them through a wire strainer, add salt and enough lemon juice 



1/6 THE LAUREL 

to give the slight tartness of cottage cheese. Use plenty of salt 
and not too much lemon juice. Mix well and press through the 
strainer again. Shape into balls and roll in chopped parsley. 

Carefully Broiled Nutmese may be served with creamed pars- 
nips or celery on toast, or with mint sauce, tomato and tomato 
cream sauce, and nearly all the sauces and vegetables with which 
trumese is served. It is especially nice with green peas. 

Tomato Nutmese and Eggs 

Lay y inch slices of broiled tomato nutmese on thin pieces 
of toast of the same shape and place a soft poached egg on each. 
Garnish with parsley. 

Use soft scrambled eggs instead of poached sometimes. 
Nutmese and Rice with Peas Sauce 

Add chopped parsley and cooked green peas to tomato cream 
sauce which has been flavored with onion, and pour sauce over 
a lo\v, rocky mound of rice surrounded by broiled nutmese. 

Nutmese with Baked Beans 

Score nutmese of the desired shape, on one side. Broil the 
scored side carefully and set in the oven to just warm through. 
Place in center of platter, pile baked beans around and garnish 
with parsley and lemon. Nutmese made in an oblong, square- 
cornered tin would be very suitable in shape. 

String beans \vhich have been cooked whole with raw nut 
butter in the water may be used in place of baked beans, and 
French dressing or Sauce Americaine poured over. 

^ Nutmese Cutlets are made the same as trumese cutlets, 
p. 162, except that nutmese cutlets are better with granella 
than with bread crumbs. 

if Nut Irish Stew- -a universal favorite 

In 2 qts. of salted water to which have been added 4 or 5 
tablespns. of raw nut butter, cook from 4-6 large onions sliced 



TRUE MEATS NUTS 177 

thin, and 3 pts. to 2 qts. of potato cut into irregular pieces about 
an inch in diameter. 

When the potatoes have cooked enough to give a little con- 
sistency to the stew, drop in pieces of nutmese in strips about 
i l /2 in. long and ^ in. thick. Heat without stirring. Serve. 

Nutmese in Cream of Tomato Sauce 

makes a delightful stew. It may be served alone, on toast, in 
rice border, or in mashed bean border. Cut nutmese into dice 
and add to sauce just long enough before serving to heat through. 
Do not stir. 

Add nutmese to Cream of Spinach soup when you have some 
left over and you have an enjoyable meat dish with very little 
trouble. 

Nutmese and Green Peas with New Potatoes 

Serve in cream or drawn butter sauce. Old potatoes cut in 
small pieces may be used. 

Nutmese a la Creme 

Y\ lb. nutmese 3 hard boiled eggs 

Break nutmese into irregular pieces with a fork and mix it with 
the eggs, chopped coarse and ^ teaspn. salt. 

Sauce 

l /i cup oil or melted butter water to leave stiff, about i pt. 

X-/^ cup chopped onion i egg, or the yolk only 

Y\ cup flour i teaspn. chopped parsley 

salt 

Add onion to hot oil and simmer slowly without browning, for 
10 m. Add flour, rub smooth, pour on hot water, stir until 
smooth and well cooked. Remove from fire, add parsley, salt 
and beaten egg. Put sauce, and nutmese with eggs, into pud- 
ding dish, in layers, with sauce on top. Sprinkle with crumbs, 
corn meal or browned flour No. i. Bake in moderate oven until 
bubbling all through and delicately browned on top. 

We sometimes use a little garlic, and sometimes a little cream 



THE LAUREL 

with a very little strained tomato in the sauce. Another is 

made with the following sauce and finished the same as the 
preceding : 

Saitfc No. 2- -Rub % cup pastry flour smooth with water; 
pour it gradually into I pt. of boiling milk, stirring until smooth. 
Pour this over 2 beaten eggs or yolks only. Add I teaspn. each 
chopped onion and parsley, and ^-i teaspn. salt. 

The sauce must be very stiff or the character of the dish is 
spoiled. 

A tablespn. of butter may be added when the sauce is taken 
from the fire, if desired richer. 

Nutmese and Oyster Plant in Shells 

Use nutmese and oyster plant in place of trumese and mush- 
rooms, in Trumese and Mushrooms a la Creme, and the liquor 
in which the oyster plant was cooked instead of water in the 
sauce. 

Scallop of Nutmese and Tomato 

Layers of crumbs, thin slices of nutmese and tomato sauce or 
tomato cream sauce, or slices of tomato and a thick cream sauce; 
have sauce on top, sprinkle with crumbs, bake. 

Use chopped or grated onion with tomato if desired. Sauce 
Imperial may be used. 

if Nutmese and Corn 

Place nicely seasoned, canned or grated fresh corn in layers 
with dice or small pieces of nutmese. Sprinkle with cracker 
dust or browned flour No. i. Heat in moderate oven, This 
simple dish is very pleasing. 

Nutmese Pie with Potato Crust 

Prepare nutmese pie the same as trumese pie, p. 167. Cover 
with nicely seasoned mashed potato. Pour a little cream, oil or 
melted butter over and bake until top is delicately browned. 

Sprinkle with chopped parsley, or, chopped parsley may be 



TRUE MEATS NUTS I 7Q 

mixed with the potato. Universal or rice crust may be used. 

Hashed Potato Crust for Nutmese 

Use sauce No. 9 with nutmese and cover with well seasoned 
hashed or hashed creamed potatoes and brown in oven. 

Nutmese and Potato Pie with Pastry Crust 
Use sauce 43 or 14 with or without sage and onion, drop into 
it chunks or slices of fresh boiled potato, lay thin slices of nut- 
mese over, cover with pastry crust and bake in moderate oven. 

Apple and Nutmese Pie 

Make the same as apple pie, using enough less apple to make 
room for a layer of nutmese, and only about half as much sugar. 
Serve for luncheon or early supper, 

Nutmese Croquettes or Patties 

Use nutmese in recipe of trumese croquettes, No. 2. Shape 
into patties if preferred. Serve with green peas or on a bed of 
mashed turnip sprinkled with chopped parsley. 

Nutmese may be used instead of trumese in many dishes not 
mentioned. 

TKUMESE AND NUTMESE DISHES 

Nut Fricassee 

Put equal quantities of trumese and nutmese in small pieces 
into baking dish. Pour nut and tomato bisque, p. 93, over and 
bake in moderate oven until nicely browned. 

if Nut Fricassee with Rigatoni 

i-i% cup rigatoni 2 or 3 inferior stalks of celery 

i Ib. nutmese with tops on 

%-i Ib. trumese nut butter, flour 

salt, water, cream 

Make a thin nut gravy, simmer in it the stalks of celery, 
bruised and tied together (for convenience), and the cooked 
rigatoni. When the sauce is well flavored, remove the celery 



ISO THE LAUREL 

and add the nut meats cut into convenient pieces; and lastly, 
a little cream. 

Rigatoni is macaroni in large, round, corrugated pieces. 

A few green peas may be served on each plate with the 
fricassee. 

if Nut Corn Pudding 

Put layers of sliced trumese and nutmese in baking dish and 
sprinkle finely-sliced celery between. Cover with green corn 
pudding, p. 1 1 6, sprinkle with crumbs and bake 20-30 m. in 
moderate oven. If canned corn is used bake only long enough 
to heat through and brown over the top. Serve at once. 

Nut Pastry Pie 

Line as deep a pie pan as you have with a rich pastry crust; 
cover the bottom with a thin layer of cold drawn butter, sprinkle 
with chopped onion and parsley and lay on very thin slices of tru- 
mese and nutmese. Fill the pan in this way. Cover with crust as 
for fruit pies and bake. Slip on to chop tray and garnish with 
parsley or spinach leaves. Cut the same as fruit pies and serve 
with drawn butter. The pie may be sent to the table in the 
pan in which it was baked. It may be served as a complete 
course, or with celery, jelly, or small boiled onions. It may also 
constitute the principal dish of a luncheon. 

^ Cream Timbales of Trumese and Nutmese 

% cup each minced nutmese /4 cup milk 

and trumese 5 tablespns. heavy cream 

i cup soft white bread crumbs whites of five eggs 

Put the bread crumbs and milk in a sauce pan or double boiler 
over the fire, stir until smooth. Remove from the fire, cool, 
add trumese and nutmese which have been rubbed to a cream 
together. Stir all very smooth. Add salt and cream and rub 
through a fine colander. Chop in the stiffly-beaten whites of 
eggs. Put into small timbale molds which have rounds of but- 
tered paper in the bottom, decorated with truffles or not. Set 




PROTOSE TIMBALE WITH INDIVIDUAL SPINACH SOUFFLES 




NUT PASTRY PIE, P. l8o 



TRUE MEATS ROASTS l8l 

in pan of hot (not boiling) water. Cover with oiled paper and 
bake in moderate oven about 20 m., or until firm in the center. 
Remove molds from water, carefully. Let stand a moment. 
Invert on to thin rounds of toast and place in center of chop 
tray or platter. Surround with tiny molds of jelly, button 
mushrooms, green peas, or small spoonfuls of thick cream sauce, 
according to the sauce to be served with them, whether a cream 
or creamed mushroom sauce. 

Trumese alone may be used for the timbales. 

ROASTS 

Roasts are among the most popular of vegetarian dishes. In 
the home, in sanitariums and in our vegetarian restaurants they 
are always in demand. Except soups there are no dishes that 
we are so often asked to give the recipes for as our roasts. We 
always plan to have left-overs that will be good for them, as 
the proper combination of different ingredients is very satisfying, 
and richer flavors are often developed by reheating foods. 

When we start to make a roast, we gather up the suitable 
ingredients: for instance, a few baked beans or mashed lentils, 
a little cold boiled rice, some tomato macaroni, a nut cutlet or 
two, perhaps one or two croquettes, a spoonful or so of tomato, 
some boiled onions, a few peas or string beans or baked peanuts, 
may be a little corn, and the vegetables strained out of a soup 
from the day before; throwing them one after another into a 
pan. Then we often add a handful of nut meats, chopped or 
whole, a little sage, sometimes sliced celery or chopped onion, 
occasionally a little browned flour; never potatoes unless an in- 
finitesimal quantity. Then we scatter over some coarse bread 
or zwieback crumbs or granella and pour on consomme, broth or 
gravy, some soup we happen to have, or water, and add one or 
more beaten eggs, according to the number and size of the 
loaves; just enough to hold the ingredients together. The eggs 
may be omitted, but we are more sure that the roast will turn 



I 82 THE LAUREL 

out of the tin well without being too solid, by using them; then, 
too, they add to the nutritive value of the roast. 

Mix well, but not to pastiness, adding more crumbs or liquid 
as required to make a rather soft mixture. Allowance must be 
made for the swelling of the crumbs, if they are very dry, and 
the thickening of the eggs. More salt may be necessary but not 
much if the foods were seasoned before. The roast should 
not be as salt as the gravy that is to be served with it. 

When of the desired consistency put the mixture into well 
oiled molds or brick shaped tins, taking care that the corners 
are well filled. Brush the tops with oil or melted butter or 
pour a little thin cream over. Bake in a moderate oven in a 
dripping pan or covered baker without water until the roast is 
well heated through and the eggs set, then pour boiling water 
into the baker, cover and bake for an hour or so longer. Re- 
move from oven, let stand a few minutes, invert on platter, 
lifting mold carefully, garnish, and send to table with a suitable 
sauce. Some of the meaty flavored sauces are most appropriate. 
The pieces of nut meat in the roast add much to the pleasure of 
masticating it. Roasts may be warmed over by setting in pan 
of hot water in the oven. 

Cutlets of Roast 

Cut cold roast into not too thin slices. Egg and crumb, or 
flour only. Bake or broil and serve with or without a sauce. 
Some such accompaniment as stewed onions or carrots is enjoy- 
able. Cutlets may be served on a bed of pilau. 

Below are given the ingredients of a few roasts that were 
made in a small institution at different times. 

No. 1 

Some macaroni strained out of the soup from the day before, 
a little nutmese a la creme, some trumese cutlets, hard boiled 
eggs, a little nutmese, sage, crumbs, eggs, consomme. The 
nutmese was put in the center of the loaf in a layer. 



TRUE MEATS ROASTS 183 

NO. 2 

Stewed red kidney beans ground, egg macaroni ground, dry 
zwieback ground, a few nuts, eggs, consomme, nutmese in 
layers. Served with Sauce Imperial. 

No. 3 

Baked peanuts, rice, garlic, a little melted butter, savory 
tomato gravy (made with tomato, Chili sauce, bay leaf and a 
little cream) a very little sage, eggs, crumbs, soup. 

No. 4 

Macaroni, rice, peas puree, trumese cutlets, some trumese in 
tomato, and nutmese, laid in the center of the loaf. Sage, 
eggs, crumbs, soup. 

Brazil Nut and Lentil Roast 

3 cups coarse, dry bread crumbs i YZ cup chopped Brazil nut 
3 cups mashed lentils ( i /^ cup 2 teaspns. salt [meats 

before cooking) 2 cups hot water 

Mix all ingredients, using more or less water according to 
dryness of crumbs. Press into brick shaped tin or any con- 
venient mold; brush with oil or cover with thin cream. Bake 
in moderate oven until well heated through, then set in pan of 
hot water, cover and finish baking. Serve with sauce 6. 9. 10. 

16 or 17. Flavorings of onion and browned flour, or of sage 
may be used if desired. 

Rice and stewed lentils are good ingredients for the foundation 
of a roast. 

Black Walnut Roast 

5 cups medium dry bread i YZ teaspn. sage or winter 

crumbs savory 

2 cups coarse chopped black 1^2 teaspn. salt 

walnut meats 2/^2 cups hot water 

Bake as Brazil nut and lentil roast. Serve with sauce 16. 

17 or 45. 



I 84 THE LAUREL 

LEGUMES 

The mature, dry seeds only are considered under this head. 

Legumes- peas, beans and lentils form an important part of 
the vegetarian dietary, containing as they do a so much larger 
proportion of the muscle-building material than flesh meats, and 
being at the same time inexpensive. 

Another advantage is that they are grown in considerable va- 
riety in nearly all countries. 

We have beans white, large and small; colored, of all shades 
and sizes; peas dry, green and yellow, split and whole, chick 
peas and other varieties; lentils German or Austrian, red or 
Egyptian. The ground nut or peanut is also a legume. 

Chick peas are found in the Italian groceries or macaroni 
stores. They have a rich flavor peculiar to themselves. 

The Soy bean, most common in China and India, has almost 
no starch and is richer in oil than any other legume. 

The legumes require a prolonged, slow cooking to render them 
digestible and to develop their rich flavors. The hulls of some 
are difficult of digestion. It is for this reason that we suggest 
rubbing legumes through a colander in so many recipes. Exper- 
iments have proven, also, that a larger percentage of their nu- 
tritive value is assimilated when the hulls are excluded. 

Parboiling causes beans to be flat and tasteless; then the need 
is felt of a piece of pork or at least a lump of butter; while if 
they are put at once, without soaking, into the water in which 
they are to be cooked, their own rich, characteristic flavor 
(which nothing can replace) will be retained. 

The large, dark flowering beans and a few other colored ones 
are exceptions, and should be parboiled, as their flavor is so rich 
that it may be denominated "strong.' 

Nearly all legumes for stewing or baking should be put into 
boiling salted water (most authorities to the contrary notwith- 
standing), to keep them from cooking to pieces and to preserve 
their color and flavor. In sections where the altitude is great, 



TRUE MEATS LEGUMES 185 

however, legumes must be soaked for several hours and be put 
to cooking in cold, soft water; even then a longer time will be 
required for cooking than nearer the sea level. 

The water may be rendered soft by boiling and settling, if 
necessary, Soft or distilled water will cause legumes to be more 
digestible at any altitude. Rain water is the very best. Most 
legumes about double in bulk in cooking. 

if Mashed Lentils 

"Rice is good, but lentils are my life.' -Hindu proverb. 

Do not waste time by looking lentils over by handfuls, but 
put them into a large, flat colander, give them a shake or two to 
remove the fine dirt, slide them to one side of the colander, 
then with the fingers draw a few at a time toward you, looking 
for particles of sand or gravel. Pick these out but do not pay 
any attention to the w r heat, chaff or poor lentils. Those will 
come out in the washing in much less time than it takes to pick 
them out and if a grain or two of wheat is left it will do no harm. 

When you are sure all the gravel is out, set the colander into 
a dish pan and pour cold water over the lentils. Stir with the 
hand until all but the waste matter has settled to the bottom; 
then carefully pour the water off. Repeat the process until all 
objectionable substances are removed. Rinse the colander up 
and down in water, drain the lentils and put immediately into a 
large quantity of boiling water in a broad-bottomed vessel. (The 
shape of the utensil has much to do with the drying out without 
scorching.) 

Let the lentils boil fast for a short time, then simmer without 
stirring. If they are stirred after they begin to soften they will 
scorch. Now r keep the vessel over a slow, even fire until the 
lentils are well dried out. The drying may be finished in the 
oven if the dish is covered so the lentils will not become hard 
on the top. This drying is imperative. It develops a rich flavor 
that we do not get without it. 



I 86 THE LAUREL 

\Yhen well dried, add a little water and rub the lentils, a few 
at a time, through a fine colander with a potato masher. (Do 
not deceive yourself by thinking that you can get along faster by 
putting a large quantity into the colander at once.) 

Throw the hulls into a dish of boiling water. At the last, 
stir the hulls well and rub again in the colander, reserving what 
goes through this time for soups and gravies. 

When all the lentils are through the colander (of course care 
should be taken to keep them hot during the process), add plenty of 
salt and beat until smooth and creamy. Keep hot in a double 
boiler, covered, till serving time. Beat again just before serv- 
ing. Serve piled in rocky form or in smooth mound on hot plat- 
ter (or in a hot covered dish if to be long on the table), with dif- 
ferent garnishes; a wreath of celery tops, sprays of parsley or 
chervil, spinach leaves or cooked vegetables. Serve with sauce 
1 6, 17, 53 or 54. 

Do not be afraid of the simple dishes; they are the best. 

Mashed LentilsRice 

Make well in center of lentil mound and fill with sauce 8, 53 
or 54. Surround mound with hot boiled rice; garnish with green. 

^ Mashed Peas 

Prepare dried green peas the same as mashed lentils. Serve 
with sauce 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 57 or 59. 

Sauce i, flavored or not, combines nicely with peas. Serve 
mashed peas and rice with sauce 16 sometimes. 

Mashed Beans 

Sauce 16, 18, 19, 34, 57, 58 or 72, or Mayonnaise or French 
dressing are all suitable for mashed beans. Some beans will all 
go through the colander in mashing. 

^ Variegated Meat 

Put different colored mashed legumes, for instance, red and 
white beans, or red and white beans and green peas, lentils and 



TRUE MEATS LEGUMES l8/ 

white beans (sometimes red beans also), green peas and red 
beans, yellow peas and red or black beans, or green and yellow 
peas, red and and white kidney beans and green peas, or red and 
black beans with green peas into a mold or a brick-shaped tin 
dipped in cold water, in straight or irregular layers. Press down 
close, cover and set in a cold place until firm. Unmold and 
slice, or, send loaf to table whole on platter garnished with let- 
tuce or spinach leaves. Pass Improved Mayonnaise (with 
chopped parsley) or French dressing, olive oil or Chili sauce. 
This makes a good summer Sabbath dinner dish. 

The Salad Entree dressing is delightful with mashed legumes. 

if Peas Pie--Corn Crust 

, * 

Crust 2 cans ( i qt., i6ears) of corn 2 or 3 eggs 

not very moist i cup milk 

salt 

Beat eggs, add corn, milk and salt. 

Put mashed green peas in oiled baking dish, cover with crust, 
bake only till the eggs in the crust are set; serve at once. No 
sauce. 

Lentil PiePotato Crust 

Cover mashed lentils in baking dish with nicely seasoned 
mashed potato, brown in oven; serve with sauce 6, 16, 49, 51, 

53 or 54- 

Lentil PieUniversal Crust 

Mashed lentils, not too dry, flavored with browned flour and 
chopped onion, a little sage also if desired, with universal crust. 
Serve with sauce i, 1 6, 43 or 53.. A rich pastry crust may be 
used. 

Mashed PeasMacaroni or Vermicelli 

Cook macaroni or vermicelli with garlic, or onion and garlic. 
Put into thick cream sauce and serve around rocky mound of 
mashed peas. 



I 88 THE LAUREL 

Creamed Beans 

i pint white beans i large cup milk 

i tablespn. butter i teaspn. salt 

i tablespn. flour 2 eggs 

crumbs 

Cook and mash beans according to directions for mashed len- 
tils; add salt, and cream sauce made with butter, flour and milk; 
then eggs beaten. Turn into oiled baking dish, sprinkle with 
with crumbs, bake a delicate brown, serve at once. The eggs 
may be omitted but the beans are delightfully light with them. 

Colored beans, peas and lentils may be prepared in the same 

way. 

Lentils Poached Eggs 

Spread a half-inch layer of mashed lentils on slightly mois- 
tened rounds of toast and place a nicely poached egg on each. 

Garnish. 

Bean Croquettes 

Shape dry mashed beans into thick croquettes (oiling the hands 
or dipping them in hot water occasionally), coat delicately with 
oil or melted butter, heat in oven till beginning to crack a little, 
no more. Sprinkle with chopped parsley, serve with Sauce 
Americaine, Sauce Imperial, or Mayonnaise or French dressing, 
or with a garnish of lemon rings with parsley butter, p. 163. 
Any seasoning but salt in the croquettes spoils them. 

Lentil Croquettes 

Prepare the same as bean croquettes, serve with any sauce 
given for mashed lentils, or with small boiled onions sometimes. 
A little browned flour and chopped onion may be used in the 
croquettes. Rice and lentil croquettes may be served with Bound- 
ary Castle sauce. 

Peas Croquettes 

Shape the same as bean croquettes, adding a little finely- 
sliced tender celery if desired. Serve with sauces given for 
mashed peas. The croquettes are very pretty rolled in parsley 



TRUE MEATS LEGUMES 189 

before baking. Chop the parsley, not too fine, and spread it 
out thin with spaces between the particles on a vegetable board. 
Roll the croquettes over it once. 

Legume Patties 

Shape mashed peas, beans or lentils into thick flat cakes in- 
stead of into croquettes, and serve with suitable sauces. 

Peas Timbales 

1 cup mashed peas YZ tablespn. melted butter 

2 eggs or i of cream 
a few drops of onion juice 2 /l teaspn. salt 

Mix all with beaten eggs, bake in a single or in individual 
molds well oiled, in pan of hot water until firm. 

(Very finely sliced celery may be used instead of onion juice. 
Peas and eggs only may be used for plain timbales). Serve with 
cream sauce. Finely sliced celery, a few whole green peas, a 
little stewed corn or a few pieces of tomato pulp may be added 
to the sauce. 

The individual timbales may be used as a garnish for some 
vegetable dish, giving meat value to it. Decorate timbales with 
egg daisies, carrots, or anything desired. 

Rice and Lentil Timbales 

Line a well oiled mold with a ^ in. layer of boiled rice. Nearly 
fill the center with mashed lentils, cover with rice, steam or bake 
20 m. to l /2 hr. Unmold carefully, garnish, serve with cream, 
brown, mushroom or any suitable sauce. 

Mashed peas may take the place of lentils, with sauce of cel- 
ery, onion or tomato cream. 

Lentil Roast 

i pt. lentils salt 

YL dup raw nut butter sage 

a few bread crumbs, or i egg 

% cup browned flour No. i Y^-^A cup water 

i small onion chopped 

Cook and mash lentils, add nut butter and onion which have 



THE LAUREL 

been cooked with salt ^ hour in the water, then the browned 
flour or the crumbs, sage and beaten egg; more salt and water 
or crumbs if necessary for right consistency. Press into well 
oiled mold or brick-shaped tin, bake, covered, in pan of water 
about I hour or until firm. Dry in oven TO m., out of water if 
necessary. Let stand in warm place 5 m. Unmold on to platter, 
garnish. Serve with sauce 6. 16. 1 8. 54 or 57. 

Flavorings of roast may be varied or omitted. 

i cup chopped nuts might be used in place of raw nut butter. 

I cup stewed tomato may be used for liquid. 

For people with good digestion, the lentils may be ground 
through a food cutter instead of being put through the colander. 

Chick Peas Roast 

Subtitute chick peas for lentils in lentil roast. 

Peas Roast 

I pt. mashed, dry, split or whole green peas, i to 2 eggs or 
whites of eggs only, or a little fresh cracker dust. Bake as 
lentil roast until firm only. Serve with tomato cream sauce or 
almond cream, tomato or celery cream sauce. Peas require no 
flavoring, but celery or celery salt may be added, serving with 
plain cream sauce. 

Sister Boulter's Red Kidney Bean Loaf 

Cook and crush or grind red kidney beans, add salt and sage, 
mold. Serve cold, sliced, with or without oil, or use for sand- 
wiches. A few crumbs may be added if necessary, the loaf baked, 
and served hot with any suitable accompaniment. 

Purees of Legumes 

Add sufficient water, nut or dairy cream or milk to mashed 
beans, peas or lentils to make of the consistency of a thick 
batter. No sauce is required. 

if Rich Baked Beans 

Wash beans and get them into boiling salted water, in 



TRUE MEATS LEGUMES IQT 

the bean pot, as quickly as possible. For each pint of beans 
use I /^ to I Y^ teaspn. of salt. Add plenty of water at first, 
perhaps three times the quantity of beans. Put into a hot oven 
until they begin to boil, then reduce the temperature to such a 
degree as will keep them just simmering for from 12 to 24 hours. 
The old-fashioned New England baked beans were kept in a 
brick oven for three days, and each day they were better than 
the last. 

Do not stir the beans after the skins begin to break. When 
necessary to add more water, pour it boiling over the top and 
let it settle in gradually. A gentle shaking may be helpful. 
After they are swollen and softened they should not have too 
much water on at a time, nor be baked too fast; if so, they will 
be "mushy.' 

They are most generally liked slightly juicy when served not 
too wet nor too dry, but just ' * juicy. ' They may be served with 
the Salad Entree dressing, Improved Mayonnaise or French 
dressing, with oil or lemon juice or with Chili sauce, but they 
all spoil that delightful bean flavor in the rich, thick juice. 
Beans have a characteristic flavor which is destroyed by the 
addition of anything but salt and water. Molasses, cream, nut 
butter and tomato are all good in their place, but that is not in 
baked beans if we attain to the keenest enjoyment of the bean 
flavor. We get the rich red color, without the rank molasses 
taste, by prolonged baking. Cream and milk deaden the flavor, 
and nut butter and tomato change it. 

Those who taste our baked beans for the first time exclaim, 
"I would not have believed it,' and it is hard for them to be- 
lieve that there is no meat in them. 

Bake Red Kidney and other varieties of beans the same as 
white beans. 

For those who think they must have the molasses, use I teaspn. 
molasses (or 2 teaspns. for a very strong molasses flavor) 2 tea 
spns. oil and i^-i^ teaspn. salt to each pint of beans. 



I 92 THE LAUREL 

if Western Baked Beans 

Boil beans in salted water until the skins are broken. Put into 
a pudding dish with plenty of water and bake in a slow oven 
until dry and meah' and delicately browned over the top. 

Baked Split Yellow Peas 

i qt. ( i /4 Ib.) split peas /^ cup strained stewed tomato 

1-2 tablespns. browned flour 3-3 /^ teaspns. salt 

Wash peas, put into bean pot, add browned flour, tomato 
and salt which have been mixed together, then turn over them 
two or three times their quantity of boiling water. Stir well. 
When boiling, regulate the heat of the oven so as to keep them 
gently simmering for from 5 to 7 hours. Do not stir after they 
are first put to cooking. They require greater care than beans 
to keep them from breaking. However, if they do not keep 
their shape the}' will be of a jelly-like consistency not at all 
objectionable. May add 2 large onions sliced fine. 

Baked Split Yellow Peas No. 2 

i qt. peas i cup tomato 

% cup roasted nut butter 3-3/2 teaspns. salt 

Rub nut butter smooth with tomato and add with salt and 
boiling water to peas. Raw nut butter and browned flour may 
be substituted for the roasted nut butter. 

ic Baked Split Green Peas 

Wash peas and put into a baking dish with i teaspn. of salt 
to each pint of peas and 2 to 2^ times the quantity of water. 
Cook on top of the stove until tender (about I hour), then put, 
covered, into a slow oven and bake until dry and mealy all 
through, which will not be long if there was not too much water 
in them. Peas lose their delicate flavor and develop a strong 
taste if cooked too long. If this amount of water is too great, 
use a little less. Serve if desired in the dish in which they were 
baked, with sauces given for mashed peas. A mint and celery 
flavored raw nut butter sauce is nice with them. 



TRUE MEATS LEGUMES I 93 

When desired very smooth they may be put through a colan- 
der. They may be used in soups and in all dishes where mashed 
peas are required. 

Baked Lentilsgreat favorites 

Stew lentils with salt, with or without chopped onion, until 
nearly tender. 

Add a little cream, turn into a baking dish and finish in the 
oven. Serve juicy. 

A little thick cream poured over the lentils during the last of 
the baking gives a nice crusty finish to the top. 

Stewed Beans 

Put red kidney and other beans with tough skins into boiling 
unsalted water and cook until nearly but not quite tender before 
adding the salt. Common white, Lima and all beans with ten- 
der skins must be put into boiling salted water at first. After a 
short time of rapid boiling let beans just simmer until tender, 
then add a little heavy cream and stand back where they will 
keep hot but will not boil, for a half hour or longer. A little 
raw nut butter may be cooked with them sometimes, or, cocoa- 
nut cream may be substituted for dairy cream. 

Red kidney and some of the richer varieties may be served 
with boiled rice or in a mashed potato border. 

Stewed Split Green Peas 

Cook peas in salted water 3^ to I hour, add cream, heat and 
serve. Two parts stewed dried or green sweet corn to one of 
peas, may be added sometimes. 

Flowering Beans 

which have no equal in flavor, should be put into a large 
quantity of cold water, brought to the boiling point, boiled for 
10 m., drained and put to cooking in boiling unsalted water. 
Add salt when nearly tender. Try them. 

Stewed Beans in Bean Sauce 

Mash a few of the stewed beans, add cream, or milk and but 



194 THE LAUREL 

ter with the water from the beans, more salt if necessary; blend 
well, pour over remainder of beans, heat. Serve on toast or as 
preferred. 

Stewed Lentils for people with good digestion 

Cook lentils with raw nut butter, onion, garlic, browned flour 
and salt, until tender, rich and juicy. Serve without mashing 
with boiled rice or with some of the large sizes of macaroni, 
cooked. 

Lentils may be cooked plain with salt and seasoned with cream 
or butter at the last. 

Ragout of Chick Peasespecially delicious 

Soak the peas over night. Cook and cook and cook in the 
water they were soaked in. When about half done add garlic, 
onion, a very little browned flour, tomato and salt. Serve with 
dressing, rice, dumplings steamed or baked, or on toast. 

Cabbage Leaf Rolls of Lentils 

i cup lentils sage 

1 cup rice salt 

2 tablespns. raw nut butter i loose head of cabbage 
onion a little tomato if desired 

Boil cabbage leaves in salted water 5-8 m., or sprinkle with 
salt, pour boiling water over and let stand 20 m. to ^ hour. 
Refresh with cold water, drain. 

Cook lentils till beginning to get tender but not until broken, 
drain and save water. 

Cook rice in salted water until swollen but not soft (about i 5 
m.), drain if necessary and save the water. Mix lentils, rice, 
sage, chopped onion, raw nut butter and salt smooth with a lit- 
tle of the lentil water. Put a tablespoonful of this mixture in 
the center of each cabbage leaf. Fold the sides of the leaf over 
and roll into croquette shape. Pack close in layers in an oiled 
baking dish. (A flaring granite pan would do nicely.) Pour the 
rice water and lentil water over, with a little tomato if desired, 





POACHED EGGS AND POACHERS 




VARIEGATED MEAT, P. l86 



TRUE MEATS EGGS I 95 

and add enough boiling, slightly salted water to cover. Press a 
plate over the rolls, cover and bake ^ to I hour in a moderate 
oven. 

Drain, save liquid, remove plate, invert dish on to chop tray, 
leaving rolls in a mound. Thicken liquid slightly and turn over 
rolls or serve separately. Garnish mound. 

Dairv butter may be used in place of raw nut butter. 

J J JT 

Savory Hash 

Equal quantities mashed lentils and boiled rice or chopped 
potato, seasoned with sage or onion. Add water or cream and 
salt. A few soaked and chopped dried olives may be added to 
the hash. 

The pea and the lentil are roasted in the Mediterranean coun- 
tries and form there a regular article of food. In India peas are 
parched in hot sand. The chick-pea, as found by experiment, 
can be parched over coals in a few moments and thus be made 
edible. The taste reminds one of pop corn and roasted chest- 
nuts. A slight bitterness is present, due, probably, to the skin 
which does not slip off in roasting as does the skin of the pea- 
nut. \Yhen this skin is removed before roasting, as it may be 
by a half hour's soaking, the product is improved. 

Our common split pea is also palatable when parched. Parched 
peas are too hard for any but the strongest teeth, and, as used 
in India, they are ground and cooked after parching. The 
roasted chick-pea is also used as a substitute for coffee.' -Mary 
Hi mini u Abel, Fanners' Bulletin Xo. / 2 '/ , ('. S. Dept. of Ag- 
riculture. 

EGGS 

'Milk and eggs should not be classed with flesh meat. In 
some cases the use of eggs is beneficial.' 

While their use will become more and more unsafe as dis- 
ease in animals increases, they should not be discarded entire!}, 
when other foods to supply the needed elements cannot be ob- 



196 THE LAUREL 

tained. Great care, however, should be taken to obtain milk 
from healthy cows and eggs from healthy fowls that are well fed 
and well cared for. ' 

Though eggs are, to some extent, stimulating, they do not 
contain the poisonous, excrementitious matter found in the flesh 
of dead animals; and no animal life is destroyed by their use. 

As eggs, at present, form so important a part of the Vegeta- 
rian dietary, care should be taken to prepare them attractively 
and palatably. 

Suggestions 

Only strictly fresh eggs should be used for any purpose. There 
is danger in stale eggs. 

The beaten raw egg is usually considered the most digestible, 
but there are some with whom lightly cooked eggs, as 'Eggs in 
the Shell" agree best, and still others upon whom the soft yolk 
acts almost like poison, who can take omelets or scrambled eggs 
better, where the whites and yolks are thoroughly mingled 
(when cooked in not too large a quantity of oil). 

Occasionally we find a person with whom the white of the egg 
disagrees; but very seldom. 

Try taking the beaten white of an egg when you have a sour 
stomach. It is very soothing, also, to an irritated, sensitive 
stomach. 

The white of an egg relieves the pain and prevents inflam- 
mation when applied quickly to a burn or scald. 

A few sliced Brazil nuts or filberts or broken pieces of other 
nuts added to omelets or scrambled eggs aid mastication. 

Salt should not be put into the water for poaching eggs; it 
renders them less digestible. 

The cooked yolk of the egg is most digestible when cooked 
long enough to be dry and mealy, and the white when just jellied. 

Never use milk in scrambled eggs or omelets. The casein of 
the milk hardens with cooking and renders the eggs tough; be- 
sides, the flavor of the eggs is much finer with water, and ome- 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 1 97 

lets are lighter. Cream spoils the flavor though it does not 
toughen the egg as does milk. 

Always bake souffles, puff omelets, cakes, all things to be 
made light with egg, slowly, and well from the bottom, so that 
they will stay up, after rising. Serve souffles and puff omelets 
as soon as done. 

For custards or any thickening, beat eggs just sufficiently to 
mingle, not to a foam. 

Drop yolks of eggs in cold water to keep them from drying up 
when whites only are desired, and lift carefully from the water 
with a teaspoon when ready to use. 

Add a trifle of salt to whites of eggs before beating; they will 
be lighter. 

Stand yolks of eggs in half the shell on a wrinkled towel while 
waiting to prepare the whites for egg creams and other dishes. 

When eggs are used freely in breads, cakes or puddings, other 
proteid foods will not be required, so they need not add to the 
expense of the meal. 

Eggs In the Shell, or Curdled Eggs 

The objection to the "soft boiled' egg is that the white is 
hard while the yolk is soft. To obviate this difficulty, put from 
I to 4 eggs into boiling water, I pint for each egg (cover if the 
dish is broad and shallow; if deep, leave uncovered), and let 
stand off from the fire for from 5 to 10 minutes according to the 
age of the eggs. Fresh laid eggs will cook in a shorter time than 
those several days old. 

When a larger number of eggs is required, use a smaller pro- 
portion of water and let them stand on the back of the range 
where the water will be below the boiling point, for 5 minutes. 

The most accurate way to obtain the desired result is to keep 
the water at the temperature (by the thermometer) of 168 to 170 
degs. for 10 minutes; never allowing it to go above 170 nor below 
1 68. The flavor of eggs cooked in this way is as much more 
delicate and delightful as is the consistency. 



THE LAUREL 

Roasted Eggs 

Prick the shells of the eggs several times at the pointed end to 
prevent their bursting during cooking, set them on the large end 
in the hot sand or ashes under the camp fire, cover with leaver 
hot sand and embers and cook for 10 minutes. When opened 
they will be smooth and of a velvety consistency. The same re- 
sult may be obtained by putting eggs in the hot ashes under the 
grate of the kitchen range. 

Poached Eggs 

In an oiled, shallow pan have unsalted boiling water deep 
enough to be at least % in. above the eggs. Slide the broken 
eggs (only fresh laid eggs will poach nicely) into the perfectly 
boiling water, singly, or all from one large dish. Set pan on as- 
bestos pad, cover and leave where the water will keep hot but will 
not boil, until the eggs are jelly-like. Remove carefully from 
the water with a small oiled skimmer and cut off the ragged 
edges with a biscuit cutter. Nothing is more offensive to the 
eye than a rough ragged poached egg. 

Besides the usual toast, poached eggs may be served on cream 
toast, round slices of broiled trumese, on hash or creamed vege- 
tables, or in shallow nests of boiled rice, mashed potato or 
spinach. Do not forget the garnish, as there is no place where 
a spray of parsley gives a better effect than on poached eggs. 

Or, place oiled muffin rings in the pan of water and break an 
egg into each ring; take up with griddle cake turner and remove 
the ring. 

The most nearly perfect of all, however, are eggs poached in 
the Buffalo Steam Poacher after the following method: 

Have the lower part of the poacher % full of boiling water; 
set the well oiled poacher cups, each containing an egg, into 
their places; cover, let stand over the hot fire just a moment to 
allow the cover to become filled with steam, then set off from 
the fire. Leave, covered tight, for 6 m., when you will have 
eggs beautifully jellied all through, which (if the cups were oiled 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 1 99 

sufficiently will slide out on to whatever you wish to serve 
them on. 

Sometimes poach eggs in thin cream or in milk and butter, lay 
on to slices of toast, halves of biscuit or large thin wafers, and 
pour the cream around. 

Poached Yolks of Eggs 

Drop yolks, one at a time, into rapidly boiling water; keep 
them rolling, by rapid boiling, for at least TO m. ; then stand 
where they will boil more slowly till done, 20-25 m. 

Poached Whites of Eggs 
To be cut in fancy shapes for garnishing. 

Break whites of eggs into thoroughly oiled cup or bowl, set in 
pan of hot water, with something to keep the dish from touch- 
ing the bottom of the pan, and leave over the fire until the 

white is set. 

Poached Beaten Eggs 

Beat eggs to a foam with water, or any desired addition, and 
cook in steam poacher. 

Creamed Eggs 

Break eggs into a shallow baking dish, cover with thin cream 
and bake in a moderate oven ; sprinkle with salt and dot with pars- 
ley leaves before serving. Or, bake or steam singly in ramekins 
or custard cups. Rye bread crumbs may be sprinkled in the bottom 
of the dish and over the eggs for variety, also ground pine nuts! 

Rice with Poached Eggs 

Steam rice in shallow dish; when done, make depressions for 
the required number of eggs; break one into each hollow, set 
dish in steamer for 2 m., or till whites are set, sprinkle with 
chopped parsley and send to table. Creamed potatoes may be 
substituted for rice sometimes, and either may be baked in the 
oven by covering with a pan. 

Poached EggsCreamed Celery 
Put nicely poached eggs on rounds of toast and arrange in a 



2OO THE LAUREL 

circle on a chop tray; rill the center with celery in cream sauce. 
Garnish with leaves of spinach. 

Hard Boiled Eggs 

Put eggs into warm water, bring to just below the boiling 
point, 200 degs. and keep at that temperature for about 30 m. 
Drop for a moment into cold water before removing the shells. 
Or, when necessary, boil rapidly for 10-20 m. 

Hard eggs agree with some stomachs better than soft ones. 

Italian Eggs 

Cut hard boiled eggs in halves lengthwise, lay on to cutlets 
of corn meal porridge and pour Italian sauce around. 

Creamed Eggs on Toast 

Serve halves or quarters or slices of hard boiled eggs on toast 
with cream sauce, plain, or flavored with celery or onion, with 
chopped parsley sprinkled over. Plain or tomato drawn butter 
may be substituted for cream sauce. 

Eggs and Macaroni 

Cook macaroni in 2-in. lengths, in salted \vater with onion 
and garlic or garlic only. Drain and arrange in nest fashion on 
chop tray. Lay whole, shelled eggs in center, pour cream of to- 
mato sauce around and over nest. Sprinkle with parsley. 
Drawn butter or cream sauce may be used. 

Or, cut eggs in halves, crosswise, remove yolks and mix to a 
paste w r ith melted butter, salt, onion juice and chopped parsley. 
Fill whites with the mixture and arrange on bed of macaroni. 
Pour sauce over. The roast gravy or some of the mushroom 

sauces may be used. 

Eggs With Sauce 

Hard boiled eggs, whole or in halves, may be served with 
cream, cream of tomato or mint sauce, or with sauce Imperial 
or fruit sauces or jellies; with mint sauce on broiled nutmese. 

Stuffed Eggs 
Cut hard boiled eggs in halves, lengthwise, remove yolks and 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 2OT 

add to them bread or roll crumbs soaked in cream, a little 
chopped parsley and salt. Rub all together until smooth, add 
raw egg (or yolk only) to bind, nil spaces in the whites of egg? 
and press the halves together. Add beaten whole egg to the 
mixture remaining, dip eggs into it, roll in crumbs and heat in 
oven or steamer, covered, until just warmed through. Serve 
with any desired sauce. 

A little onion juice may be added to the yolk mixture, or nut- 
mese or trumese cut very fine, with or without chopped mush- 
rooms. Mashed potato may be substituted for bread crumbs. 

The eggs may be served as a garnish for green peas or on slices 
of toast with or without sauce. 

Eggs with Ripe Olives 

3 eggs French dressing 

12 (or more) olives, chopped coarse chopped parsley 

Cut eggs in halves crosswise, remove yolks and mix with olives 
and dressing, return to the whites, stand on leaves of lettuce 
and sprinkle with parsley. Pour dressing around. Improved 
Mayonnaise dressing is suitable also. May garnish with whole 

olives. 

Pickled Eggs 

Pickle 2 parts each of lemon juice and water, ^ part sugar, 
salt and a little celery salt. Heat to boiling, pour over hard 
boiled eggs with a few slices of red beet. Let stand 24 hours. 

Eggs a la Salade 

Cut hard boiled eggs in halves lengthwise, remove yolks, rub 
through wire strainer and mix to a smooth paste with Improved 
Mayonnaise dressing (flavored with onion or garlic if desired), 
till the whites and press the halves together. Lay in nests of 
shredded lettuce dotted with the dressing. 

Or, rub whites through strainer, place around the inside of 
nests of shredded lettuce; mix yolks with dressing, shape into 
small eggs and place in nests. 

Shirred Eggs 

Butter and crumb individual dishes, break I or 2 eggs into 



2O2 THE LAUREL 

each, set over pan of hot water in oven and bake until eggs art- 
set. The dish may be rubbed with a cut clove of garlic. 

If preferred, sprinkle oiled griddle with crumbs, set buttered 
muffin rings on it, pressing them down firmly, and drop an egg 
into each ring. Bake. Sprinkle with chopped parsley, serve on 
toast with any desired sauce. 

Scrambled Eggs. 

Put oil in pan and heat very hot but not smoking. Turn in 
eggs which have been broken and salted but not beaten. As 
they set, draw carefully from the bottom of the pan with a spoon 
without turning over. When all are set but not hard, slide 
quickly (leaving the shining side up) on to a plate or platter. 
The dish must be all ready, as a moment's delay will overcook 
the eggs. 

Another Way- Take from I teaspn. to I tablespn. of water 
(never milk) for each egg; beat, and scramble as above. 

Do not stir, just draw the eggs from the bottom of the pan. 
Cream may be used but the flavor is inferior to the water 
scramble. Nut cream may be used instead of water. 

To Scramble a Large Quantity of Eggs 

Break 3 or 4 dozens of eggs into an oiled agate or aluminum 
kettle, add salt and water, beat slightly and set kettle into hot 
water. Stir occasionally at first, then more often as eggs begin 
to set. 

Do not try to keep warm long, but make fresh lots as required. 

if Tomato Scrambled Eggs 

Take ^-i teaspn. thick tomato pulp to each egg, with salt. 
May flavor with onion. 

if Sour Milk Scrambled Eggs 
i tablespn. thick sour milk to each egg, salt ; cook till just done. 

Various Scrambles 

Simmer sliced celery or onion in oil a few minutes before add- 
ing eggs. Or, add asparagus tips, green peas, mushrooms, a 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 2C3 

little boiled rice or a few broken nuts or bits of trumese or nut- 
mese to eggs before scrambling. 
The yolks only may be scrambled. 

if Cream Sauce Scramble 

Add 3 eggs to each half-cup of hot cream sauce; mix until 
done. Garnish with sliced tomato. Mushrooms may be added 

j 

to the cream sauce before the eggs. Any desired sauce may be 
used. 

Florentine Scrambled Eggs 

Spread nicely scrambled eggs on rounds of moistened toast 
and place a broiled or baked half of tomato on top. Garnish 
with parsley or spinach leaves or with lettuce and fringed celery. 

Egg Croquettes 

Siiitce i tablespn. butter i teaspn. onion juice 

2-2/3 tablespns. flour i teaspn. salt 

i cup milk or thin cream 6 hard boiled eggs, chopped 

The whites of eggs may be rubbed through a wire strainer or 
a ricer. Make sauce the usual way; cool; add the eggs and shape 
into croquettes, egg, crumb and bake. A few cooked chopped 
fresh or dried mushrooms may be added with the eggs. 

Egg and Rice Croquettes 

2 cups boiled rice grated onion or finely-sliced cel- 

/^ cup cream ery, or both 

oil or melted butter chopped parsley 

3-4 hard boiled eggs, chopped or the whites riced 

Shape, heat in oven, serve with cream sauce, with or without 
peas or celery. 

OMELETS 

The making of an omelet is very simple, requiring just a little 
practice, and it is by far the most attractive way of serving eggs. 

It is better to make several small omelets of 3 or 4 eggs each 
than one very large one. Six eggs is the most that can be- 
handled at all properly. 



2O4 THE LAUREL 

Use I teaspn. to I tablespn. of water to each egg. The water 
may be omitted entirely. 

Eggs may be beaten a very little, or until light and foamy. 

Omelet pans should not be used for anything else. To keep 
them smooth, rub \vith soft pieces of paper or a cloth after 
using, and occasionally scour them with salt. Do not wash them. 
Keep in warm, dry place. 

Omelets should be served immediately, when made. 

Plain Trench Omelet 

3 eggs 1-3 tablespns. water /^ teaspn. salt 

Beat. Have butter or oil in pan to well cover the bottom. 
Heat hot, but not to smoking or brownness. Turn the eggs in 
and with a spatula (or a thin bladed knife) lift the set portions, 
allowing the liquid part to run underneath. When all is set, 
jelly-like, not hard, roll quickly from one side into the form, as 
one writer says, of an tk oval cushion.' Hold omelet fora 
moment over the fire to take a delicate cream color underneath. 
Turn on to a hot platter, the under side up, garnish and serve. 

If an omelet is quite thick it may be folded over just double. 

It should be a little soft on the top before folding. 

The perfect shape is higher in the center and pointed at the 
ends. 

Olive oil, in the pan, gives a flavor much enjoyed by many. 

If the oven is just right, setting the pan in the oven a moment 
before or after folding puffs the omelet nicely. 

The plain omelet may be varied by mixing some garnish with 
the eggs and spreading it over the top before folding, or serving 
it around the omelet on the platter. 

When the material is to be folded in, leave the center of the 
omelet a little thinner. 

Accompaniments to omelets must be well seasoned and flavored. 

Sweet omelets \vith fruits make nice desserts or luncheon 
dishes. 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 2C>5 

Omelet Variations 
Apple and Onion Garnish omelet with apple and onion sauce. 

Apricot Stewed, dried apricots folded in omelet. 

Asparagus Season asparagus tips with butter and salt; lay be- 
tween folds of omelet and on the top, or, pile at one side of the 
omelet. The butter may be omitted and a rich cream or egg 
cream sauce poured over the tips and around the omelet. 

if Banana Cream Heat, do not boil cream and sugar; add ba- 
nana cut into small dice; cover omelet (which has had a little 
sugar beaten with the eggs), fold, serve with wafers. Do not 
heat the cream after adding the banana. 

Corn, a great favorite- -Use 1-1^2 tablespn. nicely seasoned, 
rather dry stewed corn (no water) for each egg. Mix well and 
cook as plain omelet. Use I tablespn. grated fresh corn for each 
egg. Creamed dried corn may be used. 

Crumb 2 eggs, 2 tablespns. bread crumbs, ^ cup milk, salt. 
Beat eggs together or separately. 

Fine Herbs Finely-chopped fresh thyme, tarragon and chives; 
or, parsley, thyme and marjoram, beaten with the eggs. Lemon 
butter sauce may be spread over the omelet after it is on the 
platter. 

Gooseberry Spread omelet with not too sweet stewed goose- 
berries. 

Imperial Serve with Sauce Imperial. 

Jelly Spread with jelly before folding; or garnish with spoon- 
fuls; or unmold a small flat mold of jelly beside the omelet on 
the platter and serve with it. Garnish with geranium or spin- 
ach leaves. 

Mayonnaise Spread or garnish with Improved Mayonnaise 
dressing. 

^ Mushroom Cook mushrooms, fresh, in their own juices, 
in a double boiler with butter and salt. Cover half the omelet 



2O6 THE LAUREL 

before folding and garnish the folded omelet with some of the 
most perfect mushrooms. Pour the liquid around. Chopped 
mushrooms may be used on the inside if prepared in the same 
way. 

if Another Broil the mushrooms, pour melted butter over 
and use in the same way as above. 

Nut Add a few broken or coarse chopped nuts to egg mix- 
ture and garnish top with halves of nuts. 

. Onion Add grated or finely-sliced onion and chopped parsley 
to egg mixture. Cook omelet very soft. Or, simmer sliced on- 
ions in oil till tender (not brown), add egg mixture and cook. 
Or, simmer onions in oil, drain oil into omelet pan, cook omelet 
and cover with onions before folding. 

Onion and Tomato Simmer onions in oil, add a little drained, 
stewed tomato and salt, heat and serve around omelet. 

Oyster Plant Cover omelet with stewed oyster plant in 
slices with a little of the liquor seasoned with butter, cream or 
cream sauce, before folding. 

Parsley Chopped parsley in omelet mixture and omelet 
served with parsley butter. 

Peasgreen Same as oyster plant omelet. The dried chick 
peas, cooked and richly seasoned as on p. 194, make a delightful 
accompaniment. 

Peasmashed- -i tablespn. of mashed peas and J4 tablespn. of 
water to each egg. Salt. 

Prune- -Prunes stewed in a small quantity of water so that 
the syrup is rich; pitted, quartered and folded into omelet. 

Rice Mix boiled rice with eggs, cook soft, serve with tomato 
sauce if desired. 

Tomato- -Drain stewed tomatoes, season well with butter 
and salt, or salt only. Serve in and around omelet. Or, thick 
tomato pulp may be added to the egg mixture. Serve omelet 
plain or with cream sauce. 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 2O/ 

Trumese Salad Entree- -Lay strips of trumese salad entree on 
half of omelet; fold, turn on to platter, pour dressing around; 
garnish with parsley or spinach leaves. 

Omelet with Okra in Almond Cream Saucedelicious 

y tablespn. almond butter, J^ cup water, salt, mix, boil; add 
% cup drained stewed okra, heat. Serve in and around 3-egg 
omelet. 

Vegetable Pudding Omelet 

Put hot creamed vegetables asparagus, peas, peas and carrot, 
or any preferred, in bottom of pudding dish. Cover with omelet 
mixture, bake in moderate oven till eggs are just creamy and 
delicately browned; serve at once. 

Puff Omelet 

2 eggs 2 tablespns. water salt 

Mix yolks, salt and water; beat the whites to a stiff froth with 
a little salt, and chop into them the yolk mixture. Turn into a 
hot well oiled pan and set on an asbestos pad back from the di- 
rect heat of the fire. Cover and cook until the top will not 
stick when lightly touched with the finger. It should take from 
1 5 to 20 m. If cooked too rapidly the omelet will fall. Fold, 
or slide on to a hot dish without folding. Serve plain or with 
any desired accompaniment. 

Sauces 16, 18, 44, 50 or 75 are all suitable for the puff omelet. 

If the oven is not too hot, the omelet may be baked, but \t 
should be set on something to keep it from the bottom of the 



oven and may need to have a pan turned over it. May score 
across the top \vith a hot iron when omelet is not folded. 

One egg only, makes a nice little omelet. It may be baked 
in a large muffin ring (or two small) on a griddle and served on a 
thin slice of toast, with or without cream sauce. 

These omelets are delightful and one requires but little prac- 
tice to attain perfection in them. They will admit of the same 
variations as the French omelet. 



2O8 THE LAUREL 

Fruit juices with a little sugar may be substituted for the 
water sometimes. The water may be omitted. 

Omelet may be tinted with tomato, spinach or other colors 
for variety. 

A delightful omelet may be made by mixing 2 teaspns. of pine 
nut, almond or steamed nut butter with the water. 

Foam Omelet 

Mix beaten yolks with % less water than for the puff omelet; 
cook until delicately jellied, spread stiffly-beaten whites near the 
edge of half the omelet; set on top grate of oven to warm. Fold 
and serve at once. Omelet may be dotted with jelly before put- 
ting the whites on. Half the beaten whites may be mixed with 
yolks as in puff omelets. 

Savory Puff Omelet 

2 eggs 2-4tablespns. chopped, thor- 

2 tablespns. cream of nut oughly soaked, dried olives 

butter chopped parsley 

Add olives and parsley to yolk mixture and fold in beaten 

whites. 

Orange Omelet 

2 eggs 2 teaspns. sugar 

2 tablespns. orange juice salt 

bits of orange pulp with sugar 

Beat yolks, add 2 teaspns. of sugar, then orange juice and 
then the stiffly-beaten whites. Cook, spread half of omelet with 
orange pulp sprinkled with sugar, fold, serve. 

Another 

Add orange juice and grated rind with a little vanilla to yolks, 
then beaten whites as usual. When baked, fold and dust with 
powdered sugar. 

Grape Omelet 

Use grape juice instead of water in puff omelet. Fold and 
dust with powdered sugar. 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 2OQ 

Unroasted Nut Butter Omelet. Choice 

2 teaspns. steamed nut butter 1^2 tablespn. water 2 eggs 

Mix nut butter, water, yolks and a little salt; add stiffly-beaten 
whites and cook as puff omelet. i l /z tablespn. of cooked cream 
of raw nut butter may be used if more convenient. 

j 

Almond Butter Omelet 

i teaspn. almond butter and ^2 tablespn. water to each egg; 
combine and cook as above. 

BREAD AND BAKED OMELETS 

Bread and baked omelets may be served with gravies, sweet 
sauces or jelly, or with green peas or asparagus, or may have 
corn, peas, etc., mixed with omelet before baking. They may 
be made of milk, cream or water. Water makes the lightest 
and most delicate omelets. Stale, not drv, crumbs are used. 

t, 

Baked Omelet 

2 eggs 2 tablespns. water 

YV teaspn. flour i teaspn. oil 

salt 

Beat all together or beat the whites of eggs separately, and 
bake in a slow oven until set. Fold or serve without fold- 
ing. A few chopped nuts may be added when desired. 

Bread Omelet 

Pour i cup boiling water over I cup bread crumbs; let stand 
until soft. Beat 6 eggs just enough to mix them, add moistened 
bread crumbs, salt and a little chopped parsley. Turn into hot 
oiled omelet pan and bake on top of stove or in oven. This 
omelet may be baked in muffin rings on a griddle as may many 
omelets. Try molasses sauce with it. 

Bread and Milk Omelet 

Soak i cup of bread crumbs in i cup of sweet milk; add yolks 
of 3 eggs with salt, then the stiffly-beaten whites. Cook as puff 
omelet. Serve with or without jelly in the center. 



2IO THE LAUREL 

German Crumb Omelet 

6 eggs i tablespn. corn starch 

i cup water salt 

i cup fine bread crumbs a little chopped onion and 

parsley 

Beat yolks of eggs, add corn starch blended with water, then 
crumbs, salt, onion and parsley. Chop in stiffly-beaten whites. 
Bake in oven. 

Miss Chaffee's Cracker Omelet 

^3 cup of cracker crumbs, fill cup with milk; when crumbs are 
soft, add well-beaten yolks of 3 eggs, then stiffly-beaten whites. 

Cook as puff omelet. Fold and serve. 

Bread Omelet Pie 

Soak i cup soft bread crumbs in i cup hot milk or water, add 
i tablespoon of oil or butter, i teaspn. each chopped onion and 
parsley, salt, and 2 well beaten eggs. Have hot, in baking dish, 
a thin layer of nicely seasoned drained tomato, or trumese sea- 
soned with oil and lemon juice, or any desired filling; cover with 
the omelet and bake until just set. 

Breaded Tomato Omelet 

y^ cup of crumbs soaked in I cup strained tomato. Add yolks 
of 3 eggs, 2 or 3 tablespns. cream, salt, chopped parsley and 
stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Bake. 

Corn Starch. Omelet. Extra Good 

3 eggs YZ teaspn. salt 

i /^ tablespn. corn starch /^ cup milk 

Beat yolks of eggs, corn starch and salt together; add milk 
gradually; beat and chop in the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. 
Cook as puff omelet. 

White Sauce Omelet. Unequaled 

i cup rich milk 2 tablespns. flour 

i tablespn. oil or butter /^ teaspn. salt 

5 eggs i teaspn. sugar 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 211 

Heat butter, add flour, then hot milk and salt ; pour over beaten 
yolks of eggs, add sugar, fold in stiffly-beaten whites; turn in to 
well oiled omelet pan and cook as puff omelet. 

This recipe is copied almost verbatim from "A Book for a 
Cook,' by permission of the Pillsbury Flour Mills Company. 

Omelet Souffle 

6 eggs 3 tablespns. powdered sugar i tablespn. lemon juice 

Beat the yolks of the eggs with the sugar, add the lemon juice, 
chop in stiffly-beaten whites, heap in buttered baking dish; bake 
in slow oven till set. The yolks of 4 eggs only may be used. 

Top of souffle may be dusted with sugar before baking. 

* Omelet Souffle No. 2 

i cup flour i tablespn. oil or butter 

i pt. milk 5 eggs 

i tablespn. sugar Y teaspn. salt 

Mix flour, butter and sugar, pour boiling milk over, stirring. 
Boil well. 

When partially cool add yolks of eggs, then the stiffly-beaten 
whites with salt; bake in a slow oven; serve plain or with maple 
syrup, honey, or hard sauce. 

Egg Timbales 

4 eggs a few drops of onion juice 

Y* teaspn. salt i cup water, milk or thin cream 

Beat eggs, salt and onion juice until blended only; add liquid 
gradually. Divide equally among 6 well buttered timbale molds 
(common cups will serve the purpose). Stand in a pan half filled 
with hot water and bake in a moderate oven about 20 m., or till 
firm to the touch. Turn out carefully on heated platter and 
pour bread or tomato sauce around. 5 or 6 eggs are sometimes 
used. 

A teaspn. of chopped parsley with or without onion, a few 
peas or a little stewed corn may be added to eggs before putting 
into cups. 



212 THE . 

The timbaU-s may be serye.d on rounds of toast qr of broiled 
trumese or nutinese. . 

Rice and Egg Timbales 

4~b hard boiK-d r.u'gs /^-i cup finely-sliced celery 

2 cups boiled rice i tablespn. chopped parsley 

X cup oil salt 

Slice eggs and chop a little, leaving coarse; mix \vith rice, 
celery, parsley, oil and salt and press into well oiled mold; set in 

1 of water in oven, cover and bake */ 4 -i hour. Unmold and 
serve with cream sauce. Celery may be omitted and creamed 
celery or creamed peas -erved with the loaf. Individual molds 
may be used. 

Scalloped Eggs and Potatoes 

4 cold boiled potatoes crumbs 

4 hard boiled eggs chopped pa 

i pt. white sauce >alt 

. 

Pat alternate layers of sliced potatoes and egg-; in serving dish, 
sprinkle with salt, pour white sauce (with parsley stirred through 
it) over. Cover with oiled crumbs and bake. Sage, savor}', 
onion or celery salt may be added. 

if Scalloped Eggs and Celery 

2 large bunches celery 5 hard boiled eggs i pt. cream sauce 

Slice and cook celery and arrange in layers with the cream 
sauce and sliced hard 'boiled eggs, in oiled baking dish with the 

sauce on top. Sprinkle with oiled crumbs, bake. 
. 

Eggs in Perfection 

For luncheon or for an invalid 

Poach yolk of egg and rub through coarse strainer; beat white 
stiff with a trifle of salt and place in mound on a gilt edged plate 
or small platter; dot with riced yolk, sprinkle with salt, press 
slightly salted, green tinted, whipped cream through pastry tube 
in small roses on to the top. Serve immediately with wafers or 
long strips of zwieback. 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 2'I 3 

This dish gives both the yolk and white in their most digesti- 
ble form. A little thick tomato pulp may be added to the white. 
The cream may be dropped on with a teaspoon. 

UNCOOKED EGG DISHES 

Egg creams, in their great variety, are the most delightful 
ways of serving uncooked eggs, both for desserts and for invalids. 

For preparing them, the ingredients and all utensils and^dishes 
should be as nearly ice cold as possible. 

The white of the egg should be beaten very stiff. The milk 
and cream should have been sterilized. 

The creams must be prepared just at the time of serving as 
they become liquid and lose their creamy consistency very soon, 

Set the glass or dish of cream on to a small plate with a doilev. 
and if possible lay a delicate flower or leaf beside it. 

The recipes are given for one e'^ but several may be prepared 
at once, when required, by using a cake bowl for bearing. 

Lemon juice added to the white renders it stiffen but other 
juices and liquid-; soften it, so small quantities of them should 
used and they should be mixed in very lightly. 

High colored fruits and juices should be poured between la\tr- 
of the eg-', not mixed with it. 

Lemon Egg Cream 

Sprinkle a trifle of salt on to the white of an egg in a bo\\ ! 
and beat with a revolving egg beater to a very stiii troth; then 
add I tablespn. of sugar and beat until smooth and cream}'. 
Remove the e^g beater, chop in lightly 2 teaspiio. of lemon juice 
and remove /^ of the beaten white to a cold plate. Add th- 
yolk and another teaspoon of lemon juice to the white remaining 
in the bowl. ( 'hop them in lightly and quickly, not mixing 
very thoroughly. Drop this egg mixture into a cold glass and 
on top of it lay the white which was taken out. Serve at on< 

All of the white may be beaten with the yolk if preferred- 
The whites of -2 eggs and yolk of one may be used. 



214 THE LAUREL 

A company of ladies to whom I once served this cream as a 
dessert pronounced it 'the most delicate boiled custard" they 
had ever tasted. 

Raspberry Egg Cream 

Heat the white of I egg to a stiff froth with I teaspn. of sugar, 
chop in the yolk with I tablespn. of cream, drop a spoonful or 
two into a glass, then pour over a little rich red raspberry juice 
<M drop on a few crushed or stewed berries. Continue this until 
all the egg is used. Serve at once. 

A little lemon juice may be mixed with the raspberry if de- 
sired. The cream may be omitted. A part of the white may 
be left for the top. Strawberry, grape, currant and other juices 
may be substituted for raspberry. Pineapple and orange juices 
;m be mixed with the egg: they are improved by combining with 

lemon juice. 

Banana Egg Cream 

Combine I or 2 tablespns. of fresh banana pulp and I tablespn. 
of cream with a beaten egg, leaving a part of the white on top 

if desired. 

Vanilla Egg Cream 

Heat the white of an egg with 1-2 teaspns. of sugar, reserving 
a little for the top; chop in the yolk with I tablespn. of cream 
and a delicate flavoring of vanilla; serve in a glass, with white 
on top of yolk mixture. 

Or, for a change, beat the white and yolk separately, add half 
the sugar and cream to each, flavor yolk with vanilla, pile white 
in a dainty glass dish and pour yolk mixture over it. A little of 
the white may be chopped with the yolk. 

Almond Egg Cream 

Use I teaspn. almond butter, mixed to a thick cream with 
water, in place of dairy cream, in preceding recipe. Vanilla 
may be omitted. 

Maple or Honey Egg Cream 

Beat the white of an egg, add ^-i tablespn. of maple syrup 



TRUE MEATS EGGS 



215 



or of honey (malt extract sometimes); chop in yolk and if desired, 
i tablespn. of cream. 

Caramel Egg 

Beat white of I egg, add 2 teaspns. of sugar, beat, chop in 
yolk; pour over, stirring, the hot liquid made from boiling \ l /2-2 
tablespns. of cereal coffee in ^ cup of water to which I teaspn. 
of melted cocoa butter has been added. Liquid may be added 
cold, with a few drops of vanilla instead of cocoa butter. 

Egg and Milk 

Take 1-2 teaspns. of sugar and 3 tablespns. of milk, with the 
beaten egg in vanilla cream. 

Egg and Hot Milk 

Beat whole egg with 1-2 teaspns. of sugar until creamy; add a 
few drops of vanilla and pour over l /2 cup boiling milk, stirring. 

Carbonated Egg 

Beat an egg, all together, with salt, add 1-3 tablespns. of 
cream and as much carbonated water as desired. 

Fruit juices mav be used, with or without dairv or nut cream. 

j ^ * 

The carbonated water may be used with the beaten egg only. 




EGG POACHER 



MUSHROOMS 



Thr delightful flavors of mushrooms make them a valuable 
;i(ljunct to the vegetarian dietary, whether or not they are 
rhi-sed with meat foods. 

No one need to be in ignorance as to the edible ones with the 
many reliable books now published in regard to all varietit 
But if you have not studied the subject, consult some one who is 
a judge before you use those you have gathered. Or, use only 
canned ones or those sold in the markets. Many cases of sick- 
ness have come from using mushrooms partially decayed, rather 
than from poisonous varieties; so be sure to reject those not en- 
tirely sound. 

Mushrooms will not admit el many combinations without los- 
ing character. The simplest ways of preparing them are the best. 
It is a waste of time to peel any of the varieties except the 
puff ball. 

Puff ball mushrooms are all edible when gathered at the white 



stag< . 



Overcooking toughens mushrooms. 5--2O minutes is suffi- 
cient time for any, except, perhaps, when cooked in a double 
boiler, then a half hour may not be too long. 

Cream with water develops the flavors better than milk. But- 
ter when used gives the same result. 

When necessary to wash mushrooms, rinse up and down in 
cold water, rub the caps quickly, shake and drain in a colander. 
Often they will require rubbing only, with a soft flannel. Al- 
ways cut off a thin slice from the end of the stalk and throw it 
away. 

When the caps only are to be used in a dish, chop the stems 
and imperfect caps and cook for soups and sauces. Mushrooms 
are not expensive, as a few fresh or dried ones go a long way for 
flavoring. Unless plentiful, do not use mushrooms in timbales 

(216) 



MUSHROOM GLOBE AND DISH, P. 2IQ 
GRAPE FRUIT CREAMED MUSHROOMS 





TRUMESE PIE, P. 167 



MUSHROOMS 217 

or roasts but in the sauces, where they will count. In the rec- 
ipes, fresh ones are meant unless canned ones are mentioned. 

Broiled Mushrooms 

Remove stems, place in fine wire broiler, turn the gills first to 
the fire for 5 m., then the other side. Put a small piece of but- 
ter in the center of each mushroom, sprinkle with salt, broil 
5 m. Lay carefully on to pieces of toast or thin toasted wafers 
or slices of broiled trumese, skin side up, and serve at once. 
Melted butter may be poured over mushrooms on toast instead 
of putting butter into them while broiling. Caps are some- 
times dipped in salt and olive oil and broiled after standing in a 
cold place for an hour. The heat should not be too intense for 

broiling. 

Baked Mushrooms 

Cut off part of stems, lay tops down in shallow baking pan, 
dust with salt, put a small piece of butter in each mushroom, 
bake 20 m. in hot oven. Serve in pan, or on toast with sauce 
from pan poured over. 

Steamed Mushrooms 

Put mushrooms in saucepan or double boiler with salt and no 
water. Cover close, cook 20-30 m. Add hot cream or butter 
mixed with a little flour, heat. Serve on toast, cutlets of corn 
meal porridge, rice cutlets or slices of broiled trumese. Butter, 
2 tablespns. to the pound of mushrooms, may be added when 
put to cooking and no milk or cream used. 

Stewed Mushrooms 

Cut mushrooms into sixths or eighths or slices. Cook in small 
quantity of water 10-15 m., add cream, or milk and butter, enough 
to moisten toast. Heat, serve on toast. 

if Creamed Mushrooms 

Stew mushrooms in a larger quantity of water, add cream, and 
thicken to the consistency of very heavy cream. Serve in dainty 



2l8 THE LAUREL 

shells of pastry crust, or on toast or wafers, surrounded with 
green peas or not. 

A small quantity of mushrooms will go a long way in this way. 

Mushroom Stew 

Add cooked fresh or dried mushrooms to thickened consomme. 
Serve over rice or macaroni or in rice border. 

Stewed Canned Mushrooms 

Drain mushrooms, if large cut into quarters and put into rich 
egg or cream sauce without further cooking. 

Canned mushrooms (except home canned) are esteemed more 
for the feeling between the teeth than for their flavor and are 
at their best in pies, scallops and creams. 

Dried Mushrooms 

Wash dried mushrooms well, soak 4-12 hours in water or milk, 
simmer for 5 m. only, in the liquid in which they were soaked. 
Use in soups, sauces or stews, in small quantities, as the flavor 

is very rich. 

Pickled Mushrooms 

Soak mushrooms pickled in salt, for 24 hours, changing the 
water several times; drain, and if to be cooked in batter dry be- 
tween the folds of a towel. Use cutlets of trumese batter with 
them, or with soaked dried mushrooms. 

Puff Balls 

Pare and cut puff ball mushrooms into half-inch slices. Sim- 
mer in butter or olive oil, with or without dipping in egg, and 
season with salt. Or, stew and serve as other mushrooms. 

Mushrooms in Rice Rings 

Shape cups of steamed or boiled rice in muffin rings, till with 
creamed mushrooms or Boundary Castle sauce, protose and mush- 
rooms a la creme, thin, or with mushroom stew. 

Sister McBurnie's Chop Seuey 

shredded cabbage mushrooms in quarters or 

shredded celery eighths 

chopped onion cream, salt 

a little butter if used 



MUSHROOMS 219 

Put into close covered vessel in oven, bake 25-35 m - Onion 
may be omitted. 

Mushrooms a la Creme 

Use all mushrooms in recipe for celery and mushrooms a la 
creme p. 115, or all fresh mushrooms in trumese and mushrooms 
a la creme p. 165. 

Fresh MushroomsUnder Glass Globe with Cream 

Cover the bottom of a porcelain dish with toast. On the 
toast pile mushrooms, gills down, several rows high, sprinkling 
with salt. Pour l /T,- l /2 cup of cream on to the mushrooms, cover 
with the globe or bell and simmer on the top of the stove 20-30 m. 

The cover is removed after the plate is placed before the guest. 
This quantity is served for luncheon when the dish is the prin- 
cipal one of the meal. For a single course, a smaller portion of 
toast would be required and not more than 4 or 5 mushroom caps. 

The dishes mav be baked in the oven. 

j 

Mushroom Timbales 

i cup stewed mushrooms in pieces 2 level tablespns. flour 
i tablespn. butter salt 

i tablespn. chopped onion YI cup consomme or milk 

i tablespn. chopped parsley 2 yolks of eggs 

i tablespn. milk 

Simmer onion in butter, add parsley, flour, and milk or con- 
somme. Remove from lire, add yolks of eggs beaten with the 
tablespn. of milk, salt and mushrooms. Fill small molds which 
have been garnished as desired, bake in pan of water 20 in. or 
until set. Unmold on to rounds of toast, surround with thick 
mushroom sauce. 

The timbales may be made of canned mushrooms and served 
with rich cream sauce. 

Mushroom and Oyster Plant Pie 

Sauce 2^J tablespns. melted but- i /^ cup water (part mushroom 
2/^2-3 tablespns. flour [ter /^cupcream [liquor if any 

salt 



22O THE LAUREL 

Mix the flour and butter, pour boiling water over, stirring, add 
cream and salt. 

Put cooked oyster plant and mushrooms in pieces (% oyster 
plant, ^3 mushrooms), I pt. in all, into baking dish. Pour sauce 
over, cover with universal or pastry crust and proceed as in tru- 
mese pie. 

Substitute stewed potatoes for oyster plant with either crust, 
or cover with a thin crust of mashed lentils, or use celery in 
place of oyster plant and cover with a rice crust. 

^ Cream of Fresh Mushroom Soup 

Cook chopped imperfect caps and stems of mushrooms in water 
5-10 m. Add more water if necessary and heavy cream; thicken 
with flour to the consistency of heavy cream. Add salt and a 
few cooked caps if desired, or, from 1-3 caps may be placed in 
each dish when the soup is served. 
This soup cannot be improved upon. 

if Boundary Castle Soup 

Add sufficient water with salt to Boundary Castle sauce to 
make of the consistency of soup. Very delicious. 

Directions for canning and drying mushrooms pp. 71 and 72. 



STUFFINGS AND DRESSINGS 



The quantity of liquid, if any, must be determined by the pur- 
pose the dressing is to be used for and the dryness of the ingre- 
dients. As a rule, dressings are better without eggs. 

Dressings may sometimes be put over the top of suitable meat 
pies for the crust. 

They may also be put into the bottom of a well oiled tin or 
pudding dish with slices of or minced nut meat or mashed leg- 
umes on top, baked and inverted on a platter or chop tray for 
serving; garnished with halves of nut meats, accompanied of 
course with a suitable gravy. 

Whole pine nuts, or broken nuts of different kinds may some- 
times be used in stuffings. 

Simple Dressing 

Dip slices of stale bread into salted hot water quickly. Lay 
them in a baking tin and sprinkle delicately with powdered leaf 
sage or savory. When a sufficient number of layers is prepared, 
sprinkle with crumbs and ; a little more water if necessary. Bake 
in a quick oven about 20 m., or until browned over the top. 
Serve on a platter with some ragout over it. 

Or, bake in a pudding dish and send to the table to be served 
with the meat dish with gravy. 

Savory Dressing 

Crumbs, egg or not, butter or oil, parsley, thyme", sage, sum- 
mer savory, onion juice and salt. 

Danish Dressing 

3 large tart apples, chopped i cup English currants 

i cup cooked rice a very little thyme, sage or 

3 chopped onions salt [savory 

Y-Z cup dry bread crumbs a little melted butter 

hot water if necessary 

(221) 



222 THE LAUREL 

Onion and Parsley Stuffing 

3 cups stale bread crumbs 2 tablespns. chopped parsley 

3 onions chopped fine 2 or 3 tablespns. oil or melted butter 

A few sage leaves may be substituted for the parsley fora sage 
and onion stuffing. 

Celery Stuffing 

Equal parts bread crumbs and finely-sliced celery, salt and 
butter. 

Nut and Raisin Dressing 

To bread crumbs, melted butter, thyme, sage, grated onion 
and salt, add a few seeded raisins and chopped English walnuts. 

Vegetable Stuffing 

YZ cup each mashed green peas, onions in oil, stewed celery, 
stewed carrot and finely-sliced raw celery, salt, I or 2 eggs. 

Chestnut Stuffing 

Mashed boiled chestnuts, salt, butter or a little heavy cream. 

Black Walnut and Potato Stuffing 

i qt. mashed potato 2-3 tablespns. grated onion 

/^ -i cup chopped black wal- 1/4 teaspn. salt 

nut meats 

Beat. 



MEAT AND VEGETABLE GRAVIES AND 

SAUCES 



'Perfection in the art of cookery is attainable only by length- 
ened experience and careful study of the qualities of foods and the 
application of sauces and seasonings. // is chiefly in knowing- how 
to make and applv sauces that a cook shows her skill." 

-Old Writer. 

Suggestions 

Use pastry flour for gravies and sauces. 

The sauce should be a little more salt than the food with which 
it is to be served. 

As a rule, the sauce should be poured around, not over the 
food. 

No positive general rule can be given for thickening, as flour 
varies and different kinds of liquid require different proportions. 
Also the evaporation of liquids, in different quantities, varies. 

About one tablespoon of flour may be calculated for each cup 
of water; but for milk, cream or tomato that amount is quite too 
much. 

Do not make sauces too thick. A sauce should not be a paste. 
The consistency of medium cream is about right for nearly all; 
some should be thinner, and a few slightly thicker. 

As they thicken by standing, make sauces thinner at first than 
required. 

A Roux is a mixture of oil or butter, and flour, heated together 
for thickening sauces. It is used in the following manner; 

Heat the oil, without browning, in a saucepan; add the flour, 
rub smooth with wire batter whip, then add liquid, hot, stirring 
until smooth. The sauce should come to the boiling point only 
and be removed at once from the fire as otherwise the oil will 

separate. 

[223] 



224 THE LAUREL 

Adding flour to hot oil cooks it more perfectly than a boiling 
liquid and obviates the raw flour taste. 
Directions for flavoring, pp. 2427. 

1 Plain Nut Sauce 

I tablespn. raw nut butter, I pt. water. Mix butter with 
water, boil r /3 hr., add salt with water to make 1^/2- -2 cups; 
thicken slightly. 

Serve with nut and legume dishes, over boiled rice and with 
some vegetables. Steamed nut butter may be used instead of raw. 

2 Nut Onion Sauce 

Cook sliced onions with plain sauce. 

3 Nut and Tomato Sauce 

Use Yi tomato instead of all water in plain sauce. A little 
browned flour sometimes. 

4 Nut Gravy for Roasts 

Cook browned flour, onion, garlic, bayleaf and a very little to- 
mato with plain sauce. A little sage occasionally. 

5 Nut and Tomato Bisque Sauce 

Thicken nut and tomato bisque, p. 93, slightly. 

t May use steamed or roasted nut butter, nutmese, or the \vater 
from boiled peanuts with a little lemon juice, for nut sauces. 

6 Simple Brown Sauce 

2 tablespns. oil or melted butter 1-2 teaspns. browned flour 
2 tablespns. flour i pt. water 

salt 

Follow directions for making sauce with roux. 

7 Brown Onion Sauce 

Simmer without browning sliced or chopped onion in oil, be- 
fore adding flour to brown sauce. 

8 Savory Sauce 

Add a delicate flavoring of leaf sage to brown or brown onio4i 
sauce. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES 22$ 

9 Roast Gravypar excellence 

A little tomato, onion, a trifle of thyme and bay leaf with nut 
cream in brown sauce. Simmer, strain. 

10 Consomme Sauce 

Consomme with more browned flour and tomato or onion, 
thickened. Roux may be used. 

11 Celery Consomme Sauce 

/^ cup finely-sliced celery 2 tablespns. flour 

2 tablespns. oil or melted butter i pt. consomme 

Add celery to hot oil, then flour and hot consomme with more 
salt if necessary. 

^ 12 Everybody's Favorite 

y?> tablespn. butter 1/^-2 tablespns. white flour 

i/3 tablespn. oil i^ cup boiling water 

^-i clove garlic 24 cup milk 

1-2 teaspns. browned flour salt 

/^ tablespn. chopped parsley 

Throw crushed or finely-chopped garlic into oil and proceed 
as for sauce with roux, adding parsley last, of course. The sauce 
is nice without the parsley. Raw or steamed nut butter may be 
used. 

13 Almond and Tomato Cream Sauce starchless 

/^ tablespn. almond butter i cup strained tomato 

/^ teaspn. salt 

Rub butter smooth with tomato, heat to boiling, add salt and 
serve. 

This sauce heated with stewed okra makes a delightful omelet 
sauce, or side dish, or dressing for trumese, toast or rice. 

* 14 Old Fashioned Milk Gravy 

i pt. rich milk (part cream) 2-2/^2 tablespns. browned 

flour No. i 

Blend the flour with cold water or milk, stir into boiling milk, 
boil up and add salt. Or, put i-i^ tablespn. of oil in a sauce 



226 THE LAUREL 

pan; when just hot add the flour, then hot milk, stir until smooth 
and add salt. 

* 15 Sour Cream Gravy 

YI cup sour cream /^-i teaspn. browned flour 

1 tablespn. flour boiling water 

salt 

Mix cream and flour, pour boiling water over, stirring constantly^ 
to make of the desired consistency; boil thoroughly, add salt, 
serve. The gravy may be flavored. 

16 Cream or White Sauce 

2 tablespns. oil or melted butter i/^ tablespn. flour 
(or i tablespn. solid butter) i pt. milk 

salt 

Follow directions for sauce with roux. Or, heat milk, with- 
out oil, in an oiled frying pan, to just boiling; add slowly, stir- 
ring, flour blended with water or milk. Boil up well, remove 
from fire, add salt. 

y^-Y^ cream and /^ water may be used instead of milk. 

For vegetables the sauce should be thinner. A teaspoonful of 
sugar improves the flavor with carrots and turnips. 



Tomato Cream Sauce 
Especially suitable for mashed peas or sweet potatoes. 
Add l /2 cup rich strained tomato and more salt to each pint 
of cream sauce. 

18 Cream of Tomato Sauce 

i pt. strained tomato % cup cream (/^ cup if thin) 

i tablespn. our i teaspn. salt 

Thicken boiling tomato, add cream, remove from fire, add salt. 
Do not add the salt before the cream. 

19 Cream of Tomato SauceSister Howard's 

i-i/^ tablespn. butter i pt. tomato 

finely-sliced onion 2-3 tablespns. cream 

i-i/4 tablespn. flour salt 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES 227 

Simmer onion in butter without browning, add flour, hot 
tomato, cream and salt. 

CREAM SAUCE VARIATIONS 

20 Mint Cream Add chopped mint to cream sauce. Use 
for green peas, mashed dry green peas, poached or hard 
boiled eggs and other dishes. 

21 Cream of Celery- -Use water in which celery was cooked, 
with cream, or milk and oil or butter, for cream sauce, and add 
stewed celery. 

22 Cream of Onion Add stewed, crushed, boiled onions to 
cream sauce. Or, add cooked onions to roux in pan, then add 
milk. Or, simmer without browning, chopped raw onions in oil, 
before adding flour. 

23 Cream of Parsley Chopped parsley in cream sauce. 

24 Cream of Spinach- -Pour cream sauce gradually stirring, 
into macerated, cooked spinach; heat; strain through wire 
strainer if necessary, 

25 Lavender- -Finely-chopped, cooked purple cabbage in 
cream sauce. 

26 Golden- -Mashed or grated cooked carrots in cream sauce, 
with or without onion and garlic. 

27 Brown Cream- -Use i-i l /2 (according to brownness) table- 
spn. browned flour in cream sauce recipe. 

28 Egg Cream Add yolks of 2 eggs to each pint of cream 
sauce. 

29 Egg Cream No. 2- -I tablespn. butter, I teaspn. flour, I 
cup milk, 2 beaten eggs, salt, 1-2 tablespns. lemon juice if de- 
sired, chopped parsley. 

30 Egg Cream non-starch- -For stewed cucumbers, oyster 
plant, asparagus and carrots. To each pint of vegetables, ^ ta- 
blespn. butter, ^2 cup thin cream or rich milk, yolk of I egg, 
salt. Richer cream may be used and butter omitted. Use the 
yolks of 3 eggs only for a pint of cream. 



228 THE LAUREL 

31 Egg Add hard boiled eggs in dice or coarsely-chopped, 
to cream sauce. 

32 Bread Sauce 

y$ cup fine dry bread crumbs i pt. dairy or nut milk 

(or / 3-i cup stale crumbs) salt 

Soak crumbs in half the milk in double boiler till soft; beat 
until smooth; add salt and the remainder of the milk, heat, 
strain through coarse strainer, if necessary. If the milk is not 
rich a little butter may be added just before serving. Browned 
coarse crumbs (fine croutons) may be sprinkled over the dish 
with which the sauce is served. 

Flavor sauce with onion, onion and sage, chives, celery salt, 
or onion and parsley, sometimes. 

33 Bread and Bean SauceSister Elsie's 

i cup mashed beans i/^ cup rich milk 

%-/4 cup bread crumbs (from salt i teaspn. flour 

rising bread if you have it) salt 

i tablespn. butter if desired 

Milk from raw nut butter gives another sauce. 

34 Drawn Butter 

1/4-2 tablespns. butter i cup boiling water 

i tablespn. flour salt 

Rub butter and flour together, pour boiling water over, heat 
to boiling, remove from fire and add salt; or, follow directions 
for sauce with roux. 

VARIATIONS OF DRAWN BUTTER 

35 Cream--Use i l /i cup milk instead of water in preceding 
recipe. 

36 Tomato- -Use ^-^ cup of strained tomato, and water to 
make i Y cup, in drawn butter. Flavor with onion if desired. 

37 Egg - -Chopped or sliced hard boiled eggs in drawn butter. 

38 Sour--^ to i tablespn. lemon juice to each cup of liquid 
n drawn butter. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES 22Q 

39 Onion Add crushed boiled onions to drawn butter. Use 
sometimes i^- 1 /^ tablespn. browned flour No. i, instead of 
white flour. May simmer (without browning) sliced or chopped 
raw onion in butter before adding flour. 

40 Drawn Butter Sauce 
Add y% cup of cream to plain drawn butter. 

41 Emerald Parsley Sauce 

Add 3-4 tablespns. chopped parsley to drawn butter of I pt. of 
water. 2 or 3 teaspns. lemon juice may be added, also a little 
mint and sugar sometimes. 

A nice way to prepare the parsley is to wash it well and boil 
TO m. in salted water, drain, chop and bruise to a pulp. Milk 
with less flour may be used for the sauce. 

42 Tarragon Sauce 

Substitute finely-chopped fresh tarragon for parsley in preced- 
ing recipe. Use a little lemon juice if desired. 

^ 43 Sauce for Meat and Vegetable Pies 

Rub together 5 tablespns. oil or melted butter and 5 to 6 
tablespns. of flour; add I qt. boiling water, boil well, add salt. 
Or, make as sauce with roux. 

Allow a few slices of onion to stand in sauce for 10 m., then 
strain and it is nice for the table for any use. 

44 Gravy for Rhode Island Johnny Cakes 

corn meal porridge, macaroni and rice. 

i tablespn. oil i level teaspn. white flour 

i teaspn. butter /4 cup water 

i level teaspn. browned flour salt 

a little powdered sage 

45 Cream of Lentil Gravy 

For rice, macaroni or cutlets of corn meal porridge. 

i cup mashed lentils i teaspn. flour 

i cup rich milk or thin cream salt 



23O THE LAUREL 

Thicken milk with flour blended with \vater and combine with 
lentils; heat. Add finely-sliced celery and chopped parsley for 
some dishes. 

46 Nut and Lentil Gravy 

y* cup lentils (large cup- /^-/^ cup strained tomato 

ful after cooking) X tablespn. nut butter 

i cup water 

Mix nut butter with water and add with tomato to mashed 
lentils. Heat to boiling, strain through fine strainer, add salt. 

47 Swiss Lentil Gravy 

i cup mashed lentils slices of onion 

1-2 teaspns. browned flour i teaspn. white flour 

salt 

Heat lentils, browned flour and onion together for 10 m. 
Thicken with white flour stirred smooth with water. Add salt, 
strain, reheat. 

48 Vegetable Gravy 

3 tablespns. chopped onion 5 tablespns. white flour 

3 "tablespns. finch-slice celery 1-2 teaspns. browned flour 

2 tablespns. grated carrot /^ cup strained tomato 

i clove garlic, crushed 3/^2 cups boiling water 

1 large bay -leaf a trifle of thyme, salt 

5 tablespns. oil i tablespn. chopped parsley 

Simmer vegetables and bay leaf in oil for 10 m. Do not brown. 
Add brown and white flour, tomato and water; boil. Remove 
bay leaf; add salt, thyme and parsley; serve. Celery tops may 
be used instead of sliced stalks. The gravy may be strained. 

49 Olive Sauce 

2 tablespns. olive oil i pt. water, milk, or raw nut butter 
i tablespn. chopped onion milk (i tablespn. raw nut butter 
I-I/4 tablespn. flour cooked in water 20 m. to /4 hr.) 

i teaspn. browned flour 10-15 ripe olives 

1-2 tablespns. lemon juice if desired 

Prepare sauce in the usual manner and add sliced or chopped 
olives just before serving. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES 23! 

50 Olive and Nut Butter Sauce 

For Rhode Island Johnny cakes, corn meal porridge, macaroni 

and potatoes. 

Make thin cream of roasted nut butter, boil up, add chopped 
or sliced ripe olives and salt if necessary. A little tomato ma}' 
be used. 

For a cold sauce, stir nut butter smooth with tomato or water 
and add chopped olives. 

51 Cream of Fresh Mushroom Sauce 

Cook chopped stems and imperfect mushrooms in salted water 
for 10 m. Add water. Thicken a little more than for an ordinary 
sauce. Add a little heavy cream, heat. 

Mushrooms may be cooked for 20 m. in milk and butter in a 
double boiler or on back of range. 

52 Mushroom and Asparagus Sauce 

Use asparagus liquor for part of the liquid in the preceding 
recipe and add a few cooked asparagus tips. 

53 Boundary Castle (Fresh Mushroom) Sauce 

For timbales, mashed lentils, macaroni, rice, potatoes or toast, 
broiled trumese, croquettes, patties and corn meal porridge. 

2 tablespns. oil 2 tablespns. tomato 

3 tablespns. chopped onion ^4-1 teaspn. salt 

^2 tablespn. browned flour 34--I cup chopped mushrooms 

2/ / 2 tablespns. white flour i tablespn. chopped parsley 

Simmer but do not brown onion in oil for 10 m., add browned 
and white flour mixed, then tomato, with water for thick sauce. 
Now add with their liquor, the mushrooms which have been 
cooked for 10 m. and water to make of the right consistency, 
with the salt and parsley. 

When served with tinfbales decorated with truffles, use juice 
of truffles in sauce. 



232 THE LAUREL 

54 Italian (Dried Mushroom) Sauce 

2 tablespns. butter and oil mushroom liquor with hot 

2 tablespns. chopped onion rich milk to make i pt. 

i clove of garlic, crushed X cup dried mushrooms 

1/^-2 tablespns. flour salt 

Heat oil, add onion and garlic, simmer, add flour, then liquid, 
and lastly the mushrooms which have been soaked for 2 hours, 
chopped, and cooked for 5 m. in the water in which they were 
soaked. Serve sometimes over split biscuit, on a platter, with 
slices of broiled trumese on top, sprinkled with chopped parsley. 

For variety, add I teaspn. browned flour and 2 tablespns. 
tomato to the sauce. 

For Italian Tomato Sauce, use ^2 cup tomato instead of the 

mushrooms. 

55 Canned Mushroom Sauce 

2 tablespns. oil or butter a trifle of thyme 

2 tablespns. onion, chopped a very little sage 

1 clove garlic, crushed /^ cup sliced, canned mushrooms 
1^2-2 tablespns. flour i pt. liquid water and 

2 teaspns. browned flour mushroom liquor 
}i cup tomato salt 

Proceed as in other similar recipes. 

if 56 Dried Mushroom Brown Sauce 

3 level tablespns. butter /4 cup strong dried mushroom 
2 level tablespns. flour i/4 cup milk [liquor 

2 level teaspns. browned flour salt 

May add a few chopped dried mushrooms cooked 5 m. after 
soaking 4-5 hours. A little lemon juice may be added if liked. 

if 57 Sauce Imperial 

i qt. stewed tomatoes i tablespn. chopped onion 

1 or 2 large bay leaves /^ of a lemon, rind and all 

2 large sprigs thyme 2 tablespns. oil 

(or X teaspn. dry thyme) 2^2 or 3 tablespns. flour 

salt 

Cook all except flour, oil and parsley together for 20 m. 
Strain, heat oil, add flour and the strained tomato mixture. 
Then add i X to i l /2 teaspn. salt (or enough to destroy the acid 
taste of the tomato), and the parsley. 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES 233 

if 58 Chili Sauce 

4 qts. stewed tomatoes i%i-2% tablespns. salt 

2-3 pints finely-sliced onion i /4-2 tablespns. celery salt 

1 cup sugar 4 large bay leaves 
iK cup lemon juice %-% teaspn. thyme 

Cook tomato, onion and bay leaf together until onions are 

/ o 

tender; then add dry ingredients (which have been mixed to- 
gether), and the lemon juice. Boil up well, put into jars and 
seal. Thyme and bav leaf mav omitted. 

/ / ^ 

* 59 Tomato Catsup 

2 qts. strained, stewed tomato 4 tablespns. sugar 
i large head of celery 4 teaspns. salt. 

Slice celery very fine, add with sugar and salt to the boiling 
tomatoes; cook until the celery is tender and the sauce rather 

thick. 

60 Other Catsups 

Very delightful sauces may be made by cooking a consomme, 
the nut French soup and other suitable soups down thick. 

61 Peas and Carrot Sauce 

Add cooked carrots cut into dice or fancy shapes, and cooked 
green peas, to thickened white soup stock, p. //. They may be 
added to cream sauce or drawn butter. 

62 Pink Sauce 

Fruit color, or rich red beet juice in drawn butter or white 
sauce. Sauce may be flavored with onion, garlic and lemon 
juice or w r ith celery. 

63 Apple and Onion Sauce 

Simmer chopped onion in oil 5-10 m. Add thick slices of 
apple with salt and a very little water. Cover close; cook until 
apples are tender. Serve with broiled trumese or nutmese, or 
with omelets or scrambled eggs. 

64 Another 

Apples in quarters, not pared, grated onion, a little tomato, 
sugar, salt and celery salt, water to cook apples tender. Rub 
through colander. 



234 THE LAUREL 

65 Currant Sauce 

i qt. currants Y* teaspn. salt 

i large onion, sliced 2-3 tablespns. sugar 

i teaspn. celery salt /^ cup water 

Cook onion in water, with salt and sugar. When tender, add 
currants and celery salt; cook until currants are broken but not 
till the seeds are hard. Put into jars boiling hot. Seal. 

66 Currant Sauce No. 2 

i qt. currants 3 or 4 tablespns. sugar 

i small head celery- Y* teaspn. salt 

i pt. finely sliced i cup water 

Simmer all together until currants are broken. Seal in jars. 
Or, cook celery in salted water, add currants and sugar, and cook 
until currants are broken only. 

67 Baked Gooseberry Sauce 

i pt. ripe gooseberries /^ cup water 

Y* cup sugar a little salt 

Put all into baking dish, cover close, bake about an hour. 

68 Jellied Chutney Sauce 

i pt. currant juice i-i/4 cup ground seeded raisins 

i pt. red raspberry juice particles of thin yellow r shavings of 
i cup orange juice half an orange 

3/^j cups granulated sugar 

Make jelly and add a little at a time to raisins. Stir in orange 
rind and put into tumblers. Rind may be omitted. 

69 Tomato Chutney 

i qt. sliced tomatoes i cup water 

i qt. sliced onions i cup chopped raisins 

y^. cup lemon juice salt 

Cook all together i^ hour. 

70 Ripe Cucumber Chutney 

i qt. pared and seeded ripe -/$ teaspn. ground 

cucumber in cubes coriander seed 

Y$ cup lemon juice Y-Y teaspn. celery salt 

~/i cup sugar Yt cup seeded raisins 



GRAVIES AND SAUCES 235 

Soak cucumber in cold water over night, drain; cook with the 
sugar, raisins and part of the lemon juice until soft; add the other 
ingredients, heat well and seal in jars. 

71 Apple and Green Tomato Chutney 

2 qts. chopped tart apples 1-2 cups water 

3 cups (i Ib. ) seeded raisins 2 qts. chopped green tomatoes 
3-4 cups brown sugar i large onion chopped 

3-4 cups lemon juice Y^-Y^ cup salt 

Grind tomatoes through food chopper, drain, pour cold water 
over and drain after I hr., mix all ingredients, let stand in stone 
jar over night. 

In the morning set jar in kettle of cold water with something 
underneath to keep it from the bottom of the kettle; heat to 
boiling, cook 6 hrs., stirring occasionally. Seal in jars. May 
cook carefully in preserving kettle on pad or ring. 

72 Brother Coates' Mother's Chutney 

M pt. lemon juice /^ cup chopped onion and 

% pt. water % cup shallots or 3 /i cup onion 

Y^ cup brown sugar i pt. gooseberries (24 pt. canned) 

3-6 cloves of garlic %-i pt. quartered apples /^ as many 

3 level tablespns. salt dried apples 

Y\ cup raisins 

Chop fruit fine, boil in ^ the lemon juice and water with the 
sugar. Chop onions, shallots and garlic fine, mix with salt and 
remaining lemon juice and water and add to boiling fruit. Cook 
well together and put into jars. 

73 Mint Sauce 

i tablespn. chopped spearmint 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i tablespn. brown sugar 2 tablespns. boiling water 

Pour boiling water over mint, add lemon juice and sugar and 
stir until sugar is dissolved. Do not heat sauce. Proportions 
of mint, sugar and lemon juice may be varied and water may be 
omitted. 

74 Currant Mint Sauce 

Add chopped mint to melted currant jelly. The addition of 



236 THE LAUREL 

particles of thin yellow rind of orange makes a variation. 

75 Sauce Americaine 

Suitable for Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, breaded carrots or bean 

croquettes. 

2 tablespns. oil or oil and i tablespn. lemon juice 

butter % teaspn. salt 

yolks of 2 eggs /^- i cup of hot water 

Cook in double boiler like custard, adding only a part of the 
water at first. 

A little less water may be used. 

For variety add chopped or sliced olives, or onion juice and 
parsley, or olives and onion. 

76 Sauce for Breaded Carrots 

Cream the yolk of a hard boiled egg with a tablespn. of butter; 
place on back of range and add l /4-i tablespn. of lemon juice 
with water to make 2 tablespns., and salt. As soon as the mix- 
ture thickens, pour it over the carrots.' 

77 Sour Sauce for Carrot Timbale 

1 tablespn. butter i cup boiling" water 
yolks of 3 eggs i /4 tablespn. lemon juice 

2 tablespns. cream %-% teaspn. salt 

Mix creamed butter and beaten yolks of eggs with cream; pour 
boiling water over; cook in double boiler until thick. Remove 
from fire, add lemon juice and salt. Serve at once. Excellent 
without lemon juice. 

78 Lemon Butter Sauce 

Cream butter and work into it lemon juice to taste. Add 
chopped parsley, i tablespn. to each half cup of butter. 

A few chopped nuts may also be added. 

79 Pickle for Beets, String Beans and Carrots 

2 parts lemon juice, i part water, i-i/i part sugar, a trifle 
of salt or none; heat to boiling, pour over vegetables, drain off. 
Repeat twice. 

With string beans a little celery salt or finely-sliced celery 
may be used. 



VEGETABLES 

'Upon leaving Eden to gain his livelihood by tilling the 
earth under the curse of sin, man received permission to eat also 
'the herb of the field. 1 " 

While vegetables are not, as some suppose, the chief article 
of a vegetarian diet, they form an important part of it, supply- 
ing the bulk so necessary to good digestion, as well as the min- 
eral elements. One writer says, 'Nearly all vegetables are blood 
purifiers; they dissolve other food and greatly assist digestion.' 

Suggestions 

Vegetables should be used soon after gathering, as they begin 
to ferment and lose their wholesomeness as well as flavors very 
shortly. 

j 

As a rule put vegetables to cooking in boiling water, and bring 
to the boiling point again as quickly as possible. 

Cook green vegetables in salted water to preserve their shape 
and color. A lump of white sugar in the saucepan is said to pre- 
serve the color also, or a few drops of lemon juice, or charcoal 
tied in muslin. 

Onions and cabbage should be cooked in salted water. 

Cook roots and tubers in unsalted, and if possible soft water 
until tender or nearly so; then add the salt and let them boil up 
well. 

If roots have become withered soak them in water as nearly 
ice cold as possible, for three or four hours or over night, before 
cooking. 

Soak cauliflower and loose heads of cabbage in cold (not salted) 
water for an hour or more. Drain and shake gently to dislodge 
insects, if any. 

Pare all vegetables except turnips, as thin as possible. 

[237] 



238 THE LAUREL 

Turnips should be pared inside the dark line encircling them, 
or they will have a strong taste. 

Parboiling leeks, onions, cabbage and old carrots renders them 
more digestible and more agreeable to some. 

All vegetables will require longer cooking at great altitude. 

Milk or cream of raw or steamed (not roasted) nut butter may 
be substituted for dairy milk or cream with nearly all vegetables. 

Many vegetables are delightful to the cultivated taste served 
plain with Brazil or other nuts. Thus we get the benefit of the 
fine delicate flavors in the different foods instead of covering 
them up with sauces and dressings. 

More elaborate dishes of vegetables are given among entrees. 

Artichokes Globe 

Soak artichokes for several hours or over night, drain, cut 
stalks close, trim away the bottom leaves, clip the sharp points 
from the leaves or cut off the tops straight across. Boil in salted 
water, if possible with charcoal tied in piece of muslin, until 
tender enough for the leaves to draw out easily, %-i hour. Re- 
move from water carefully with flat wire beater or small skimmer. 
Drain upside down; serve whole or in halves or quarters, with 
cream or egg cream sauce, drawn butter or sauce Amt-ricaine 
poured around; or on a napkin on hot platter or chop tray and 
pass sauce with them. Serve cold w 7 ith French dressing. 

It h a good plan to tie a strip of muslin around each artichoke 
before boiling to hold it in shape, and to put an inverted plate 
upon them while cooking to keep them down. 

Artichokes-- Jerusalem. 

Wash and boil artichokes with the skins on until tender, 
30-40 m. If they boil too long they may become tough. Drain, 
peel, and serve in rich cream sauce. They may be peeled before 
boiling. 

A still better way is to peel artichokes cut them into thick slices 
and boil 15-20 m., then drain thoroughly and serve in cream, 
cream of tomato or onion cream sauce. 



VEGETABLES 239 

Not containing any starch, Jerusalem artichokes are suitable 
for salads, either cooked in slices and dried on a towel after 
draining, or used raw in thin slices. 

Asparagus 

Select green asparagus for the table, the short bleached stalks 
are tough and often bitter. Take care also that asparagus is 
fresh. The tops of stale asparagus have the odor of spoiled 
flesh meat and are not tit to use. 

If not just from the garden, asparagus should stand in cold 
water l /2-i hour before cooking. Wash thoroughly, dipping 
the heads up and down in a large quantity of water, shaking 
well to dislodge the sand. 

As the different parts of the stalk vary in tenderness, the best 
way to prepare and cook asparagus is to lay a handful of stalks 
on a vegetable board and holding it with the left hand, with a 
large sharp knife cut off the tips about I % in. from the end, 
and if the next part is very tender, cut off I in. more to go with 
the tips. Then cut inch lengths of the next that is of about 
equal tenderness, and lastly, the remaining part of the stalk that 
is not tough. The tough part save to flavor soups or sauces, or, 
reject entirely. 

To cook, throw the third lot, that nearest the tough part, into 
boiling salted water, boil for 10 m., add the second lot, boil 
10 m., throw in the top part and boil 10-15 m., or until tips are 
just tender. By this method the asparagus is all nice and ten- 
der and the tips are whole. 

When desiring to serve in longer pieces, lay on the board as 
before and cut 4 or 5 in. from the top (reserving the remaining 
part for soups or scallops). Tie into neat bundles with strips of 
muslin. Stand these bundles in rapidly boiling, salted water 
with the heads well out. Cook from 20 to 30 m., when the 
stalks will be tender and not decapitated. 
Asparagus is one of the vegetables that will not admit of many 



240 THE LAUREL 

combinations; such only as develop and preserve its character- 
istic flavor are suitable. 

AsparagusCream or Butter 

Cook in short pieces as directed; drain or leave the water on 
(there should be but little); add without stirring a little heavy 
cream; bring just to the boiling point, remove from the fire, add 
more salt if necessary, shaking gently to dissolve it, and serve in 
vegetable dish with or without points of toast around the edge. 

Butter may be substituted for cream. 

AsparagusEgg Cream Sauce 

Lay cooked asparagus in small pieces on hot moistened toast 
of any desired shape, on tray or platter, and pour egg cream 
sauce, around. It may also be served the same with a nice rich 
cream sauce, or with either sauce in pastry crusts for Asparagus 
en Croustade. 

AsparagusDrawn Butter 

On large, slightly moistened toast points on a platter, pile 
long pieces of asparagus cooked according to directions (enough 
for one serving on each piece of toast), the heads all one way, 
and put a generous spoonful of drawn butter on each. Or the 
sauce may be put on when serving. 

Asparagus Sauce Americaine and Spinach Leaves 

Lay asparagus on hot platter with heads toward each end and 
stem ends just meeting in center; surround with border of salad 
leaves of spinach and place same across the asparagus where the 
stems meet. Serve leaves with asparagus, and pass sauce Amer- 
icaine. 

String Beans Cream, Nut or Dairy 

String beans should be gathered before the pods begin to show 7 
the shape of the bean much. 

To prepare, break the blossom end back and pull off the string 
from that side, then break the stem the other way and remove 
the string from that side. Wash beans w 7 ell and if they have 



VEGETABLES 24! 

not been crisped before stringing, let them lie in cold (ice, if 
possible) water a half hour or longer. Drain, take in handfuls 
on to the vegetable board and cut into ^ in. lengths (cut di- 
agonally instead of straight across when preferred). Throw 
into boiling salted water and boil until tender, 1-3 hours. Drain, 
saving the water for soups or to make drawn butter sometimes 
for the beans. Cover with cream, heat, remove from fire, add 
salt, serve. 

Cream from raw nut butter may be added to the beans about 
X hour before they are done instead of using dairy cream. 

Cream sauce of either nut or dairy milk may be served over 
beans on toast if desired. 

Wax and stringless beans are prepared and cooked the same 
except that young stringless beans have no strings. Any of the 
varieties may be cooked in whole pods when desired but will re- 
quire a longer time for cooking. Flowering or scarlet runner 
beans are used for string beans when the pods are very young. 

String BeansNut and Tomato Bisque Sauce 
Prepare beans as above and cover with sauce 5, made of either 
raw or roasted nut butter. 

Shelled Green Beans 

Wash beans before shelling and not after, cook in boiling salted 
water until tender, the time varying according to the variety. 
Allow plenty of time as beans are richer in flavor if simmered or 
kept hot for some time after they are tender. 

They may be served with different sauces, but it seems too bad 
to spoil their delightful flavors with anything but salt, or a little 
cream or butter, nut or dairy. 

Flowering Beans Green 

The large pole beans with red and white blossoms have the 
richest flavor of all shelled beans. After shelling, put beans into 
cold water, let them heat slowly to the boiling point and boil 
5-10 m. Drain, let cold water run over them in the colander. 



242 THE LAUREL 

Return to the fire with boiling salted water and cook until ten- 
der, considerably longer than other shelled beans. Serve plain, 
or with a little cream poured over and shaken (not stirred) into 
them a few minutes before removing from the fire. If one has 
the time to hull these and Lima beans, it may be done. 
To Hull Boil beans about half an hour (or until the skins are 
loosened) in unsalted water. Drain and slip the hulls off with 
the thumb and finger. 

Cook after hulling in double boiler or very gently on back of 
stove, adding seasoning before they are quite tender which will 
be in a much shorter time than with the hulls on. 

Beets 

Beets should be fresh, plump and firm. If slightly withered, 
they may be freshened by standing in cold water over night. 
But if much withered do not waste time and fuel in trying to 
cook them, as they will be bitter and tough with any amount of 
cooking. Use care in handling beets before cooking so as not to 
break the skins. If the skins are broken the flavor and sweet- 
ness of the beet will be lost in the water. Press with thumb 
and finger to find when they are tender rather than to puncture 
with a knife or fork. 

Put to cooking in perfectly boiling w r ater. Boil steadily until 
tender, when remove at once from the fire as over-cooking tough- 
ens them, throw into cold water a moment and rub off the skins. 
Serve plain, whole if small, or cut into quarters if large; or, slice 
and pour over a hot mixture of lemon juice and sugar (part water 
and a trifle of salt may be used), or hot cream with salt, or salt 
and olive oil. 

Small young beets, right from the garden, will cook in from 
20 m. to I hr. Large, old ones in winter will require 3-5 hours. 

Pickled Beets 

Let sliced beets stand over night in sauce 79. 

Broccoli 

This is a vegetable grown in cool climates, similar to cauli- 



VEGETABLES 243 

flower, more hardy but not so fine in quality. Follow directions 
for cooking and serving cauliflower, except that broccoli re- 
quires about 20 m. only for cooking. 

Brussels Sprouts 

Wash, pick off outside leaves, lay in cold water T /2-i hour, 
drain. Boil in salted water (in cheese cloth if convenient), 
15-30 m, according to age; do not cook until soft. Drain care- 
fully, pile in center of dish; serve with hot cream poured over, 
or with sauce 16, 19, 34, 57, olive oil or French dressing. May 
add i tablespoon of lemon juice to each T /4 cup of 34. 

CabbagePlain Boiled 

Trim cabbage and if not very crisp let stand in cold or ice 
water I hr. or over night. Drain, cut into sixths, eighths or 
any number of pieces 1-1/4 in. across the broadest part. Lay 
in sufficient boiling salted water to cover; let come to the boiling 
point and set back on the stove where it will simmer gently /^-^ 
of an hour, until tender only, and still perfectly white. Drain 
and lay on to hot dish with pieces overlapping. Serve at once. 

Until one has tried it, he will not know how delightfully sweet 
this cabbage is, perfectly plain, eaten slowly with Brazil nuts, fil- 
berts, almonds or English walnuts. It may be served wiih olive 
oil or lemon juice, or with both together or with sauce 16, 34 or 
57, or with the sour cream or sour milk salad dressing without 
cooling. Use two eggs in dressing when serving warm. 

If cooked until it begins to turn dark, cabbage will have a strong 
flavor and will be indigestible. 

To Parboil- -\\.\. at first into a large quantity of unsalted boiling 
water, cook 15 m., drain carefully, sprinkle with salt, pour boil- 
ing water over and proceed as above. 

My Mother's Cabbage, or Cabbage in Cream 
Shave crisp cabbage fine, cook in boiling salted water 20-30 m., 
until just tender and still white. Drain, pour in cream, heat to 
almost boiling, serve. 



244 THE LAUREL 

For Sour Cabbage Add a little lemon juice instead of or with 
cream and more salt if necessary. 

if Cabbage in Tomato 

Prepare cabbage as in preceding recipe, cook for 20 m., drain, 
add stewed tomatoes (not too juicy, they may be strained if pre- 
ferred) with salt and cook until cabbage is tender. This is an 
unusually fine combination and very suitable to accompany a 
hearty nut meat dish such as broiled trumese. A little cream 
may be added just before serving, but the dish is complete 

without it. 

Cabbage and Corn 

Heat together 2 parts of stewed cabbage and I part of corn 
with cream, nut or dairy. 

Sweet Sour Cabbage 

1 qt. fine shaved I level teaspn. salt 

cabbage /^ cup sugar 

y^ cup water /^ teaspn. caraway seeds 

2 tablespns. oil or butter X cup lemon juice 

Cook cabbage in water I 5-20 m., then add the other ingre- 
dients and simmer slowly until the cabbage is tender. 

Cabbage with Nuts and Raisins 

Season stewed cabbage with cream cocoanut, almond or 
dairy, or with butter; add stewed raisins and sprinkle chopped nuts 
over just before serving. May garnish with halves of nuts. 

Carrots 

Carrots being among the most healthful vegetables should be 
used freely, and with a little care they may be made exceed- 
ingly palatable. 

Unless very fresh, let carrots stand in cold water for some 
time before paring. When they are full grown, or late in the 
season, parboil them to remove the strong taste. 

It will require from 20 m. to I % hr. to cook carrots tender, 
according to the age and the sizes into which they are cut. A 



VEGETABLES 245 

little chopped parsley makes a pretty combination with most of 

the dishes. 

CarrotsMinced 

Scrape or pare carrots, cut into strips, grind in food cutter 
coarse or fine as preferred, cook in water until tender, add salt, 
boil, drain. Add a little cream, cream sauce, butter or oil, 
reheat, serve. Add a trifle of sugar to cream sauce or cream. 
Carrots may be ground or rubbed through colander after boiling. 

CarrotsStewed 

Cut pared carrots into quarters, sixths or eighths, lengthwise, 
then across in quarter inch slices in the largest part and grad- 
ually thicker toward the small end; or if carrots are small and of 
uniform size they may be cut in whole round slices. Cook until 
tender, drain, and reheat with cream, or sauce 16 or 28, to each 
pint of which a teaspoonful of sugar has been added, or add but- 
ter and lemon juice, sauce I, 2 or 34. 

Carrots a la Washington 

i qt. sliced or diced carrots YV tablespn. browned flour 

i cup to i pint sliced onions 3 4-i teaspn. salt 

Y^. cup strained tomato i tablespn. raw nut butter if 

desired 

Cook all together in a small quantity of water until carrots 
are tender and well dried out. 

Pickled Carrots 

Pour sauce 79, over sliced cooked carrots, cover and let stand 
for several hours. 

Carrots and PeasBetter than either alone 

Mix i part stewed carrots and 2 parts cooked green peas. Add 
cream or cream sauce, heat and serve. 

Or, the carrots may be cooked in slices, laid overlapping 
around edge of flat dish, with peas piled in center and sauce 
poured around. 

Carrots and String Beans Excellent 
Equal quantities cooked string beans and carrots with cream 



246 THE LAUREL 

oi' cream sauce. If preferred, the beans may be cooked whole 
and the carrots cut into strips. 

Carrots and Onions 

Pour hot cream over a mixture of stewed onions and carrots; 
heat and serve. 

Carrots and Beets 

Heat mixture for pickled carrots, add I part carrots and2 
parts beets; serve as soon as hot. Butter, lemon juice and salt 
may be used instead of the dressing. 



& 



Carrots and CornDelightful 

To equal quantities of stewed carrots and corn add cream or 
thin rich cream sauce; heat, serve. If the corn is dried corn, 
especially dried yellow sweet corn, the dish is most delightful. 

Carrots and Succotash 

i part each carrots and beans with 2 parts corn; season with 
cream or with milk and butter. 

Cauliflower 

While cauliflower is a delightfully delicate vegetable when 
properly cooked, it is easily rendered strong and disagreeable. 
It should be cooked until tender only, 15-25 m. in constantly 
boiling liquid, either slightly salted water, or milk and water (% 
milk), salted. Tie loosely in cheese cloth or muslin to prevent 
any particles of scum from settling on it and to keep the flower- 
ets whole, then drop into a sufficient quantity of rapidly boiling 
liquid to cover it. 

It should not lose its snowy whiteness in cooking. 5 m. of 
over-cooking will ruin it. The milk helps to keep it white and 
gives it a richer flavor. 

To serve \vhole, trim off the outside leaves, leaving the inside 
green leaves on, and cut the stalk close. When done, lay care- 
fully in a round dish and pour sauce over or around it. If the 
head is a perfect one, do not cover its beauty with sauce. 



VEGETABLES 247 

Sauce 16, 18 or 75 or 34 plain or with lemon juice, are all 
suitable for the heads, and when broken into flowerets it is de- 
lightful with hot rich cream poured over it. Salt and oil, with 
or without lemon juice may also be used. 

Nice perfect flowerets with Sauce Americaine or any suitable 
sauce may be used as a garnish for tirnbales and other true meat 
dishes. 

For salad, let cooked cauliflower stand in cold water until 

ready to serve. 

CeleryRaw 

Trim off the coarse outside stalks, leaving about an inch of 
the root stalk; then cut the whole stalk into quarters or sixths 
from the bottom up, and throw into ice water until well crisped. 
If there should be dirt between the stalks it will be necessary to 
cut them off and brush each one separately with a vegetable 
brush. Throw the tender inside stalks into water to be served 
raw, and reserve the outside ones for cooking. 

It is said that wilted celery may be restored to crispness by 
dipping into hot water or laying a few minutes in warm water, 
then plunging into ice water. 

CeleryMint Sauce 

Cut tender stalks of celery across as fine as possible, cover 
with cold fresh mint sauce and serve in dainty cups with suitable 

true meat dishes. 

CeleryStewed 

Cut tender stalks of celery (not those that are fit for flavoring 
only) into half-inch lengths, by handfuls on board with large knife. 
Put into boiling salted water and boil 30-35 m., or until just 
tender. Drain (there should not be much water left), pour cream 
or sauce over, let stand over hot water 10-20 m. Serve by itself 
or on toast. Sauce 16, plain, with a few drops of lemon juice 
in it, or made with half water in which the celery was cooked, 
or 34 57 or 3 T (when using 31, of course it should not stand 
over hot water) are all enjoyable with it. 



248 THE LAUREL 

if Celery in Tomato 

Stew celery as above in just enough water to cook, for 25 rn. 
and have very little water, if any, remaining; then add enough 
strained or unstrained stewed tomato to nearly cover, and sim- 
mer until celery is tender and tomato cooked away a little. The 
combination of the flavors of celerv and tomato is unusuallv 

tj +/ 

fine. The addition just before serving of a little heavy cream 
makes the dish still more delicious. 

Chard Swiss 

Swiss Chard or Spinach Beet, affords two distinct dishes from 
the same plant at one time. Strip the leafy part of the foliage 
from the stalk and cook as greens. Cook and serve the stalks 
the same as asparagus. The leaves and stalks may be cooked 
together as greens. 

Young shoots of poke or scoke are sometimes served as ' 'French 

Chard.' 

CornGreen 

The earliest varieties of green corn are never very sweet. By 
far the richest and sweetest are the yellow kinds, though the 
dark purple or black almost equals them. There are also some 
medium or later varieties of white corn that are excellent. 

Corn is at its best the day it is gathered. When not perfectly 
fresh, cook corn in almost any other way than on the cob. 
Never cook it in salted water as salt hardens it. Corn requires 
the least salt for seasoning of any vegetable. 

Corn On the Cob 

Husk nice fresh corn and put it over the fire in cold water. 
When just at the boiling point, but not boiling, remove from the 
fire. Let it stand in the hot water where it will not boil until 
ready to serve. 

Serve in a dish on a napkin covered with another napkin, or 
in a close covered dish, as a few moments' exposure to the air 
toughens it. In eating, score each row with one tine of the 
fork so that the hulls will be left on the cob, unless you have a 
corn slitter. 



VEGETABLES 



249 



CornBoiled 

Put husked corn into boiling water and boil rapidly for 5-15 m., 
usually about 10 m., as that which requires 12-15 m - cooking is 
really too old to cook on the cob. Young, tender corn will cook 
in 5 m. Long boiling destroys the sweetness of corn and ren- 
ders it tough. 

CornSteamed 

Wrap ears of corn in cheese cloth and steam for 15-20 m. 




CORN SLITTER FOR INDIVIDUAL USE AT TABLE 



Hold the ear of corn with one hand and draw the slitter with 
slight pressure. Three or four strokes will slit every grain on 
the cob. It does not remove the corn from the cob but cuts the 
hull of every grain. The delicious corn is obtained with the 
slightest pressure of the teeth, leaving the hulls on the cob. 

To Prepare Corn for Muffins, Oysters, etc.--Sl.it the grains as 
described above, then, holding the slitter in the same position 
but elevating the hand use the front of the slitter as a scoop and 
push the corn into a dish. 

Corn Baked, Boiled or Steamed in Husks 

Select nice tender ears of uniform size. Open the husks and 
remove the silk, then tie the husks close in place. A few of 
the heavy outside husks should be removed. Bake the ears in 
a hot oven, separate from each other, 15-20 m., remove the 
husks quickly and serve covered. 



250 THE LAUREL 

Or prepare in the same way and after .tying, cut off the stalk 
and point of the ear and boil rapidly for 10-12 m. or steam for 
10-20 m. Serve in the husks on napkin. The husks give a 
sweet flavor to the corn and help to keep it warm when they 
are not removed before serving. 

Corn Roasted Best of All 

Place husked corn in wire broiler or large corn popper and hold 
close to bed of hot coals, or lay on gridiron over the coals, 
turning the ears as necessary. The ears may be laid on the 
coals when more convenient and turned often, or they may be 
roasted in a very Jiot oven. 

Corn-- Stewed 

If corn is quite old, grate the outside of each ear on a coarse 
grater and scrape out the remaining pulp with the back of a 
knife. Cook carefully in oiled saucepan on ring or asbestos pad, 
in a small quantity of water 8-12 m. ; add sugar, to give the 
sweetness of young corn, salt and a little cream, cream sauce or 
butter. Heat, serve. 

When corn is not too old, the nicest way to prepare it is to 
draw a knife dow r n each row of kernels, then with a large sharp 
knife cut a thin shaving from each two rows and scrape the pulp 
from the cob with the back of a knife. Cook the part cut off in 
boiling water for 5 m., then add the pulp and cook carefully 5-8 
m. longer. Season as for grated corn, omitting the sugar if corn 
is sweet. 

In Milk Cook either way in milk in double boiler 20-30 m., 
and season as desired. 

Corn Baked 

Prepare corn in either of the ways given for stewed corn; add 
salt, sugar if necessary, and enough rich milk to cover. Bake in 
hot oven I 5-20 m. 

Corn Dried 

Cover dried corn ^ in. (or more) deep with warm water, let 



VEGETABLES 251 

stand over night. In the morning set in warm place and shortly 
before serving time increase the heat gradually until it is about 
at the boiling point, but not boiling. Season with a little 
cream, milk or butter, or with cream of raw or steamed nut but- 
ter and salt; heat, serve. 

Or, cover with warm water 1^-2 hours before meal time and 
keep hot (covered) on the back of the stove. Just before serv- 
ing, season and heat just to boiling. 

Or, best of all, cover quite deep with cold milk, let stand in 
cold place over night, cook in double boiler I hr. or longer, 
season, serve. 

Cucumbers 

The fruit of the cucumber vine "serves to introduce a large 
quantity of water into the system and is a refreshing addition to 
richer foods, especially in hot weather, when its crisp, cool suc- 
culence is peculiarly acceptable.' -C/uirc/i. 

One unusuallv successful phvsician used to recommend cucum- 

*/ x */ 

bers because they were "so crisp and easily digested.' 

Cucumbers should be gathered in the early morning, laid in 
ice water for an hour or two, then kept in the ice box or on the 
cellar bottom until serving time. Or, when they come from the 
market, they should be put at once into ice water and kept in it 
until thoroughly refreshed. Cucumbers are nearly always left 
on the vines until they are too old. Many never know the 
delightful flavor of cucumbers in which the seeds are just formed 
but not developed. 

Cucumbers au Naturel 

Pare nice crisp cucumbers, cut in quarters lengthwise and serve 
on a flat dish, to be eaten with or without salt the same as cel- 
ery. This is by far the most enjoyable way to serve cucumbers. 

Sliced Cucumbers 

Pare and slice cucumbers in not too thin slices. Pass lemon 
juice, salt and oil with them. Some prefer them with salt and 
oil only; others with lemon juice and salt. 



252 THE LAUREL 

If not thoroughly crisp, or if prepared some time before serv- 
ing, lay in ice water without salt. Salt wilts and toughens them. 

Stewed Cucumbers 

Pare cucumbers, cut into halves lengthwise, crosswise also if 
long. If seeds are large, remove them, but younger fruit is 
better. 

Lay the pieces cut side down in perfectly boiling unsalted 
water. When nearly tender 15-20 m., add a little salt to the 
water and finish cooking. They should be just tender, not soft 
when done. They will take about 20-25 m. cooking in all, 
never over 30 m. Drain thoroughly. Serve with sauce 75, 34, 
28 or 29 or with 16 made of cocoanut or dairy milk. On toast, 
with egg cream sauce like asparagus, they are especially nice. 
Sprinkle chopped parsley in the sauce. 

Egg Plant 

Egg plant belongs to the family of the deadly night-shade, 
the same as the potato, tomato, peppers and tobacco, and con- 
tains an irritating principle which should be removed by thorough 
parboiling when used. 

Egg Plant in Batter 

Cut egg-plant into l /2-^ in. slices, put into a large quantity 
of cold water, heat to boiling and boil 5 m; drain, repeat the 
process, add salt to the third water and boil until just tender; 
drain thoroughly. 

Drop spoonfuls of the following batter on well oiled griddle or 
dripping pan, lay on slices of the egg plant and cover with the 
batter. Brown delicately on both sides on the griddle or bake 
in a quick oven to a delicate brown. Serve at once. 

Batter- 

2 tablespns. oil or melted but- Ix 3 teaspn. salt 

3 tablespns. flour [ter 5 tablespns. stale graham bread 
1^2 cup boiling water crumbs, or enough to make a 

2 eggs batter of the right consistency 

Heat oil (without browning), add flour, stir smooth, add water, 



VEGETABLES 253 

stirring; when smooth, remove from fire, add beaten eggs, salt 

and crumbs. 

Greens 

One of the many advantages that the country dweller has 
over those who live in the city is the great variety of "greens,' 
as we call the edible weeds, nearly all of which are superior in 
flavor to the much prized spinach. 

There is narrow or sour dock, easily distinguished from the 
broad-leaved (which is not edible) by its long, slender leaf curled 
on the edges; the dandelion, which should be gathered before 
the buds appear or at least when they are just peeping out, as 
the greens are bitter when the buds are well developed; milk- 
weed, of which we use only the tips unless the stalks are small 
and tender: pigweed, red root, lamb 's quarters, purslane or 
''pusley, ' with poke shoots, the garden turnip tops, cabbage 
sprouts young beet tops and endive. 

Some are better in combinations, such as milkweed and nar- 
row dock, narrow dock and pigweed, milkweed and purslane and 
purslane and beet tops. 

Do not try to wash greens in a small quantity of water. Put 
them when first gathered into a large vessel, a wash boiler, a 
tub or a deep sink in which the water will be deep enough to 
"swash" them up and down with the hands. When they are 
thoroughly revived lift them from the water (do not drain the 
water off), empty the vessel, rinse it well and take another 
quantity of water. Continue the washing, changing the water 
until no sand is found in the bottom of the vessel. 

Dandelion and some other greens require trimming and look- 
ing over carefully after reviving before the final washing. 

When ready to cook, throw greens into an abundance of boil- 
ing salted water and cook until tender. 

The time required for cooking varies; narrow dock requires 20 
m., purslane a little longer, pigweed 40 m., milkweed 2-3 hours, 
beet greens 2^/2-3 hours, and dandelions 3^-4 hours. It is a 
good plan to parboil dandelions. 



254 THE LAUREL 

When greens are perfectly tender, lift them carefully with a 
skimmer from the water into a colander and press with a plate 
until as dry as possible. 

The water from all greens (except dandelion if at all bitter 
and too large a quantity of narrow dock) is invaluable for soup 
stock, so pour it off carefully from the sand that may be in the 
bottom of the kettle even after the most careful washing. 

When the leaves are long and stringy it is well to cut across 
the mass of greens a few times before serving, but the flavor 
and character are much impaired by too fine chopping. 

Pass oil, lemon juice or quarters of lemon, French or Improved 
Mayonnaise dressing, or Sauce Americaine with greens. 

Poke Shoots scoke pigeon berry weed, and young, tender 
milkweed stalks may be prepared and served the same as aspar- 
agus. Do not use poke shoots after the leaves begin to unfold. 

Canned greens make as valuable an addition to the winter 
supplies as canned corn or peas. 

Xale borecole, should not be used until after heavy frosts in 
the fall. Cook as other greens in boiling salted water 30-45 m. 
and serve the same. If desired, raw nut butter may be added 
to the water in which it is cooked; then lemon juice only will be 
required with it. It may also be cooked with tomato, the same 
as cabbage, by being chopped or cut fine before cooking. Onion 
and raw nut butter may be added to the tomato. 

Okra Stewed Whole 

Use only young, tender pods, cut off the stems, wash well and 
cook in a small quantity of salted water (about I cup to each 
quart of okra) for 30 m. or until tender. Season with cream, 
dairy or almond, or with butter. Or, drain if any water remains, 
and pour over it a hot French dressing. Melted butter may be 
used in the dressing instead of oil. 

Never cook okra in an iron vessel. 

OkraSliced, Stewed 

Slice pods of okra across and cook with I cup of salted water 



VEGETABLES 255 

to each pint of okra until tender, 25-30 m. Drain or not, accord- 
ing to what is to be added. Stewed tomatoes, strained or un- 
strained, almond or dairy cream, sauce 16, 18, 19, or 34, or hot 
French dressing may be poured over it. When strained toma- 
toes are used, the okra and tomato should simmer together about 
10 m. Add a little heavy cream, butter or oil and salt just before 

serving. 

OnionsBoiled 

Select onions of about equal size. Peel them, then at the 
root end cut into the onion about X f the way at right angles. 
This causes the onion to cook tender at the heart. Let stand 
in cold water 20 m. to I hour. Put into boiling salted water 
and cook until tender, ^-i/^ hour. The water may be changed 
after I 5 m. boiling. Drain, add cream, cream sauce or butter, 
heat a moment (do not boil with cream), serve. Some prefer 
onions plain with a little of the liquid in which they were boiled. 

Drain young onions slightly when about half done, pour on 
milk and simmer until tender. 

OnionsStewed 

Cut peeled onions into halves, then into quarters, and slice 
across in thin slices. Put into just enough boiling salted water 
to cook tender; dry out well and serve plain or add a little oil or 
melted butter, hot cream or cream sauce. Serve sometimes 
over plain boiled or mashed potatoes. Raw or steamed nut but- 
ter may be cooked with the onions. 

OnionsBaked 

Select large, perfect onions; peel, and boil until about half 
done; drain, put into a baking pan, sprinkle with salt and crumbs, 
pour a little oil or melted butter over and bake, covered part of 
the time, until tender. 

Onions may be dried after boiling, wrapped in oiled paper, 
baked and served with melted butter or cream sauce. 

Onions Raw 

Slice onions and let them lie in cold water (no salt) for an 



356 THE LAUREL 

hour or more, changing the water occasionally. Drain, dry and 
serve with salt, salt and oil or lemon juice or with French dress- 
ing. If in a hurry to use them, dip sliced onions quickly into 
boiling water, then into cold water and serve as before. Sprigs 
of parsley are sometimes passed after dishes containing onions 
to destroy the odor in the breath. 

Oyster Plant 

Oyster plantvegetable oyster salsify, is one of the most de- 
lightful vegetables. It should not be used until after heavy frosts 
and is at its best in the spring after being in the ground all win- 
ter. Whatever is dug more than is to be used each time, should 
be kept in sand in a cool place. 

To prepare for cooking, soak in cold water 3 or 4 hours, or 
over night. Scrape on a vegetable board with a knife and drop 
each root into a large quantity of cold water as soon as scraped 
to keep it from turning dark. 

When very fresh, oyster plant will cook in TO m., but late in 
the season it often requires a half hour. Cook until tender 
only, not soft. 

The flavor of the oyster plant is in the water, so there should 
always be some liquid left to form part of the sauce. 

A little cream is required to develop the flavor of oyster plant. 

Water and cream are better than milk. 

Milk and a little butter may be used when cream is not ob- 
tainable. Raw or steamed nut butter may be used in place of 
either, and olive oil instead of butter gives an appropriate flavor. 

If there should be dark spots through the oyster plant, be 
sure that every particle is removed, as one little piece with a 
dark spot in it will flavor the whole dish. 

The carbohydrates of oyster plant do not include starch. 

Stewed or Creamed Oyster Plant 

Cut scraped roots into slices /^-X i n - thick according to size, 
and drop into the water in which they are to be cooked, an equal 



VEGETABLES 257 

quantity, usually. Boil without salt for 10-25 m. When nearly 
tender, add salt. 

To the oyster plant liquor, add a little heavy cream, and when 
boiling, add flour blended with water to make of a creamy con- 
sistency; salt if necessary. Chopped parsley may sometimes be 



added, and a little celery salt occasionally, but oyster plant will 
not admit of the addition of many flavors. If to be served on 
toast or rice, or in a rice border, a little onion juice may be added. 

Oyster Plant with Drawn Butter Sauce 

Cook oyster plant in 2-in. lengths in a small quantity of water. 
Add sauce 40, heat, serve on toast or rice. 

Oyster Plant with Celery or Corn 

Use % or l /2 cooked celery or corn in recipe for stewed oys- 
ter plant. 

Any of these dishes may be served as a second course at din- 
ner with beaten biscuit with or without ripe olives. 

Parsley 

When parsley is fresh, wash, shake and keep in a thick paper 
sack near the ice. When withered, put at once into ice water 
until refreshed. 

To dry, pick off the leaves and stand in a warm place. It is 
better than not any when fresh is not obtainable. 

Parsnips 

The parsnip is another vegetable not good until after heavy 
frosts, and is much sweeter and richer in flavor when left in the 
ground until spring. 

Boiled Parsnips 

Scrape or pare parsnips, cut into halves or thirds in flat slices 
lengthwise; cook in boiling salted water until just tender, 20 m. 
to I hour according to age and size. Serve plain or with hot 
cream or butter poured over. 

Parsnips may be steamed instead of boiled. 



258 THE LAUREL 

Stewed Parsnips 

Cut parsnips into slices crosswise, l /2-^i in. thick, or if large, 
cut into quarters first, then slice. Cook in small quantity of 
water until just tender. Serve with cream, cream sauce, or egg 
cream or drawn butter sauce. 

Browned Parsnips 

Lay slices of boiled or steamed parsnips in baking pan, pour 
over a little cream, oil or melted butter and sprinkle with sugar. 
Brown delicately in oven. Or, dip in oil or butter and flour and 
brown in quick oven. 

Mashed Parsnips 

Rub parsnips through the colander; season with salt only, or 
with salt and cream. Heat and serve. 

Fricassee of Parsnips 

Boil sliced parsnips in milk without salt. When tender add 
salt and thicken slightly with flour stirred smooth with milk. 
Serve on toast. 

Peas 

Green peas should be neither too old nor too young. When 
they are small and soft they have no character, but if too old they 
are hard and flavorless. To be at their best they should be 
cooked the day they are gathered. 

Green PeasStewed 

For fresh tender green peas, wash the pods, shell and put at 
once into boiling salted water. Washing after shelling takes 
away rmich of the sweetness. Cook until tender, 15-2 5m. There 
should be very little water left when they are done. When 
nice and sweet they require no seasoning but salt. Serve plain, 
with just enough of the water in which they were cooked to 
moisten them. A little sweet cream, butter or cream sauce may 
be added. 

Peas that have become withered should be shelled and allowed 
to stand in cold water for an hour before cooking. 

When peas are a little old they require longer cooking, and 



VEGETABLES 2 59 

should have a little sugar in the water in which they are cooked. 
A small sprig of mint improves the flavor of old peas, but the 
positive mint flavor should not be distinguishable. 

Canned peas of an inferior quality drained and boiled in fresh 
water with sugar and mint are sometimes hardly distinguishable 
from fresh peas. A sprig of parsley may be stewed with peas 
instead of mint. 

PeasParisian Style 

Cook in boiling, salted water with parsley and onion; add 
sugar, and thicken the liquid a trifle. 

PeasGerman Way 

Put a spoonful of butter in the saucepan, add peas, salt and a 
spoonful or two of water, cover close and cook until tender, 
about half an hour, perhaps. 

Peas With Corn 
Combine green peas and corn as beans and corn in succotash. 

Peas With New Potatoes 

Cook peas and small new potatoes together. Cover with cream 
or thin cream sauce. 

Melting Sugar Peas 

This is the name of one variety of the edible podded peas. 
They have a delightful flavor peculiar to themselves. \Yash and 
drain the pods and cut like string beans. Cook in a small quan- 
tity of boiling salted water until tender, about 30 m. Add cream, 
cream sauce or a little butter. Heat and serve. 

Potatoes 

There is great diversity of opinion in regard to the value of 
the potato as a food. Some, because of its belonging to the 
family of the deadly night shade, the same family as tobacco, 
think it should be used sparingly if at all, while others consider 
it (when baked, at least) one of the most wholesome foods. Its 
use is often prohibited by physicians in some forms of indiges- 
tion and for those rheumatically inclined. 



26O THE LAUREL 

The solid part of the potato is almost entirely starch, so it 
serves as bulk in combination with nitrogenous foods. 

''Potatoes which have grown on the surface of the ground or 
which have been exposed to the light frequently turn green, and 
such tubers contain abnormal amounts of solanin, as do old and 
shriveled potatoes which have sprouted. It is best not to use 
such old potatoes, but if they are eaten the flesh around the 
sprouts should be cut away, as this portion is particularly liable 

to contain solanin.' -C. F. Langwortliy, Ph. D. Farmers' Bul- 
letin, 295. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. 

Solinine is a vegetable alkaloid which may produce serious re- 
sults as it is of about the same nature as belladonna and other 
poisons of that class. 

Soak new potatoes for a short time only in cold water before 
cooking, but old ones for at least 2-3 hours. 

In paring potatoes, put them into cold water so that the dirt 
will not adhere to the flesh. Pare not too thick and throw at 
once into clear cold water. 

When salt is sprinkled over potatoes after cooking it absorbs 
the moisture and renders them more mealy. 

Baked Potatoes 

No other way of preparing the potato renders it so mealy and 
digestible as proper baking. Wash and scrub the potatoes 
thoroughly without breaking the skins, lay them on the grate of 
a moderately hot oven without touching each other, so that there 
will be a free circulation of heat around each potato. When the 
oven is too hot, potatoes will be soggy and indigestible. Bake 
until just done; do not try with a fork but by pressing with the 
thumb and finger. When done, serve at once in an uncovered 
dish, or lay a napkin in a deep dish and fold over the potatoes. 

The most perfect way to serve a baked potato is to work it be- 
tween the folds of a towel in the hand without breaking the skin 
until soft and mealy all through. Lay each potato on the grate 
again until all are done. Potatoes may be broken apart in the cen- 



VEGETABLES 26 I 

ter and a sprig of parsley laid in when serving on an invalid's tray 
or to individuals, but all must be done quickly, as a few mo- 
ments' delay after the potato is done will spoil its lightness. 

If for any reason baked potatoes must be kept waiting, wrap 
them in a thick towel and lay in a warm place. 
When in a hurry for baked potatoes, pour boiling water over them 
just before laying them in the oven. 

Some think potatoes are whiter and more mealy if boiled until 
nearly done and then finished in the oven. 

Perhaps the most perfect way of baking potatoes is to lay them 
on a wire stand in a close covered kettle without any water, 
over a moderate fire. 

Boiled Early Potatoes 

Put pared potatoes into rapidly boiling, salted water. Do 
not allow water to stop boiling. When nearly done add l /2-i 
cup cold water. Drain as soon as done. Shake and dry un- 
covered, over fire. Serve in napkin. When obliged to stand 
for a few minutes, throw a clean towel over the uncovered kettle 
to absorb the steam. 

Boiled Late or Winter Potatoes 

Put potatoes into cold, slightly salted water. Bring to the boil- 
ing point as quickly as possible. When half done, drain, add cold 
water and boil again. Drain as soon as done, sprinkle with salt, 
shake over fire until dry. Serve in napkin or uncovered dish. 

The Irish Way 

Put potatoes in slightly salted cold water; when the water boils 
add a small quantity of cold water; repeat this process 2 or 3 
times; when done, drain, shake until dry and send a few at a 
time to the table. 

Potatoes in Jackets 

Wash thoroughly, peel off a narrow^ strip around the potatoes 
the long way. When tender, drain, sprinkle with salt, shake, 
peel and serve, or serve without peeling. Taking off the strip 



262 THE LAUREL 

around the potatoes causes them to burst and become mealy, and 
makes them easier to peel while still giving the flavor so much 

liked by many. 

Steamed Potatoes 

Cook, without paring or with a narrow strip only taken off, 
in steamer over hot water with a few sprigs of fresh mint. Dry 
in the oven. 

Allow at least 10 m. more for steaming potatoes, either with 
or without their "coats," than for boiling. 

Small New Potatoes 

Wash small new potatoes, boil or steam, sprinkle with salt, 
shake over fire until skins begin to crack, serve in napkin. 

Or, rub the skins off with a coarse towel (coarse salt in the 
towel helps) or scrape the potatoes. After cooking and drain- 
ing, crack each by pressing lightly with the back of a spoon. 
Lay in dish, pour hot cream or milk and butter over and sprinkle 
with chopped parsley. 

Creamed Stewed Potatoes 

Cut potatoes into small pieces or slice not too thin; cook until 
almost tender; drain, put into cream sauce in double boiler and 
cook ]/2 hour longer. Whole small potatoes or large ones in 
quarters cooked until tender may be served in cream sauce the 

same. 

Creamed Warmed-Over Potatoes 

Cold baked potatoes are much the best for warming over. 
Slice baked or boiled potatoes or cut into small pieces and put 
into cream sauce, with or without celery salt or stalk or a little 
chopped onion, and simmer slowly I 5 m. Sprinkle with parsley in 
serving. 

Or, pour milk over potatoes, cover and heat slowly 15-20 m. 
If raw nut milk is used heat a half hour. A little onion may be 
added if desired. 

Water Creamed Potatoes 

Thicken boiling water slightly with flour, add salt, onion or 
celery if desired, and sliced potatoes. Simmer I 5-20 m. 



VEGETABLES 263 

Or, put a little oil or butter into the saucepan, add flour, then 
boiling water and potatoes. 

Hashed Creamed Potatoes 

Chop cold potatoes, mix with cream sauce, put into baking 
dish, sprinkle with crumbs and brown in oven. 

Hashed Browned Potatoes 

Mix cream, oil or melted butter and salt with chopped potatoes. 
Spread evenly in well oiled frying pan, pour a very little water 
over if oil or butter are used, cover and heat slowly without 
stirring. When delicately browned on the bottom, fold or roll 
like an omelet and serve on a hot platter with celery tops or a 
sprig of parsley. 

Or, pour brown sauce over potatoes in baking dish, sprinkle 
with oil and heat in oven. A little milk or consomme may be 

added. 

Improved Parisian Potatoes 

Cut balls out of large pared potatoes with vegetable scoop. 
Cook in boiling salted water until just or hardly tender. Drain, 
roll and shake in thin drawn butter or cream sauce, sprinkle 
with parsley, serve as border of timbales or as garnish for other 

meat dishes. 

Mashed Potatoes 

Very large, or irregularly shaped potatoes may be used for 
mashing. Have kettle, fine colander and masher hot, with hot 
milk or cream in the bottom of the kettle. Rub nicely boiled 
potatoes, a few at a time, through the colander into the kettle 
as soon as done. Beat very thoroughly until smooth and creamy. 
Add more hot milk if necessary but do not make too soft or the 
flavor of the potato will be lost. Mashed potatoes should be 
served at once, but if obliged to stand, make them a little softer, 
keep hot in double boiler and beat occasionally to restore the 

smoothness. 

Potato Cakes 
Shape cold mashed potato into cakes, brown on both sides on 



264 THE LAUREL 

oiled griddle, or brush with cream, oil or melted butter and 
brown in oven. Serve as soon as done. When egg is added to 
potato cakes, they fall soon after removing from the fire and 
become solid and soggy; also the characteristic flavor of the 
potato is to some extent destroyed. 

Browned Mashed Potato Slices 

Cut mashed potato (which has been molded in a brick shaped 
or small round tin dipped in cold water) into rather thick slices. 
Dip in beaten egg, then in crumbs, and brown in quick oven. 
Serve with or without sauce. Slices may be served with a 

poached egg on each. 

Potato Puree 

Add rich milk to mashed potatoes to make like thick porridge, 
spread on hot platter as a foundation for cutlets, croquettes, 
slices of broiled nut meat or nicely poached eggs. Garnish with 
parsley or other green. 

Baked Sweet Potatoes 

Wash large sweet potatoes without breaking the skins, bake 
in a moderate oven until they will yield to pressure between the 
thumb and finger. 

Or, boil until nearly tender and finish in the oven. Serve at 
once. Sweet potatoes will bake in a shorter time than Irish 

potatoes. 

Boiled Sweet Potatoes 

The most delightful boiled sweet potatoes I ever ate were 
prepared in the following manner; Cook pared potatoes in a 
small quantity of water until nearly tender, drain if necessary 
(but it ought not to be necessary), cover with a towel and let 
stand on the back of the stove for an hour or longer, shaking 
occasionally. Potatoes may be boiled until tender and laid on 
a tin in the oven a few moments to dry. 

Mashed Sweet Potatoes 

Prepare and season the same as mashed Irish potatoes. Serve 
with tomato cream sauce. 



VEGETABLES 265 

Or, put into oiled baking dish, sprinkle with crumbs and heat 

in oven. 

Mashed Pumpkin 

Select a nice, rich, fine grained pumpkin, saw into halves, 
remove the seeds and fibre with a spoon and cut into small pieces 
without paring. Steam, or stew in a small quantity of water. 
Drain if watery in cheese cloth. When dry, mash and season 
with cream or butter and salt. Heat in double boiler or oven, 
stirring. Serve in mound on hot dish, or put into baking dish, 
sprinkle with crumbs and brown in oven. 

Baked Pumpkin 

Place halves of pumpkin from which the seeds have been re- 
moved, cut side down upon a tin. Bake until tender and dry. 
Scrape from the shell, mash, season and serve. 

Baked Pumpkin- -Individual 

Cut pumpkin into not too small pieces and lay cut side down 
on waxed paper in baking tin. Serve as baked potatoes. 

Radishes 

Wash radishes well with brush, trim off all but the small green 
leaves, stand in ice water l /2-i hour. Serve on glass dish with 
cracked ice, or in a bed of shredded lettuce or of spinach leaves, 
or with a parsley border. 

Pare winter radishes and cut into quarters. Serve sprinkled 
with parsley, or as other radishes. 

Spinach 

Wash spinach the same as other greens, p. 253. Cook in 
boiling salted water until tender, 10-30 m. Lift from the water 
with skimmer into a colander. (Save water for soups and sauces. ) 
Press dry with a plate. Lay in hot pan and cut across a few 
times but do not chop; return to colander, pressing in firmly, to 
mold. Turn the dish in which it is to be served over the col- 
ander and unmold. Garnish with triangles of toast and hard 
boiled eggs. Pass oil, quarters of lemon or lemon juice, Sauce 
Americaine or French or Mayonnaise dressing with it. Many 



266 THE LAUREL 

prefer it with salt and oil alone. It may also be served with 
cream sauce, or drawn butter with lemon juice. 

Overcooking develops a strong flavor and causes spinach to 
lose its bright green color. 

\Yhen spinach is young and sweet, it may be cooked without 
the addition of water by covering close and heating slowly at 
first; but when there is danger of its being bitter it should be 
cooked in plenty of water. 

Spinach with CreamDelicious 

Pour hot cream over cooked spinach in vegetable dish. 
Spinach is sometimes rubbed through a colander after cooking 
and served with whipped cream, for luncheon or supper. 

Summer Squash 

Cut squash into inch thick pieces, steam, or stew in a small 
quantity of water; drain in cheese cloth. Mash, season, heat and 
serve. 

If you ever use butter for seasoning in cooking, use it with 
summer squash; though a little heavy cream, almond or dairy, 
is very nice. Never use roasted peanut butter with squash. 

Only those squashes which are young enough to cook with 
the skins and seeds are suitable for stewing, as the skins and 
seeds contain the flavor. 

Baked Ripe Summer Squash 

Bake \vhole; open, remove seeds, scrape pulp from skin, sea- 
son and serve as above. This pulp makes very delicate squash 

cream pies. 

Summer Squash with Corn 

Add y& cup stewed green corn to each pint of cooked summer 
squash. Season with salt and cream. 

Winter Squash 

Winter squashes vary so much in quality that no one way of 
cooking will do for all. There are some varieties from \vhich 
the skin may be peeled like a tomato, after steaming; others are 
so hard that it is impossible to pare them; from these scrape out 



VEGETABLES 267 

the pulp with a spoon after steaming; others still, are better to 
be pared before steaming. When soft and watery after cooking, 
dry in the oven before mashing, and again afterwards if neces- 
sary. Some watery squashes have a rich flavor when well dried 

out. 

Mashed Winter Squash 

Saw squash in halves, remove the seeds and fibre with a spoon, 
cut into quarters or eighths, pare or not according to the variety, 
lav inside down in the steamer and cook over boiling water until 

J 

tender. Remove from the shell if not pared, mash through a 
fine colander, season if soft with butter or cream and salt, or 
with salt only; if dry and mealy like the 'Delicious," use plenty 
of milk and cream with salt. Beat well and serve. 

Mashed Baked Squash 

Bake halves of squash from which the seeds have been re- 
moved, cut side down until tender, 1-2 hours or longer. Scrape 
pulp clean from the shell, mash, add salt, beat well and serve. 
Baked squash is so sweet that it requires no seasoning but salt, 
though a little milk or cream may be added if it is very dry. 

Baked SquashVirginia Way 

Bake pieces of desired size, the shell side up, on waxed paper 
in baking pan. Serve on platter, allowing each guest to sea- 
son to taste, and eat from the natural dish. 

Tomatoes 

As the tomato, though a fruit, is prepared and served in so many 
ways as a vegetable, we will follow custom and consider it un- 
der that head; but it must be borne in mind that it should not be 
served or eaten in combinations unsuitable for other acid fruits. 

The most desirable way to serve the tomato is uncooked when 
well ripened. When perfectly ripe the skin will peel off without 
any preparation, and it may sometimes be loosened by rubbing 
the tomato all over firmly with the back of a silver knife; but 
when more convenient to use the hot water method, the tomatoes 
do not need to be soft nor to have a cooked taste. 



268 THE LAUREL 

First- -have a kettle with an abundance of perfectly boiling 
water, also a pail with plenty of the coldest water you can get, 
ice water if possible. Put a few tomatoes (not enough to cool 
the water much) into a wire basket. Plunge into the boiling 
water, let rest an instant if very ripe and a second longer if quite 
solid, then lift the basket and set quickly into the cold water, 
then turn the tomatoes out into the water and leave them there. 
Repeat the process, take care each time that the water is boiling 
before dipping the tomatoes into it and renew the cold water 
when necessary. 

Tomatoes may be put into the boiling water and transferred 
quickly to the cold water with a skimmer. When thoroughly 
cooled, set without peeling into the ice box until ready to use. 

Raw Tomatoes 

Peel, slice into not too thin slices, or cut into quarters or 
sixths from the blossom end just deep enough for the pieces to 
spread apart without separating. Serve with salt or with some 
of the salad dressings as a garnish for meat dishes, or as fresh 
fruit with sugar or sugar and lemon juice. With sugar and 
heavy cream my grandfather used to think tomatoes were more 
delicious than peaches and cream. 

Stewed Tomatoes 

Slice tomatoes into sauce pan and bring to boiling point slowly, 
boil up well, only, season with salt and serve. Long boiling 
frees the acid of tomatoes and renders them less wholesome. 
Tomatoes require more salt for palatability than any other article 

of food. 

Steamed Tomatoes 

Put rather small tomatoes on pan in steamer, steam from 10- 
15 m., or until tender. Serve on hot toast or crackers or thin 
round slices of broiled nut meat with a dainty spray of parsley 
or chervil, for luncheon or supper; allowing each guest to season 
to taste. If desired, drawn butter, cream sauce or oil may be 
passed. 



VEGETABLES 269 

Broiled Tomatoes 

Cut tomatoes in halves without peeling, dust with salt and 
fine cracker crumbs, broil over hot coals, skin side down, 15-20 
m. Serve plain or with Sauce Americaine or any desired dress- 
ing with wafers or toast. Firm tomatoes may be cut into thick 
slices and broiled on both sides. They may .be just browned 
and set in the oven to become tender. 

Tomato Puree 

i qt. stewed tomatoes A few slices of onion 

i or 2 sticks of celery i tablespn. flour 

i teaspn. sugar chopped parsley 

i tablespn. butter salt 

Heat tomatoes, crushed celery and sugar for i 5 m. Simmer on- 
ion in butter without browning, add flour, then tomato, boil up 
well, strain and add chopped parsley. Serve on toast or with 
boiled rice or with some meat dish. Very nice on toast with 
sliced hard boiled eggs. 

Turnips 

The later varieties of turnip are by far the best though some 
of the earlier varieties are sweet and tender. As they need to 
be grown quickly turnips are never good in a dry season but will 
be pithy and strong. Turnips require the greatest care in cook- 
ing. If they are over-cooked 5 m., they will begin to turn dark 
and will have a strong, disagreeable flavor. For that reason they 
are better to be cut into thin slices. They must be boiled rapidly. 

Boiled Turnips 

Wash, cut into quarters or sixths if large, pare very thick, cut 
into y% in. slices, put into perfectly boiling water; boil rapidly for 
25 m., or until just tender. Add salt at the end of 20 m. or 
when nearly tender, if at all; nice, sweet turnips are delicious 
without salt. Drain thoroughly, in cheese cloth if convenient. 
Serve plain, or with Chili sauce, Sauce Imperial or Sauce Amer- 
icaine; or pour cream sauce over after draining; or pass oil, oil 
and lemon juice or French dressing with them. 



27O THE LAUREL 

Ruta-Bagas 

There are white and yellow ruta-bagas or Swedish turnips, and 

both are richer in flavor and more nutritious than common tur- 
nips. The yellow ruta-bagas are especially sweet and rich. Pre- 
pare, cook and serve the same as turnips, except that the ruta- 
bagas require a little longer time for cooking. They are delight- 
ful served with Chili sauce, but are so rich and sweet of them- 
selves that no sauce is necessary. 

Mashed Turnips 
Mash well drained boiled turnips with potato masher in hot 

pan. Do not put through colander. Season with salt and if 
not sweet a little sugar. Serve plain or with sauce 57, 58 or 75. 

Vegetable Stew 

Cook separately I pt. of string beans, 2 small potatoes and 2 
small carrots cut into small pieces, and I pt. of green peas. 
When tender, drain, put all together, add salt and cream or a 
thin cream sauce. 

This makes a very pretty as well as a palatable dish. 

STARCHLESS VEGETABLES Radishes 

Ruta-bagas 

Artichokes, Globe Spinach and all ''greens" 

Artichokes, Jerusalem Squash, summer 

Asparagus Turnips 
Beans, young string 
B ee t s STARCHLESS AND SUGARLESS 

Brussels Sprouts VEGETABLES 

Cabbage Asparagus 

Carrots Beans, young string 

Cauliflower Cabbage, red and winter 

Celery Cauliflower 

Cucumbers Egg Plant 

Egg Plant Endive 

Endive Lettuce 

Kohl-rabi Oyster Plant Salsify 

Leeks Radishes 

Lettuce Spinach and all ''greens" 

Okra The proportion of sugar in 

Onions nearly all of the other starchless 

Oyster Plant Salsify vegetables is small. 



CHESTNUTS 



Since chestnuts are so largely composed of starch though they 
also contain a large proportion of albuminoids, from 8.5 to 14.6 
according to different authorities, we allow them to follow vege- 
tables while not classing them with them. One writer says 
"they might have been included among the bread stuffs.' Lon- 
don vegetarians often serve a tureen of plain boiled chestnuts 
in place of potatoes. 

The recipes are for the large imported chestnuts. The smaller 
native ones require a longer time for cooking. The dried chest- 
nuts which we sometimes find in the stores require 3 hours for 
boiling. 

To Shell and Blanch Chestnuts 

Boil whole chestnuts rapidly for 10 m. Leave in the hot 
water, shell and remove the brown covering while warm. 

Boiled Chestnuts 

Cook blanched chestnuts in salted water until just tender, 
10-20 m, drain, serve plain or with sauce 14, 1 6 or 17. Or, 
boil whole for 25m. and serve in the shells. 

Chestnut Puree 

Mash boiled chestnuts, add salt, and cream or milk and butter. 
Beat well, heat in double boiler, serve in center of platter sur- 
rounded by nut meat cutlets or croquettes which in turn are 
garnished with boiled small onions, Brussels sprouts or flowerets 
of cauliflower suitably seasoned; or puree may be served with 
globe artichokes, green peas, stewed cucumbers or mashed dry 
green peas. 

Roasted Chestnuts 

Make at right angles small incisions at the point of the chest- 
nut. Bake 10-20 m. in a rather hot oven, stirring occasion- 

[271] 



2/2 THE LAUREL 

ally, or put into a corn popper and shake over the coals. 

Chestnut and Banana Salad with Cream Dressing 
Prepare bananas as suggested for salads, and cover with Cream 
Dressing Sweet. Cut boiled chestnuts in quarters and mix 
lightly with bananas and dressing. Serve in cups or on dainty 
china plates garnished with flowers or leaves. 

Chestnut Puree Whipped Cream 

For luncheon, supper or dessert 

Add sugar or honey with dairy or cocoanut cream and vanilla, 
to mashed chestnuts; heat, pile on dish with spoon in rocky form 
or force through vegetable press, and surround with whipped 

cream. 

Vanilla or Raisin Chestnuts 

Boil blanched, fresh or dried chestnuts until tender (fresh 15 
m., dried, 3 hours). When almost tender, add sugar or honey 
to water and when the liquid is nearly boiled away, flavor with 
vanilla; finish in slow oven; serve as confection. Raisin pulp 
instead of vanilla is delightful. 



SALADS 

Since experience has taught us that the delicate machinery 
of the body requires oil to keep it running smoothly, salads as 
one of the most agreeable means of supplying this need, have 
been growing in favor. 

In our recipes for salad dressings, we have endeavored to give 
sufficient variety in oils to suit all tastes and circumstances. 

"Vinegar acetic acid, is about ten times as strong as alcohol, 
and makes more trouble in the stomach than any other acid 
except oxalic.' -Dr. Rand. 

"No acid should be taken into the mouth with starch as it 
will prevent the action of the saliva; but if starches have been 
properly masticated, and a proper amount of saliva mingled with 
them, lemon juice will not interfere with the digestion of starch 
in the stomach.' -Dr. Kress. 

For the above reasons, we use no flour or cornstarch in dress- 
ings, use lemon juice as the acid, and exclude potato salad. 
Cold potatoes of themselves are difficult of digestion and com- 
bining them with an acid renders them still more so. 

Secrets of Success 

Use nuts as a garnish, or as an accompaniment to salads in- 
stead of mixed with them, as they become tough quickly after 
touching the dressing. Coarse chopped nuts may be sprinkled 
over the salad just as it goes to the table. 

In beans, green or red French, Lima or California are best 
for salads since they do not cook to pieces easily. 

The whites of hard boiled eggs are more digestible when ground 
fine, or pressed through a wire strainer. When desired for fancy 
shapes they may be poached separate from the yolks, p. 199. 

Vegetables for salads must be crisp, tender and dry. 

[273] 



. 



274 THE LAUREL 

Gather lettuce early in the morning, put it into a closed pail 
or a paper sack and leave in the refrigerator for a few hours; or 
if it comes from the market slightly wilted, cover it at once with 
ice water until revived. Never allow the wind to blow upon 
lettuce. Crisp, by allowing it to stand in ice water after wash- 
ing until just before serving, then drain and shake in a wire bas- 
ket or in mosquito netting, cheese cloth or a netted bag. 

Celery, parsley, spinach, endive and dandelion may be kept 
fresh the same as lettuce and crisped in ice water before serving. 

Always cut celery, never chop it. wipe it dry before cutting 
and if possible, roll in a dry towel a moment after cutting. 

Unless cabbage is shaved thread-like it is better to be chopped. 

In cooking carrots for salads, drain them when about half 
done and add boiling water to finish cooking. 

The apple, grape fruit and tomato are the only fruits with 
which a French or Mayonnaise dressing is harmonious. 

Dip ripe tomatoes quickly into perfectly boiling water, lift 
them out and drop into cold water, change the water two or 
three times if ice is not at hand, set them in a cold place, and 
peel just before serving. 

Do not mix cut, colored fruits (like strawberries) with cream 
dressings. Lay the pieces between the layers and on top of the 
salad. 

It is seldom suitable to serve fruit salads with lettuce; some 
glass dish with decorations of leaves, vines and flowers is pret- 
tiest. 

As a rule, do not mix manv kinds of fruit in one salad. One 

J 

flavor often destroys another. 

Many of the fruit salads are suitable for desserts. 

Cut oranges in about the middle of the section or just each 
side of the membrane, leaving that out if convenient; then cut 
into pieces crosswise. 

Cut grape fruit in halves, then around the inside next to the 



SALADS 275 

skin, and after removing the pulp, carefully separate it from the 
membrane. 

When juicy fruits are to be used with any but fruit juice dress- 
ings, they should be drained. The juices may be used for nec- 
tars, other salad dressings or for pudding sauces. 

Soak currants or pitted sour cherries in syrup made of one 
part sugar and two parts water, for an hour or longer, then drain. 

For most salads, bananas are better cut into quarters length- 
wise, then sliced across. 

Pare, quarter and core choice, fine flavored apples, one at a 
time, cut the quarters into not too thin lengthwise slices, place 
three or four of the slices together and cut across into small 
wedge-shaped pieces. Never chop apples for salad. Both apples 
and bananas should be prepared just as short a time before the 
meal as possible and should be cut right into the dressing. After 
being coated with the dressing they will not turn dark. 

Shred fresh pineapple according to directions, p. 44. For 
nut and cream dressings cooked pineapple is preferable. After 
draining and drying canned sliced pineapple, lay two or three of 
the round slices together and cut into wedge-shaped pieces about 
X inch across at the large end. 

Keep orange, lemon, grape fruit or tangerine cups in cracked 
ice or ice w r ater until just before serving, then drain and wipe dry. 

The edges of the cups may be pointed or scalloped, and if cups 
are large the points may be cut deep, and then rolled down. 
Apple cups may be kept in the same way, or the cut surface may 
be coated with dressing. 

We marinate or pickle some ingredients by mixing them with 
lemon juice, with or without salt, or with French dressing, a 
short time before serving. Drain if necessary, before adding 
the dressing. 

A wooden spoon which is used for nothing else is best for stir- 
ring dressings while cooking. Dip in cold water and wipe it just 
before using and wash in cold water immediately after. 



2/6 THE LAUREL 

Sour cream may be substituted for sweet cream in all dress- 
ings; a little less lemon juice is required. 

One-third water may be used with lemon juice for dressings if 
too sour. 

Use plenty of salt in dressings for people accustomed to mus- 
tard and pepper. 

For uncooked dressings all the ingredients and utensils should 
be as nearly ice cold as possible. 

The yolks of five eggs may be used in the place of three whole 
eggs in boiled dressings. 

For salads with eggs, tomatoes or cabbage, a larger proportion 
of lemon juice and salt is required, and with tomatoes a little 
sugar is an improvement. 

COOKED DRESSINGS 

if Improved Mayonnaise Dressing 

4 large eggs YI cup lemon juice 

/<3 cup oil i teaspn. salt 

Beat all the ingredients in the inner cup of a double boiler 
just enough to blend well. Put into the outer boiler containing 
warm (not hot) water, set over fire, stir with a wooden spoon 
continuously, taking the inner boiler out occasionally and stir- 
ring well if there is danger of cooking too rapidly. When the 
dressing begins to thicken, remove at once from the fire and set 
in a dish of cold water which was all ready, stirring until par- 
tially cooled. Strain through a wire strainer. 

The recipe for this dressing (with some unhygienic adjuncts) 
was given to me in the early days of my work by a lady to whom 
a famous chef had given it as a special favor; and to my mind 
its value is unequalled. It has not an excess of oil like the reg- 
ular mayonnaise, is easily and quickly made and will keep well 
in a cool place, covered. I sometimes use j4 cup of oil and ^ 
cup 1 of lemon juice, and sometimes just the reverse, according 
to what I am using it over and the tastes of the people for whom 
I am preparing it. Three eggs will do very well if one needs to 



SALADS 277 

economize in eggs. X CU P of cream, whipped, may be added 
just before serving for Cream Improved Mayonnaise. 

Butter Dressing 

Use melted butter and less salt in improved mayonnaise 
dressing. 

if Boiled Salad DressingLarge quantity 

8-10 eggs i cup lemon juice 

i% cup oil 2-3 teaspns. salt 

Follow directions for improved mayonnaise dressing. 

No Oil Dressing 

yolks of 2 eggs 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i level teaspn. salt whites of 2 eggs 

Beat yolks, add salt and lemon juice, cook over hot water, 
cool; add stiffly-beaten whites of eggs when ready to serve. 

Sour Cream Dressing 

Especially good plain on lettuce, and with flavorings for 
chopped cabbage. 

i egg 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

72 cup sour cream i tablespn. water 

72-^4 teaspn. salt 

Beat egg slightly, add cream, cook the same as boiled custard, 
cool, add water, salt and lemon juice. When desired, water 
and lemon juice may be flavored according to directions p. 28. 

Sweet or Sour Milk Dressing 

Substitute sweet or sour milk and i tablespn. of oil or butter 
for sour cream in preceding recipe. Omit water and use 2 eggs 
if desired very stiff. 

if Cream DressingSweet 

For fruits especially, but suitable for lettuce, cabbage, beets, 
celery or carrots. 

i cup heavy cream 3 tablespns. sugar 

or 73 cup light cream 3 large eggs 

3 tablespns. lemon juice 



2/8 THE LAUREL 

Beat cream, sugar and eggs in inner cup of double boiler; 
cook as for custard, set dish in cold water; add the lemon juice 
gradually, stirring, then a trifle of salt, strain. 

% only of the cream may be cooked and the remainder 
whipped and added to cold dressing. In substituting sour cream 
for sweet, use 1-1/4 tablespn. only of lemon juice. 

if Nut Dressing no eggs 

2 slightly rounded tablespns. Y?>-% cup water 

Brazil, almond, pine nut or % teaspn. salt 

roasted or unroasted peanut i-i/4 tablespn. lemon juice 
butter 

Rub butter smooth with water, cook just a moment, stirring. 
Remove from fire, add salt and lemon juice, cool. 

Some flavoring is an improvement with the unroasted peanut 
butter. 

Roasted peanut butter dressing and improved mayonnaise 
dressing may be combined with a very pleasing effect. 

Use from /4-$ CU P strained stewed tomato in place of the 
water, and ^ teaspn. of salt, for Nut Tomato Dressing. 

^ Almond Butter Dressing 

Add 2 tablespns. of sugar to the nut dressing made with alm- 
ond butter and you have one of the most delightful fruit salad 
dressings. 

Rhubarb Salad Dressing 

While the liberal use of rhubarb is not to be recommended on 
account of the oxalic acid it contains, it affords variety in dress- 
ings and has the advantage of always being at hand in the 
country when one gets out of lemons. 

3 large or 4 small eggs /4 cup prepared rhubarb 

% cup oil Vt-'A teaspn. salt 

Stew rhubarb without peeling, with not more than one table- 
spoon of water to the quart of rhubarb. Rub through a fine col- 
ander or sieve, mix in the proportions given, with the other in- 
gredients and cook the same as improved mayonnaise dressing. 



SALADS 279 

Green gooseberries prepared in the same way may be used in 
the place of rhubarb. 

Olive Dressing 

Make 'No Oil" dressing with i% only, tablespn. lemon juice 
and just before serving sprinkle over it two tablespns. coarse 
chopped ripe olives. 

Tomato Dressing 

Excellent on apples, string beans, celery, cabbage and lettuce, 
on peas croquettes, and for decorating. 

3 large eggs % cup oil 

y^ cup thick tomato pulp 3 tablespns. lemon juice 

i-i/4 teaspn. salt 

Drain juice from stewed tomatoes, rub pulp through strainer 
or fine colander, combine with other ingredients and cook as 
improved mayonnaise dressing. 

Orange Dressing 

For suitable fruit salads. 

i-i/4 cup sugar /<3 cup orange juice 

1 cup water 5-6 tablespns. lemon juice 

Boil sugar and water to syrup; cool, add orange and lemon 
juice, strain. If desired, flavor with oil of orange. 

Boiled Dressing with Cornstarch 

I insert this dressing with many apologies for the cornstarch, 
which as we know, is entirely out of place in a salad dressing, 
and trust that it will be used in emergencies only when eggs are 
very scarce. 

2 cups water 2 teaspns. salt 
/4 cup corn starch 3 eggs or 4 yolks 

YI cup lemon juice 

Boil salt and water, add the cornstarch which has been stirred 
smooth with cold water; boil up, add beaten eggs and lemon 
juice; beat well, cool. 



28O THE LAUREL 

UNCOOKED DRESSINGS 

French Dressing 

Suitable for vegetables, apples, tomatoes, eggs, legumes and nut 

foods. 

The proportions of lemon juice and oil in this dressing vary 
from I part of lemon juice to 4 parts of oil, to equal parts of 
each, and in extreme cases to the use of four or five times as 
much lemon juice as of oil according to the ingredients of the 
salad and individual taste, but the proportions most generally 
used are the following: 

X-/^ teaspn. salt 3 tablespns. oil i tablespn. lemon juice 

Mix salt and oil well, add lemon juice slowly, stirring, pour over 
salad, serve at once. If flavorings are used, mix them with the 
salt and oil before adding the lemon juice. My experience is 
that this method of combining the ingredients gives the best 
results. A bit of ice may be added while stirring, but if ingre- 
dients and utensils are ice cold it will not be necessary. 

Orange French Dressing 

Let orange juice stand for a few moments with thin shavings 
from the outside of the rind in it, strain and combine with the 
salt and oil as above, using equal quantities of oil and orange 
juice or only ^2 as much of the juice. Serve over sliced apples 

or tomatoes. 

Grape French Dressing 

Equal quantities of grape and lemon juice with salt and a 
small proportion of oil. Delightful over apples, oranges, grape 
fruit, pears or peaches, or suitable combinations of the same. 

Honey French Dressing 

Use equal quantities of lemon juice and honey or three or 
four times as much lemon juice as of honey, with oil and a trifle 
of salt, over lettuce or suitable fruits. Honey and lemon juice 
without the oil may be used by those who prefer it. 

Nut French Dressing 
Add water to any preferred nut butter until of the desired con- 



SALADS 28l 

sistency; then salt and lemon juice according to the ingredients 
of the salad. Butter from either Brazil, almond or pine nuts is 
good. Raw pine nuts have much the flavor of cheese. If un- 
roasted peanut butter is used, the flavor of onion or garlic or 
both is an improvement. 

Salad Entree Dressing 

i tablespn. chopped parsley Y\-i teaspn. celery salt 

yh tablespn. chopped onion /^ cup olive oil 

2^-1 teaspn. salt / 7 3 cup lemon juice 

Mix dry ingredients, add oil, then lemon juice slowly, stirring. 

English Salad Dressing 

1/^-2 tablespns. sugar /^ teaspn. salt 

1 tablespn. oil i tablespn. shredded fresh 

2 tablespns. lemon juice mint, or /<( teaspn. pow- 

dered dry mint 

if Lemonade Dressing 

For lettuce and many fruits. 

I tablespn. each of lemon juice and water to each slightly 
rounded tablespn. of sugar. Stir until sugar is dissolved. For 
juicy fruits, use lemon juice and sugar only. 

Tarragon Dressing 

For fruits. 
i teaspn. chopped tarragon to each half cup of lemonade 

dressing. 

Orange Dressing 

y\ cup orange juice 3 tablespns. sugar 

]^ cup lemon juice rind of / of an orange 

Cut thin slices from the yellow part of the rind; let stand 
with the other ingredients for 15 m. Strain and pour over fruit. 
Omit rind for strawberries, pineapple and such other fruits as it 
will not harmonize with. 

Raspberry Juice Dressing 

Add sugar flavored with oil of orange, with lemon juice, to 
rich red raspberry juice, the proportions depending upon the 



282 THE LAUREL 

sweetness of the raspberry juice. Serve over apple or apple and 

orange. 

if Quick Cream. DressingSweet 

5 tablespns. cream /4 teaspn. salt 

i/4 tablespn. sugar lemon juice to thicken, per- 

haps about i tablespn. 

Mix cream, sugar and salt, add lemon juice slowly, stirring 
until dressing is thick, and be sure to stop when it is thick. 

if Whipped Cream Dressing 

For shredded lettuce, chopped cabbage or cooked beets, and some 

fruits. 



3 tablespns. lemon juice / teaspn. salt 

2 tablespns. sugar l /i- l /i cup of cream 

Whip cream sugar and salt together, chop lemon juice in lightly. 

Sour Cream Dressing 

/^ cup sour cream i teaspn. to 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

/^-i teaspn. salt 

Whip cream until just thick, add lemon juice and salt which 
have been mixed. For lettuce or apples, use such flavorings as 
fresh mint, tarragon, onion, chives, celery salt or seed when 
desired. 

For Sweet Dressing of Sour Cream Add I ^ tablespn. of sugar 
to lemon juice in above recipe. 

Sour Milk Dressing 

2 eggs y$ cup sour milk 

% teaspn. salt I-I/4 tablespn. lemon juice 

Beat yolks with salt, add milk, then lemon juice gradually, 
stirring, then the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs. For a sweet 
dressing add 2 tablespns. of sugar to the whites of the eggs. 

Mayonnaise Dressing 

yolk of i egg raw i cup to i pt. of oil 

(some use 2 or 3) i-i/^ tablespn. lemon juice 

/4-i teaspn. salt to each cup of oil 

Use only I cup of oil unless a very thick dressing is required. 



SALADS 283 

Have all utensils and ingredients cold. In very hot weather 
only, set dish in which dressing is made on chopped ice or in ice 
water. Use a soup plate with a silver or wooden fork, or a bowl 
with revolving egg beater. Beat yolk of egg and salt, add l /2-i 
teaspn. lemon juice, mix well, then add oil, drop by drop at first, 
stirring constantly (one way, some say). After a little, oil may 
be added faster. When mixture becomes thick, stir in a little 
lemon juice. Do not allow it to get too thick before adding 
lemon juice. When done the dressing should drop, not pour, 
from a spoon. 

If mixture shows signs of curdling, set dish on ice, continuing 
to stir, and if it does not become smooth then, add a teaspoon 
of cream or a little white of egg or a few drops of lemon juice, 
beating well. Or, take another yolk, begin again more carefully, 
and when well started add the curdled portion slowly. 

If a hard boiled yolk is crushed and worked smooth with a 
spatula and mixed thoroughly with the raw yolk, the dressing is 
not so apt to curdle and the oil may be added a little more rapidly. 

The tendency to curdling is very much lessened by adding the 
lemon juice to the yolk before any oil is added. 

Cream Mayonnaise 

Add l /2 or an equal quantity of whipped cream, or ^ to I 
stiffly-beaten white of egg to mayonnaise at serving time. 

Green Mayonnaise 

Macerate with a spatula or in a mortar spinach, parsley or 
chervil, tarragon, chives or green tops of onions, using a little 
lemon juice if necessary. Express the juice and add to dressing. 

Mayonnaise Cream 

Whip ]^.- l /2 cup of heavy cream, chop into it the beaten yolk 
of an egg, add salt and lemon juice to taste. Chopped parsley 
may be sprinkled through the dressing, or a little green or red 
vegetable coloring may be used in it. 



284 THE LAUREL 

TRUE MEAT SALADS 

For these salads, rich in proteids, the nut dressings are not re- 
quired. As a rule, lemon juice, lemon juice and salt, or the 
French dressing with suitable flavorings will be most appropri- 
ate. Use the different varieties of Mayonnaise with judgement. 

if if Trumese and Celery Mayonnaise 

Take equal quantities (or any proportion desired) of diced tru- 
mese and slender crescent slices of celery with a little very fine 
chopped onion. Mix lightly with improved mayonnaise dressing. 
Pile in center of lettuce border. Serve. Trumese may have 
been marinated. Onion maybe omitted. Nasturtiums, parsley, 
fringed celery or other garnishes may be used with or without 
the lettuce. 

Hot Nut Meat Salad 

Make a custard of the yolk of one or two eggs or one whole 
egg, and one cup of rich milk; add salt, a little grated or chopped 
onion, celery salt if desired and two cups of diced trumese 
which has been marinated with two tablespns. of oil, I or 2 
tablespns. of lemon juice and a little salt. Heat without over- 
cooking the egg. Serve on toast or in the center of large wafers 
with stalks of fringed celery or with a sprinkling of sliced crisp 
celery. 

Green French Bean and Cucumber Salad 

In the center of a lettuce or spinach leaf border place stewed 
green French beans surrounded by a row of sliced cucumbers. 
Garnish with white, green or yellow mayonnaise. 

The combination of the different shades of green is very pretty. 
The addition of nasturtiums gives a different effect. 

Novel Legume Salads 

Prepare different colored legumes according to directions for 
mashed lentils, p. 185, very dry. Mold in block shaped tins and 
when cold cut into cubes and serve in anv desired border with 

/ 

improved mayonnaise dressing. A rail fence of cucumbers sliced 
lengthwise may constitute the border. The French dressing 



SALADS 285 

may be used, but there is nothing quite equal to a mayonnaise 
dressing for mashed legumes. 

Legume Roses 

While warm, press mashed green peas or other legumes (a 
little softer than for molding) through pastry tube in form of 
roses. Garnish with a delicate vine and lemon points, or with 
the yellow mayonnaise. 

if Helianthus (Sunflower) Mayonnaise 

This salad is to be served on individual plates. When it is 
the principal dish for luncheon, use one egg to each plate, but 
with a variety of other dishes two eggs will be sufficient for three 
plates. 

Make a deep border of shredded tender lettuce leaves around 
a gilt edged plate. In the center of the plate, pile as high as 
possible the yolk of a hard boiled egg which has been pressed 
through a wire strainer. Surround this with a border of the 
white which has also been vermicellied. Then drop with a tea- 
spoon improved mayonnaise dressing at frequent regular inter- 
vals on the lettuce border. This salad gratifies the senses of 



both sight and taste. 



Salad Marguerite 



Cut hard boiled eggs in halves lengthwise. Lay the halves on 
the vegetable board, the flat side down, and cut each half care- 
fully into four pieces. Remove yolk from pieces, rub through 
wire strainer, place in center of individual plates and surround 
with a wreath of shredded lettuce or of tender spinach leaves. 
Then place pieces of white inside down over the wreath, radi- 
ating from the center. Serve with French dressing, or with 
roses of yellow or green mayonnaise around the outside. 

Cottage Cheese and Radish Salad 

Surround a molded border of cottage cheese with radish lilies 
n lettuce, endive, parsley, chervil or spinach border and till the 
enter with green mayonnaise. 



286 THE LAUREL 

if Cottage Cheese and Pear Salad 

Pour French dressing in which drained canned pears whole 
or in halves, have been soaked for an hour or two, over a mound 
of creamy cottage cheese. Surround with the pears and garnish 
with geranium leaves or ferns. Serve with crackers or cocoa- 
nut crisps. 

Additional Combinations 
To be served with any preferred dressing. 

Baked or stewed California or red kidney or green French 
beans and string beans. 

Lima beans and eggs. 

Baked beans and chopped cabbage. 

Beans and tomatoes. 

Halves or quarters of hard boiled eggs on lettuce salad en- 
tree or improved mayonnaise dressing. 

Cottage cheese mixed with sliced celery in balls or molds. 

Cottage cheese and lettuce salad entree dressing. 

Cottage cheese, apple and mint English dressing, or with 
lemon juice and sugar. 

Cottage cheese and dried or fresh apple sauce (quite dry)- 
cream dressing sweet. 

Cottage cheese and drained stewed or canned cherries- 
cream dressing sweet. 

Cottage cheese and tomatoes. 

VEGETABLE SALADS 

if Snow Salad. Cabbage 

Add just as it is going to the table, whipped cream dressing, to 
i pt. of chopped crisp white cabbage. Some of the whipped 
cream may be left out of the dressing and dropped by spoonfuls 
on top of the salad. 

Lavender or Pink Salad 

Use purple or red cabbage in the place of white in snow salad. 
For luncheon, the cream mayonnaise dressing may be used. 



SALADS 287 

Pink Salad No. 2 

Coarse chopped red beets with whipped cream dressing. X ^ ne 
cut celery improves the flavor. 

Hot Slaw 

2 eggs 2 level tablespns. sugar 

ys cup lemon juice i level teaspn. salt 

i tablespn. oil or butter i good pint chopped cabbage 

Beat eggs in the inner cup of a double boiler, pour slowly over 
them stirring, a boiling mixture of all the remaining ingredients 
except the cabbage; add the cabbage and cook until just creamy. 

Serve at once. 

Cold Slaw 

Cool hot slaw, and just before serving, add l / cup of cream, 
whipped. The slaw is excellent without the cream, however. 

Cauliflower Salad 

Serve flowerets of cauliflower, cooked according to directions, 
p. 246, masked With improved mayonnaise or with cream im- 
proved mayonnaise dressing on a bed of shredded lettuce in a 
border of lettuce leaves garnished with parsley or nasturtiums. 
Pass dressing. 

<k Dominion or Trench Sam's Salad 

Skim from a pan of thick sour milk, equal quantities of cream 
and milk. Beat lightly together and mix with nice crisp shred- 
ded lettuce and salt. I wish I could tell you how highly I prize 

this recipe. Try it. 

English Salad 

Tear in pieces with the fingers, nice crisp lettuce, mix with 
it a few leaves of shredded fresh mint, and pour English salad 
dressing over. Serve at once. 

Spinach Leaf Salad 

Select the tender inside leaves of spinach, wash well and 
serve with French or mayonnaise dressing or in almost any way 
that lettuce is used, the flavor of which they almost excel. 

Salad a la Russe, or Russian Salad 

Combine as great a variety of starchless vegetables in different 



288 THE LAUREL 

colors as convenient. Celery, onions, carrots, beets, green peas, 
red and green French beans and string beans make a good com- 
bination. Turnips, asparagus, cauliflower, chives and parsley 
may be used also, and some like a flavoring of celery seed. 

Cut the larger vegetables into small pieces or dice, or into 
fancy shapes with vegetable cutters (the pieces left after cut- 
ting out the shapes with vegetable cutters may be chopped and 
used as the base of the salad, or for another salad or for soup); 
cut the string beans into diamond shapes and chop the onion 
very fine. Pile the lightly mixed vegetables in the center of a 
border of lettuce or spinach leaves; lay some of the brightest 
pieces on the top and pour French dressing over all. 

Beet and Olive Salad 

In the center of a platter with a lettuce or variegated beet 
leaf border, place marinated sliced or chopped beets. Surround 
the beets with roses of cream mayonnaise or mayonnaise cream 
with stoned ripe olives between. 

Cucumber and Onion Salad 

Cut short crisp cucumbers in halves lengthwise, hollow out 
the center to within a half inch of the rind, pare shells carefully 
and drop into ice water. Slice or chop the centers, mix with 
fine cut raw onion, salt and French or improved mayonnaise 
dressing. Drain and thoroughly dry shells, fill with mixture, lay 
on leaves of lettuce, sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve. 
Cut long cucumbers into two-inch lengths, remove centers, set 
rings upright on lettuce and fill. Pass dressing if more is de- 
sired. 

Asparagus Mayonnaise 

Place six-inch stalks of cooked asparagus in rail fence style 
just inside a lettuce or endive border on a platter, with lemon 
cups of mayonnaise (one for each person to be served) in the 

center. 

if String Bean and Celery Salad 

Cut tender celery into eighth-inch crescents, pour over it lem- 



SALADS 289 

onade dressing without the water in the proportion of one cup 
of dressing to each half cup of celery. Stand in a cool place for 
an hour or longer, then serve over young string beans which have 
been cooked in salted water until tender. Canned stringless or 
string beans may be used. 

Stuffed Tomato Salad 

Fill hollowed out tomatoes with a mixture of drained, salted, 
grated cucmbers, fine chopped onion and improved mayonnaise 
or French dressing. Serve in nest of lettuce with dressing. 

Or, use celery with improved mayonnaise dressing, in place of 
cucumber and onion, with border of nuts. 

Additional Combinations 

Dressings given only where some special ones are required. 

Beets sliced or chopped--lemon juice and sugar. 

Beets and celery lemonade, cream or mayonnaise dressing. 

Brussels sprouts, whole or in halves. Garnish with halves of 
nuts sometimes. 

Cabbage and onion nut dressing without egg, of roasted or un- 
roasted peanut butter. 

Cabbage and pecan nuts. 

Carrots cooked, sliced or chopped, with French, nut or im- 
proved mayonnaise dressing in green border; nasturtiums some- 
times. 

Ring of fresh grated cocoanut around mound of grated or fine 
ground raw carrot with cooked cream or whipped cream or may- 
onnaise dressing in lettuce border. 

Raw carrot, grated or chopped fine, and celery or onion. 

Carrot cups of the large end of boiled carrots, Filling of car- 
rot and onion or celery--French or mayonnaise dressing row 
of green peas around inside edge of cup. 

Celery and tomato cream, almond, cream mayonnaise or 
French dressing. 

Celery or beet and cocoanut cream or mayonnaise dressing 
lettuce. 



290 THE LAUREL 

Celery and green peas nut meats if wished. 

Celery and chopped lettuce onion if desired. 

Celery and Brazil nut slices sweet or sour dressing. 

Cucumber and tomato lettuce improved mayonnaise or 
French dressing. 

Cucumber and radish. 

Cucumber and onion whipped sour cream dressing. 

* Peas and onion nut dressing no eggs, of roasted peanut 
butter. May be served in lemon cups with a half nut meat on top. 

Peas and carrot onion if liked. 

Molds of chopped cooked spinach on slices of nut meat, or 
cold boiled beets or turnips mayonnaise, improved mayonnaise 
or French dressing. 

Blanched inside leaves of raw spinach and fine chopped 
onion or chives. 

String or wax beans and egg. 

Wax beans, nuts or stoned ripe olives, lettuce. 

FRUIT SALADS 

if Apple and Pineapple Salad with Cream Dressing 

Prepare apples and pineapple, equal quantities, or % only of 
pineapple, according to directions on p. 275. Just at serving 
time, combine with cream dressing s\veet, and serve in dainty 
glasses or cups (individual), each on a small plate with a doily 
and a cut flower or leaf or a spray of some delicate vine. This 
is a sample of what may be done with any of the followings 
combinations and many others: 

Apple with orange or strawberries, red raspberries, canned 
cherries, cherries and celery, or celery. 

Banana with apple or strawberries, red raspberries, pineapple, 
orange or celery. 

Pineapple with orange, red raspberries, strawberries, cherries 
or celery. 

Orange with red raspberries, strawberries, cherries or celery. 



SALADS 291 

Fresh ripe peaches, seeded sweet grapes with solid flesh, and 

1 

sweet apples are among the suitable fruits for salads. 

The almond butter dressing is asdesirable as the cream dressing. 

Pear and apple or apple or pineapple alone with the almond 
dressing are especially delightful. The whipped cream dressing 
may be used when more convenient. 

^ Currant and Red Raspberry Salad 

i pt. each red raspberries and very ripe currants, I or 2 teaspns. 
of tine chopped tarragon, basil or sassafras leaves, with lemon- 
ade dressing of I $4 tablespn. each of lemon juice and water 
and two tablespns. of sugar. Serve in glasses or cups with suit- 
able decoration. The flavorings may be omitted. 

Pineapple with either the currants or raspberries without thfe 
flavorings is excellent. Orange and red raspberries; grape fruit 
and strawberries; apple and strawberries; apple, grape fruit and 
strawberries or orange; apple, banana and strawberries and other 
combinations of juicy fruits will suggest themselves from the 
preceding. When a sweeter fruit than currants is used the pro- 
portion of sugar in the regular lemonade dressing is sufficient. 

if Mint Fruit Salads 

Oranges or grape fruit or apples with shredded mint and 
lemonade dressing (water omitted in first two) are the most 
delightfully refreshing of salads. 

, i 

Nut and Banana Salad 

Roll small peeled bananas in any of the sweetened cream 
dressings, then in chopped nuts. Serve on individual plates 
with a spoonful of dressing, with orange points and candied 
cranberries or cherries, or frosted currants for garnish. 

Apple and Cranberry Salad 
Grind ripe cranberries fine and mix with a liberal supply of 

one of the sweetened cream dressings. Prepare apple also with 
the dressing and place the two in high alternating diagonal rows 
on a platter with lettuce border; or prepared apples may be 



THE LAUREL 

placed on the platter and spoonfuls of the cranberry dropped on 
top. Whole berries may dot the lettuce border. 

Sweet Fruit and Cocoanut Salads 

Fresh grated cocoanut in center of dish, border of black or 
red raspberries, blueberries, sliced or halved peaches or bananas, 
cream dressing sweet or whipped cream dressing. No lettuce. 

Oriental Salad 

Grape fruit and oranges mayonnaise. The dressing some- 
times tinted delicately with pink and green or green only. 

Peach Salad 

Sprinkle shredded basil, tarragon or sassafras leaves over sliced 
or halved pared peaches and cover with lemon juice and sugar. 
Garnish or serve, with blanched almonds. 

Or, serve peaches with cream dressing sweet or whipped cream 
dressing in cups, with nuts. 

Cooked Apple Salad 

Dry, fresh or dried apple sauce, or baked whole or quarters of 
apples (all without sugar) cream dressing sweet, nut, whipped 
sweet or sour cream, French or mayonnaise dressing. Serve 

decorated to taste. 

Love Apple Salad 

Whole peeled tomatoes in nests of lettuce, or with some leaf 
or flower garnish, with a cream, French or mayonnaise dressing. 

Or, cut tomatoes into quarters or sixths from the blossom end 
just deep enough for the pieces to spread apart without separating. 

Grape Fruit and Celery 

Equal quantities of grape fruit and fine sliced celery with mayon- 
naise or improved mayonnaise dressing in grape fruit cups with 
edges cut in deep points and rolled down. Some green garnish. 

Additional Combinations 

Apples salad entree dressing. 

Apple and onion roasted peanut, improved mayonnaise, 
French or whipped sour cream dressing. 



SALADS 293 

Apples and cucumbers Dominion salad dressing. 

Apples, celery and a few raisins one of the sweet dressings, 
garnish with blanched almonds. 

Celery with apples or tomatoes or pineapple or apple and 
tomato, a la string bean and celery salad. 

Peach and tomato with or without basil or tarragon. 

Sweet apples alone and in combinations almond butter 
dressing. 

Tomato and banana some sweet dressing. 

Grape Fruit French dressing on lettuce. 

Tomato and grape fruit--lemon juice and sugar, or orange 
French dressing. 

Red raspberries with currant juice. 

Canned or fresh red raspberries lemon juice or lemon juice 
and sugar. 

Apples, celery and butternut meats improved mayonnaise 
dressing. 

Tomato and apple honey French dressing. 

Cumquots- -Tom Thumb oranges, and Malaga grapes fruit 
juice dressing. 



DESSERTS AND PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 



it Apple DumplingBaked 

Peel, quarter and core nice tart apples, lay inside down, in 
flat pudding dish or pan, cover and set in gentle heat so that 
the apples will become just w 7 arm all through. 

Crust- -Make universal crust with ^ to I cup of liquid accord- 
ing to the quantity required. Roll /4-%\. in. thick, cut with bis- 
cuit cutter, lay close together on warm apples. Cover with a 
pan that w r ill allow the crust to rise underneath it, set in warm 
place and let crust get very light. 

Start the dumplings early enough to give plenty of time at 
each stage. When crust is light, bake uncovered at first, in 

moderate oven ^-i hr., or until apples are well cooked and 
crust thoroughly baked. Serve with creamy, or hard sauce, or 
with sugar and nut or sterilized dairy, cream. Do not, put any 
sugar, butter, salt or water on the apples. Leave them plain 
to contrast the apple flavor with the sauce. A pastry crust may 
be used with the apples, but is not so satisfying. A crust of 
boiled rice laid over the apples and baked covered, is very nice 
with them. 

it Apple DumplingSteamed 

Place the apples in the bottom of an oiled kettle (aluminum 
preferably), the same as in the pudding dish for baking. Pour 
warm water over to one-third or one-half cover, or just enough 
to cook them without scorching. Cover apples \vith crust as in 
baked dumpling. Let crust rise very light, cover the kettle 
close (put a weight on the cover), and set in moderately hot 
place over the fire. When boiling well, carefully move the 
kettle back w r here it will boil slo\vly but steadily. Place an as- 
bestos pad under it if necessary. Cook without removing the 

[294] 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 2Q5 

cover 25-30 m. from the time it begins to boil. Serve with any 
sauce suitable for baked dumplings. 

Peach Dumplings 

Cut universal dough into rounds as large as a saucer, pile halves 
of peaches in center, press edges firmly together around peaches, 
lay in deep pan and bake when crust is light. Serve with almond 
or dairy cream or any suitable sauce. Or, cut rounds smaller, 
lay peaches on one and cover with another. Wet edges and 
press together. 

ic Fruit Tarts or Dumplings 

Put blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, gooseberries, cran- 
berries or any desired fruit in the bottom of a pudding dish; mix 
sugar, a little flour and salt together and add to berries. (Blue- 
berries will require a little water.) Warm, and cover with crust 
as for baked apple dumpling. Bake when crust is light and serve 
without sauce. 

Cranberries and gooseberries may be baked with very little if 
any sugar and served with hard sauce. 

A tart of unsweetened peaches is nice served with plain or 
whipped cream. 

^ Blueberry Pot PieDelicious 

Universal crust of Y cup milk ^ cup sugar 

3 pts. berries 34- tablespn. lemon juice 

Y^-i cup water 

Put blueberries with sugar in bottom of preserving kettle, pour 
water over, cover with crust, let rise and cook the same as 
steamed apple dumpling. No sauce. 

Cranberry and gooseberry pot pie may be made in the same 
way and served with hard or creamy sauce. 

Orange Roly-Poly 

4 oranges /^-/^ teaspn. grated rind 
/^-i cup sugar salt 

Peel all white from oranges. Divide into unbroken sections. 
Make universal crust of I cup of milk with a large measure of oil. 
When light, add salt with flour to make a dough stiff enough to 



296 THE LAUREL 

roll; roll in oblong sheet, spread with orange sections, sprinkle 
with sugar, roll close and carefully, moisten the edges at the 
ends and pinch well together. Bake in moderate oven 35-45 m., 
or steam I ^ hour. Serve with lemon, hard, or foamy white 
sauce, or with cream. 

Dutch Apple Cake 

Spread a thin layer of universal crust on shallow baking pan; 
press warm eighths of apples, sharp edge down, into crust, 
sprinkle with sugar, let rise, bake, covered part of the time if 
necessary to cook the apples; serve as ' 'tea-cake, "or with sauce 
as pudding. Let dough extend up the sides of the pan a little 
to keep the juice from running off. 

Make Peach Cake the same way, with halves or slices of 

peaches. 

Short Cakes 

Bake universal crust in flat square or round tins. Split, spread 
with butter or not, and cover lower half with a generous layer 
of fruit. Turn the upper half over so that the cut side is up, 
and cover that, too, with fruit. 

A meringue or fluff may be used sometimes for ornamentation, 
but if fruit is properly prepared and freely used, cream will not 
be required; it would better be saved for some more necessary 
place. 

Two very thin crusts may be used, but the fruit flavor does 
not penetrate them as it does the split crust. Make the crust 
stiff enough to give a fine grain but not so stiff as to be hard. 
It may be baked in not too thick biscuit for individual serving. 

Crusts may be baked several days beforehand and kept closely 
covered. To serve, dip in cold water, slip in paper bag, set in 
hot oven for about 10 m. and use as fresh baked crust. 

Do not use cake, or a sweetened crust, and call it "shortcake.' 

One in writing of strawberry short cake says: "It must be 
remembered that the fruit must be served on a genuine short- 
cake not the sweet cake of the restaurant and of too many 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 

households, but the plain, unsweetened. cake that was the delight 
of our fathers, and which is still the joy of those who have been 
so fortunate as to have made the acquaintance of the blessings 
of the tasty and nutritious cookery of the olden times.' 

Some unsweetened, flaked, cereal preparations, crisped in the 
oven, make delightful shortcakes by sprinkling a few flakes on a 
plate, covering them with prepared fruit, then sprinkling the 
fruit generously with flakes. They must be served as soon as 
prepared. 

Shortcake Fillings 

Strawberries Leave out a few small berries or cut some of 
the smaller ones in halves or quarters and set one side. Save 
also some of the largest and cut into halves, or leave whole with 
the stems on. Put a little butter into a granite pan, add ber- 
ries with not too much sugar and a little salt. Crush over the 
fire with wire potato masher just enough to make juicy. Mix 
well with butter, stir carefully until just warm. Add small ber- 
ries, spread crusts, place whole berries, or cut halves cut side up, 
on top. Serve shortcake at once on dessert tray or platter with 
a cluster of ferns or geranium or other green leaves at the side. 

Or, cut berries in small pieces just before serving, sprinkle 
crust with sugar mixed with a trifle of salt. Cover with berries 
and sprinkle with sugar, lay on upper crust and cover the same. 

Or, chop not crush berries with sugar and serve with sweet- 
ened juice o,f berries or with crushed strawberries sweetened, to 
be dipped over each slice as served. 

Raspberries red or black Prepare and serve same as straw- 
berries. 

Blueberries Stew berries with sugar and water, add a little 

lemon juice, a trifle of salt and thicken a little, hardly enough 
to know they are thickened, with corn starch. 

Peaches Cut into eighths or slice, fresh ripe peaches just 
before serving. Lay them over thin crusts and sprinkle with 
sugar. Arrange pieces around the outside edge of the top crust 
and serve with nut or dairy cream. 



298 THE LAUREL 

Or, stew halves of peaches in syrup, thicken syrup a little 
with corn starch and add a bit of butter, lay peaches inside up, 
on crusts and pour juice over. Juice may be delicately flavored 
with almond. A little lemon juice may be added. 

Apricots fresh- -Prepare the same as peaches. 

Apricots dried--Soak over night, add 1-1^2 cup sugar to I 
Ib. of fruit, heat slowly, just boil, remove fruit and spread over 
cakes, leaving I qt. of juice. To this add ^ cup of sugar and 
thicken with 4 level tablespns. corn starch. Add I tablespn. 
lemon juice and if desired, 2 tablespns. butter. Pour over short- 
cake, or preferably serve with it. 

Prunes Stew prunes with a little sugar, stone, cut into small 

pieces and spread on crust; thicken juice a trifle and turn over 

all. Prune shortcake is delicious served with almond cream 

or covered with whipped cream. A little lemon juice may be 

.added to the prunes. 

Honey Split and butter crust; spread thick with honey, 
serve hot. 

Maple Cook maple syrup and butter or cream together and 
serve warm over crust. 

Canned fruits of nearly all kinds may be used in the winter 
for shortcakes by thickening the juice a little with corn starch. 

Steamed Blueberry or Other Fruit Pudding 

Make ingredients for universal crust into stiff batter or soft 

dough, according to the juiciness of the fruit to be used with it; 
mix and beat well, let rise; add dried or fresh blueberries (huckle- 
berries), cranberries, raspberries, blackberries, fresh or dried or 
drained canned, cherries, or any convenient fruit; put into well 
oiled mold, cover or not and steam 1-1/4 hour. Serve with 
cream and sugar, or with foamy, hard or cocoanut sauce. 

Or, make a dough stiff enough to knead, shape into biscuit, 
fold and press berries in while shaping, lay balls on pie pan, let 
rise and steam. Or, make into one large loaf, and steam. Figs 
or dates cut with shears into small pieces may be used and the 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 299 

pudding served with orange or any of the sauces already given. 

^ Plain Steamed Pudding 

Steam sweetened or unsweetened universal crust in large or 
individual molds ^-i hour; serve with molasses, maple, berry, 
foamy or creamy sauce. 

if Dutch Boiled or Steamed Pudding 

Make universal crust with only % cup of oil to the cup of liquid 
and mix as stiff as bread dough. Put into a well buttered double 
cheese cloth, let rise, drop into perfectly boiling water and boil 
30-40 m. Remove from cloth, split and lay on dessert tray, 
spread with butter, cover with nice flavored molasses and serve 
hot. Try it before you condemn it. The crust may be steamed 
instead of boiled, but it is beautifully light when boiled. Molas- 
ses, or maple or brown sugar syrup may be heated with a little 
butter and served over pudding as sauce. 

Cottage Pudding 

Bake rather stiff, slightly sweetened universal crust and serve 
with Annie's Strawberry ("<?" of Hard Sauce Variations) or any 
preferred sauce. Add fine cut, drained stewed prunes to pud- 
ding occasionally before baking and serve with a sauce made of 
the juice. 

Pear Cobbler 

2 rounded qts. halved or 2/^-3 tablespns. flour 

quartered pears a trifle of salt 

Y\ cup sugar i /^ cup water 

Sprinkle mixed sugar, flour and salt over pears in pudding dish, 
pour water over and cover with universal crust. Bake when 
crust is well risen. I Y^ cup of sugar and I ^ tablespn. of lemon 
juice give character to the filling. 

Mother's Peach Cobbler Billy's Favorite 

Line pudding dish with pie paste. Fill with pared, whole 
peaches. Mix sugar, a little butter and flour together; pour 
boiling water over, stirring. Boil up well, cool, pour over 



30O THE LAUREL 

peaches, cover with crust, bake in moderate oven until 

peaches are soft. 

Apple Scallop 

Mix together sugar, flour and butter in the proportion of I 
tablespoon of flour and 2 of butter to each cup of sugar with a 
little salt and sprinkle between layers of eighths of apples in 
pudding dish; cover dish and bake slowly until apples are tender, 
then uncover for a time. If apples are dry, a few spoonfuls of 
water may be put in the dish. Bake about I hour in all. 

Mary's Scalloped Apple Pudding 

Put a layer of quartered apples, sugar and a trifle of salt in the 
bottom of a pudding dish, then a sprinkling of dry bread crumbs; 
continue layers to fill the dish, leave crumbs on top, pour over 
all water to cook slowly for several hours until apples are a rich 
red color. Serve with or without cream or other sauce. If pre- 
ferred the pudding may be baked with less water for a shorter 
time. Use cracker crumbs instead of bread and you have a 
different pudding. 

Scalloped Raspberries, Blueberries or Peaches 

Put fruit and crumbs or very thin slices of bread in layers in 
pudding dish, sprinkle each layer with sugar and have crumbs on 
top. Cover and bake about ^ hr., uncover to brown, serve 
hot or cold with cream nut or dairy. Leave out sugar and serve 
with cream sauce. 

Bread and Currant Pudding 

Put small pieces of dry bread in pudding pan, sprinkle with 
English currants, pour enough hot, slightly salted water over to 
moisten well, bake in moderate oven 1-2 hours. Serve with any 
desired sauce or nut or dairy cream. 

Or, sprinkle sugar over bread before adding water and serve 
plain or with unsweetened sauce. The currants give the pudding 
a nice flavor if it is otherwise plain. 

Bread and Milk Pudding 
Use hot nut or dairy milk instead of water in preceding recipe. 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 30 1 

Steamed Fig Pudding 

i pt. stale bread crumbs i% cup rich milk 

i large cup fine ground figs salt 

Mix all together; use a trifle less milk if crumbs are quite 
moist, steam 2-3 hours; serve as soon as taken from the steamer, 
with creamy, orange or cream sauce, or with cream whipped or 
plain; never with lemon sauce. 

If to be served with unsweetened cream, put % CU P of sugar 

in pudding. 

if Plum Pudding of Crumbs 

i rounding pt. of dry bread crumbs /4 cup seeded raisins 

i small cup molasses 2 / / 2~3 cups milk 

% cup sugar salt 

Steam, covered, 4-5 hours. Stand out of steamer for 10-15 
m. before unmolding. The quantity of milk will depend on the 
kind of crumbs. Serve with vanilla flavored orange syrup sauce, 
plain pudding sauce or almond cream sauce. 

The combined flavors of vanilla and orange in sauces are 
especially suitable for plum puddings. 

Any of the puddings may be steamed in cups or small molds. 

Raised cake with fruit, baked or steamed, may be served for 
plum pudding. Keep wrapped in oiled paper. 

American Plum Pudding 

5 cups coarse dry bread crumbs i Ib. each raisins and figs 

2^2 cups grated carrot cut fine with shears 

1 J/2 cup molasses, or i/^ cup sugar /4 Ib. currants 

2 teaspns. salt /4^ Ib. citron sliced 

2-4 cups boilkig water 

Steam 4-6 hours. Serve with sauces given for plum pudding 

of crumbs. 

Plum Pudding 

i qt. (pressed down a little) /4 cup citron, ground 

stale bread crumbs 2 cups chopped apple 

2/4 cups water (i cup grape i cup chopped, blanched aim- 
juice and i% cup water if onds 

convenient 4 or 5 tablespns. browned 
cup English currants flour 

cup raisins, ground 2 teaspns. salt 



3O2 THE LAUREL 

Mix crumbs, almonds, browned flour and salt and add apples. 
Pour boiling liquid gradually over dried fruits, mixing, until they 
are separated; then combine all ingredients. Turn into well 
buttered molds, cover and steam 3-4 hours. Serve with orange 
syrup sauce or with hard sauce flavored with vanilla and oil of 
orange, or with egg cream sauce. 

YZ to I cup of brown sugar and I or 2 tablespoons lemon juice 
may be used in the pudding. The quantity of liquid will vary 
with the conditions, but a moderately soft batter is required. 

+ Steamed Whole Wheat Pudding 

i cup milk i cup raisins or currants 

1 cup molasses /4 cup oil 

2 cups whole wheat flour salt 

Mix all ingredients but flour, agitate liquid with batter whip 
until full of bubbles, sprinkle flour in slowly with the left hand, 
keeping up the agitating motion with the right. \Yhen the 
flour is all in and the batter foamy, put into well oiled mold, let 
stand in a cold place J4 hour or longer, then set in steamer and 
steam 3 or 4 hrs. Serve hot with creamy, foamy, hard or other 
sauce. 2^ cups of bread flour may be used. 

Tapioca Puddings- -Granular Tapioca 

Any of the granular preparations minute tapioca, cassava, 
manioc or manioca may be used. 

5 tablespns. tapioca i cup warm water soak 10-30 m. 

Syrup -fy-i cup sugar /4 teaspn. salt 

3 cups water 

Stir together until dissolved. 

Apple- -Prepare syrup in flat bottomed granite or porcelain 
lined pan. When boiling, drop in, inside down, quarters of 6 
medium sized, juicy apples. Cook until nearly tender, add 
soaked tapioca, pressing it down into the syrup, cover dish and 
simmer slowly until tapioca is transparent, 5-15 m. Serve warm 
(not hot) or cold, plain or with orange egg cream or custard 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 303 

sauce if cold; or orange or cocoanut flavored hard sauce if warm; 
or with nut or whipped dairy cream. 

Peach- -Make the same as Apple Tapioca, using twice as man}" 

peaches, in halves. 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Other Berries Cook soaked tapioca 

in the syrup and pour over the berries; mix carefully and pour 
into a pudding or fancy dish. Serve cold. A fluff of the fruit 
may be used for the sauce, if any. 

Stewed or Canned Fruit Cook soaked tapioca in the syrup 
and pour over drained canned fruit. Serve warm, with the juice of 
the fruit (to which a little lemon juice and sugar have been 
added if needed), thickened a trifle with corn starch or arrow- 
root; or, cold with whipped cream, custard or other sauce. 

Fig Steam figs until tender (30-35 m.), cut in pieces with 
shears and stir into tapioca cooked in the syrup. Serve warm or 
cold with orange egg cream sauce. 

Prune Cook tapioca in syrup with a little lemon juice if de- 
sired, and add quartered, slightly sweetened stewed prunes. 
Serve with rich juice of prunes, cream or whipped cream. 

Apple Tapioca PuddingPearl or Flake Tapioca 

Soak }>2 cup pearl or flake tapioca in 5 cups of warm water for 

3 hours or over night. Pour over whole pared cored apples in 
pudding dish. Cover dish and bake until apples are tender and 
tapioca transparent. Serve warm with hard, foamy or creamy 
sauce, or cold with sweetened \vhipped cream. 

If preferred, ^f-i cup of sugar may be added to the soaked 
tapioca and the pudding served plain or with unsweetened cus- 
tard sauce or cream. When the pudding is to be served at the 
table, it maybe covered with a meringue while hot and delicately 
browned in the oven. Use with other fruits the same as gran- 
ular tapioca. 

if Sister Bramhall's Tapioca Cream 

/<3 cup granular ( /4 cup pearl i qt. milk 

or flake) tapioca i teaspn. vanilla, or no 
y^-Y\ cup sugar flavoring 

y? teaspn. salt 



304 THE LAUREL 

Put all together in pudding dish, soak for I hour, stirring; 
then set in oven and bake slowly, stirring, until tapioca is trans- 
parent; brown over top at last; serve warm or cold. 

May bake without stirring for 2 hrs. The pudding may be 
cooked entirely in a double boiler. I cup of raisins may be used 
for variety. 

Sago Creaminstead of Ice Cream 

24 cup sago 2 cups water with heavy cream, 

Y\ cup sugar or i with thinner 

3 cups heavy cream or 4 of thinner cream i/^ teaspn. vanilla 

Soak sago in warm water 1-3 hrs., add to cream and sugar in 
double boiler, cook, stirring, till sago is transparent; remove 
from fire, add a pinch of salt and the vanilla. Serve cold in 
glasses with two halves of a candied cherry or a bit of bright 
jelly on top. Strawberries cut in quarters, or red raspberries, 
may be placed in layers with the cream and a few berries laid 
on top. 

it Cream of Rice Pudding 

3^2 pts. milk i cup sugar 

/4 pt. cream /4 cup rice 

Mix all together in pudding dish, set on top of stove or in 
oven and let come slowly to the boiling point, stirring often. 
When boiling, set in oven and bake slowly until rice is soft (2 
hrs. or longer); stir occasionally to keep the top stirred in and 
to break the rice so that it will be smooth and creamy when 
done. If pudding becomes too thick while baking, add hot water; 
it should be quite thin when warm as it thickens in cooling. 
Brown the top delicately just before removing from the oven. 
Serve very cold the next day after making. In serving be 
sure to dip from the top to the bottom for each plate. 

If you are using the ordinary polished rice, boil it for 5 m. in 
a pint of water, drain and rinse in cold water before adding it to 
the milk. When more convenient, cook the pudding in a double 
boiler until the rice is smooth and creamy, then turn into pud- 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 305 

ding dish and brown in oven, stirring the top in two or three times. 

Rice Pudding- -Raisins 

Add i cup of raisins to preceding recipe before or during cook- 
ing. For a delicious change the raisins may be ground and 
added when the pudding is half done. English currants, fine 
cut dates, figs or citron may be variously added. Servings of 
pudding may be garnished with blanched almonds. 

Cocoamit Rice Pudding 

Add I to i ^2 cup cocoanut to cream of rice pudding and use 
^ cup sugar only. 

Nut Cream of Rice Pudding 

2 tablespns. rice well washed 3 tablespns. almond or other nut 

YI cup sugar butter rubbed smooth with 

/^ teaspn. salt i qt. of water 

Cook, stirring often, in oven or on top of stove until creamy, 
then brown. May flavor just before it is done. 

" Indian " Rice Pudding 

2 tablespns. rice YI teaspn. salt 

% cup molasses 2 qts. milk 

Bake in slow oven 4 or 5 hours, stirring. 

^ Emeline's Indian Pudding 

y% cup Rhode Island meal Vi-Yz cup sugar 

(/^ granular) i/^ teaspn. salt 

YZ, cup molasses 2 qts. skimmed milk 

The older the milk without being sour, the better. 

Mix salt, sugar, molasses and flour together in pudding dish 
and pour over them stirring 3 pts. of the milk boiling. Set dish in 
oven, pour the remaining pint of milk, cold, into the pudding 
without stirring; cover and bake very slowly for 3 or 4 hrs. 
Cool pudding before dipping into it, to allow the jelly to set. 
Serve another day warm or cold, plain, or with cream whipped 
or plain. 

The pudding may be baked for an hour before the cold milk is 



306 THE LAUREL 

poured in. Add I qt. rich sweet apples, in eighths, or stoned 
dates with or without grated cocoanut, sometimes. 

Mrs. Hinsdale's Indian Pudding 

2 qts. water I /^ cup raisins 

3/^-4 cups granular meal salt 

Stir meal gradually, with wire batter whip, into rapidly boil- 
ing, salted water, add the raisins, turn into well oiled mold, 
cover and steam 3-5 hrs; serve hot with maple syrup, cream and 
sugar, or hard sauce. In early days it was served with molasses. 

The pudding may be sweetened and served \vith cream only. 
It should be stiff enough to slice well. 

Chopped or broken nuts may be added for variety. 

Graham Porridge Pudding 

Take ^ or ^ milk and ^ or X water, add sugar and salt, 
stir in gradually graham flour till thick, cook in double boiler I 
hr. or longer; serve warm with cream, nut or dairy, or mold and 
serve cold with sweet fruit sauce or cream. Omit sugar and 
serve with honey, maple syrup or molasses or with molasses sauce. 

Blanc Mange 

i qt. milk i tablespn. sugar 

//S'cup corn starch wet with salt 

another cup of milk 

Heat milk to boiling, add corn starch, boil half a minute, 
mold, serve with cold cream sauce, sub-acid fruit sauce, with 
custard or with nut or dairy cream. Fine cut dates may be 
added to blanc mange sometimes. 

Bice Flour Blanc Mange 

i qt. milk 9^ level teaspns. rice flour 

1 A cup sugar /^ teaspn. salt 

Blend flour with part of the milk, heat remainder of milk \vith 
sugar and salt to boiling, stir in flour, beat smooth, cook 15 m., 
pour into molds which have been dipped in cold water. Serve 
with sauces for blanc mange. 



PUDDINGS WITHOUT EGGS 307 

if Caramel Jelly 

Tie 2 to 4 tablespns. cereal coffee in double cheese cloth and 
steep in I qt. of milk in double boiler for 20 m; squeeze the milk 
all out of the cloth, add enough more milk to make a full quart 
and proceed as in blanc mange. Serve with custard sauce or 
sometimes with plain or whipped cream flavored with vanilla. 
Pudding may be flavored and the cream plain. 

% cup of strong cereal coffee may be used with ^ qt. of milk 
when more convenient. 

Raspberry Jelly 

i qt. milk /^ to i cup sugar 

i scant cup corn starch i pt. raspberries 

Blend corn starch with part of the milk and stir into remainder 
of milk when boiling; add sugar and mashed berries, turn into 
mold, cool. Unmold on to dessert plate and surround with 
whipped cream roses, or with spoonfuls of cream with a whole 
berry here and there. 

^ Farina Banana Cream 

3 cups milk 3-4 tablespns. sugar 

i cup cream 3 medium sized, very ripe ba- 

3/^-4X level tablespns. farina nanas 

Heat milk and cream with sugar in double boiler, stir in dry 
farina, cook i hr. Spread in layers with sliced bananas. Serve 
cold in cups or glasses the day it is made. The farina will be 
very thin when done, but will thicken to the consistency of 
cream by cooling, and if it is thicker than that it is not good. 

Omit bananas, flavor cream with vanilla and serve cold in 
glasses for Farina Cream. 

Almond "Custard" 

Rub 2 tablespns. almond butter smooth with i cup of water; 
add i or 2 tablespns. sugar and % level teaspn. salt; boil up well; 
serve warm or cold in cups or glasses with cake, wafers or buns. 
Flavor with vanilla or with vanilla and almond if desired. 

if Imperial Raspberry Cream 

i pt. cream i cup sugar Y\ pt. raspberry juice 



308 THE LAUREL 

Dissolve sugar in juice, add to boiling cream, boil, stirring, 
until of the consistency of thin cream. It will be much thicker 
when cold. Serve in glasses with cookies, sticks or wafers. 
May be used as a sauce for cottage or other puddings; especially 
suitable for Irish moss or gelatine blanc mange. Grape and 
other fruit juices may be used. 

Steamed. Apples Cream 

While hot, sprinkle nicely steamed apples with sugar in indi- 
vidual dishes. Serve cold with suitable nut or whipped dairy 

cream . 

Clabberfor summer only 

Put fresh warm milk into an individual bowl for each member 
of the family. When it has turned and become a smooth, blanc 
mange-like cake, serve in the bowls with sugar sprinkled over, 
for dessert or supper. 

Green Corn Pudding 

3 cups corn (12 ears) /^ to /^ cup sugar 

i pt. milk /^ level teaspn. salt 

Grate mature corn; mix with milk and sugar in pudding dish; 
bake in moderate oven 1-1/4 hr. Serve plain or w r ith cream or 

butter. 

Irish or Sea Moss Blanc Mange 

Sea or Irish moss is so desirable as a food that it should be 
used more generally. It can be bought at groceries or drug 
stores at from 25 cts. per Ib. upward, according to where it is 
bought. Do not confound it with Iceland moss. 

It is useless to try to follow any exact rule either by weight 
or measure for the proportion of moss to the milk, yet tfo-e prep- 
aration is simple. Take up a little in the fingers, what might 
be called a small handful, wash it in several cold waters until all 
the sand is removed. Drop it into the milk cold or warm. (It 
is very convenient to have it tied loose in 2 or 3 thicknesses of 
netting, cheese cloth is too fine.) Cook in the inner cup of a 
double boiler, or in a pail set in hot water, lifting the netting 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 309 

up and down occasionally, until the milk is of a creamy consist- 
ency; then remove moss if it is in the netting, if not, strain 
through a fine wire or hair strainer. Sweeten, and flavor with 
vanilla or rose, or leave plain. (Some prefer the seaweed fla- 
vor. ) Turn into a large pudding mold or individual cups or molds 
which have been dipped in cold water. It will harden very 
quickly in a cool place. Serve with fruit juice, stewed fruit 
or cream. Pineapple sauce is very suitable. 

DESSERTS AND PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 

'Far too much sugar is used in food. Cakes, sweet puddings, 
pastries, jellies, jams are active causes of indigestion. Especially 
harmful are the custards and puddings in which milk, eggs and 
sugar are the chief ingredients. 

"The free use of milk and sugar taken together should be 
avoided. ' 

Desserts made of tart fruits and bread should be avoided by 
those with a tendency to acid stomach. 

Elizabeth's Indian PuddingSuperior 

2 qts. milk i egg 

1 cup corn meal /3 cup molasses 

2 tablespns. flour /^ cup sugar 
/^"/^ cup butter /^ teaspn. salt 

Mix meal and flour, pour I qt. boiling milk over, stirring; boil 
well, add butter; combine egg, molasses, sugar, salt and the 
remaining quart of milk and add to the corn meal mixture; bake 
for 2 hrs., stirring occasionally. Serve warm or cold, plain or 
with cream, nut or dairy. 

if Corn Cake Pudding 

Use 2 eggs and 3 tablespns. sugar to each quart rich milk and 
turn over crumbs, dice or small pieces of corn cake; sprinkle top 
with sugar and bake in moderate oven until eggs are set. May 
use currants and raisins. 

if Brown Bread Pudding 

i cup brown bread crumbs 3 tablespns. siiijar 

i pt. milk 2 or 3 eggs salt 



3io 



THE LATRKL 



Add stiffly-beaten whites of eggs last; hake in pan of hot water 
or in slow oven, covered part of the time; serve warm with hard 
sauce or cold with whipped cream. 

Victoria DessertImpromptu 

1 cup milk i tablespn. sugar 

2 or 3 eggs salt 

slices of stale bread 

Cut slices of bread into desired shape and size; soak in mix- 
ture of milk, eggs and sugar until moistened, not soft; lay in 
hot buttered pan and brown delicately in quick oven; serve at 
once with fresh fruit, jelly, marmalade or suitable fruit or pud- 
ding sauce. 

2 whites of the 3 eggs may be left out and beaten stiff with 
sugar and some fruit marmalade or jelly and used as a sauce. 
Drained canned peaches or apricots, rubbed through a colander 
and beaten well make a nice sauce, especially with a little 
whipped cream. Even nicely stewed apples are good. 

*f Steamed Crumb Pudding 

i pt, hot milk /-/ cup sugar 

i-i/i cup dry bread crumbs 2 eggs 

/^ teaspn. vanilla 

If bread was very light, the larger quantity of crumbs will be 
required. Pour milk over crumbs, add sugar, cool; add beaten 
eggs and vanilla. Steam in large or small molds i-i YZ hr. Un- 
mold, serve with orange, hard, jelly, foamy, plain or any desired 
sauce. Vanilla may be omitted. Fine cut raisins or citron, 
dried blueberries, English currants or any desired fruit (about % 
cup) may be added to the pudding sometimes; also fresh red or 
black raspberries, blueberries or blackberries. 

Steamed Cabinet Pudding 

3 eggs i cup fruit (currants, raisins, 
3 tablespns. sugar citron), chopped fine 

3 cups milk 3 pts. stale bread or cake crumbs 

salt 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 311 

Beat eggs, add sugar, salt, milk, pour over crumbs, let stand 
i hr. Use I tablespn. of softened butter in oiling a three-pint 
mold; sprinkle mold with fruit, pour in batter, steam in vessel 
of hot water in oven for 2 hrs. Serve with creamy sauce. 

Plain Boiled or Baked Custard 

i qt. milk 3-4 eggs 3-4 tablespns. sugar 

Beat eggs with sugar just enough to blend whites and yolks, 
add milk, stir until sugar is dissolved; cook, stirring over hot 
water until the custard thinly coats the spoon; remove quickly 
from fire, add flavoring if desired and strain into pitcher or glass 
sauce dish; serve cold. 

Or, pour hot milk slowly stirring, over beaten eggs and sugar, 
strain and pour into buttered custard cups, set in pan of hot 
water, bake slowly until creamy all through, or till a silver knife 
will come out clean when run into custard. Do not allow the 
water around the cups to boil at any time. Cool as rapidly as 
possible. The straining of custards has much to do with their 
smoothness and lightness. If the boiled custard should curdle 
from too long cooking, beating with the dish in cold water may 
restore the smoothness, but not the flavor. 

In making a large quantity of custard, set as soon as creamy 
into cold water and stir until below the coagulating point or the 
custard will become curdled by its own heat. 

Custard of Yolks of Eggs 
i pt. milk 2 tablespns. sugar yolks of 3 eggs 

Follow directions for boiled custard. The custard may be 
served with an uncooked meringue of the whites of the eggs, 
sprinkled with chopped candied cherries or dotted with jelly. 

* White Custard 

The white of I egg with 73 to i tablespn. of sugar and a trifle 
of salt, to every % or I cup of milk. (Good with either quantity 
of milk.) Bake in pan of hot water in very slow oven for 40 m, 
to i hour, according to heat of oven and shape and size of dish. 



312 THE LAUREL 

Corn Starch Custard 

i qt. milk 1^2 tablespn. corn starch 

4 tablespns. sugar i egg 

salt 

Blend corn starch with a little of the cold milk and pour slowly 
into remainder of milk heated to boiling with the sugar; boil up 
well, or cook in double boiler 10 m., add a little to the beaten 
gg, and when smooth, turn egg all at once into hot mixture; 
stir well, remove from fire, add salt and flavoring and strain. 

Cocoamit Banana Dessert 

Add grated cocoanut to corn starch custard. Fill deep glass 
dish with layers of custard and bananas, and sprinkle cocoanut 
over the top. Serve cold. 

Lemon Water Custard 

4 or 5 tablespns. lemon juice /^ cup sugar 

with water to make i cup 2 whole eggs and i yolk 

salt 

Beat eggs and sugar together, pour hot lemon juice over, stir- 
ring; cook, strain, turn into dish or glasses. Just before serving 
drop on sweetened beaten white of egg and dot with squares or 
diamonds of jelly. 

Coffee Custard 

i cup cereal coffee 2 eggs 

i level tablespn. sugar /^ teaspn. vanilla 

Steep 2 tablespns. cocoanut in coffee and strain out if con- 
venient. Boil or bake. Serve with whipped cream. 

if Floating Island 

i qt. milk 4 or 5 tablespns. sugar 

3 eggs flavoring 

Beat whites of eggs stiff with half the sugar, flavor, drop by 
spoonsfuls on to hot (not boiling) milk; when puffed a little, 
turn with silver fork remove with skimmer or wire spoon when 
well heated through. Turn milk into double boiler, add yolks 
and sugar, cook, strain, cool. When cold, flavor and turn into 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 313 

large dish or several glasses; lay puffs on top and dot with jelly 
or some confection, or sprinkle with chopped candied cherries. 
A few fresh rose leaves scattered over are not unsuitable. 

^ Floating Island No. 2 

i pt. milk 1 A cup sugar 

3 eggs % glass jam or jelly 

Make boiled custard of yolks, sugar and milk; when cold, 
flavor or not and turn into glass dish. Beat whites of eggs to 
stiff froth and beat in any desired jam or jelly. Beat until very 
firm, drop on to custard. Serve with cake or wafers. 

Raspberry jelly or jam with I tablespn. currant jelly makes a 
nice combination for flavor. The dish may be lined with lady 
ringers or slices of sponge cake before custard is poured in. 
Water may be used instead of milk for the custard. 

Custard Apple Pudding-Good Sabbath Dessert 

Cook without paring 3 medium sized apples in as little water 
as possible; press through sieve, add 2 tablespns. butter, X~/^ 
cup sugar and the yolks of 3 eggs beaten with X CU P sugar, with 
i pt. of milk and l /2 teaspn. of vanilla or a few drops of lemon 
extract; bake in moderate oven until creamy, cover with meringue 
of whites of eggs beaten with i tablespn. of sugar; dust with pow- 
dered or granulated sugar and brown delicately. Serve cold. 

Orange Pudding 

i qt. milk 2 or 3 eggs 

i cup sugar 4 large oranges 

4 level tablespns. corn starch salt 

i tablespn. powdered sugar 

Heat y of milk with ^ of sugar to boiling and stir in slowly 
corn starch which has been blended with the remaining cup of 
milk, boil up well and cook in double boiler for 10 m., then add 
yolks of eggs which have been beaten with J/$ the cup of sugar; 
when well heated through, remove from fire and cool. Grate 
rind from one orange and mix with a little of the remaining sugar; 
prepare orange pulp according to directions on p. 42, and put 



314 THE LAUREL 

into glass dish or individual glasses and sprinkle with remaining 
sugar; when custard is cold turn it over the oranges, and just the 
last thing before serving sprinkle the peel over the custard and 
pile on it in spoonfuls (or put on with pastry tube) the whites of 
the eggs beaten stiff with a speck of salt and the powdered sugar; 
Serve at once. 

Sprinkle meringue with cocoanut sometimes, or decorate with 
leaves of angelica or diamonds of citron. The custard may be 
delicately flavored with vanilla. Other fruits may be used. 

Banana Pudding 

Same as orange pudding, using 3 tablespns. cornstarch only. 
Pour unflavored custard over sliced bananas warm, so that the 
custard will be flavored with the banana. 

Hattie's Prune Dessert 

Stew i Ib. nice large California prunes in as little water as 
possible; drain, remove the stones and chop the prunes, not too 
fine. Beat the whites of 3 eggs to a stiff froth with a little salt 
and X CU P f sugar. (Be sure to use the sugar in the eggs 
instead of in the prunes.) Chop prunes in lightly, bake in pud- 
ding dish or brick shaped granite pan in slow oven until egg is 
set, about 20 m. Serve cold with plain or whipped cream. 
Almond cream flavored with vanilla is nice. 

Prune Souffle 

Stew 28 prunes in as little water as possible; drain, rub 
through colander. Add the whites of 4 eggs stiffly-beaten with 
4 to 6 tablespns. sugar, set in pan of water, bake slowly until 
set. Serve with egg cream or custard sauce or whipped cream. 

Fruit Whips 

Dried Apple 2 cups sifted, stewed, dried apples (stewed in 
small quantity of water), l /2-i cup sugar, I tablespn. lemon 
juice if i cup of sugar is used, whites of 2-4 eggs. Beat all 
together until light and spongy, heap in glass dish. Serve 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 3 I 5 

cold with or without custard sauce or cream. Dried peaches, 
apricots and prunes may be used the same. 

Use only 2 tablespns. of sugar for each cup of prunes. 

Banana- -White of I egg, ^ cup sugar, I teaspn. lemon juice, 
i cup banana pulp. Nice on cake. 

Cranberry- -^2 cup thick, sweetened, cooked pulp to white of 



1 egg. 

Whips must be beaten until they hold their shape. They are 
nice served on bread puddings, custards and other desserts, 
instead of a meringue or a sauce. 

The rule for fruit whips is, i cup of fresh or stewed fruit pulp 
to the white of each egg, sugar to suit the fruit, and a little 
lemon juice \vith sweet fruits; but the proportion of fruit often 
needs to be varied. 

Fresh pears and peaches may be used by rubbing through the 
colander or mashing well. 

if Jelly Whips, or Mary's Desserts 

Quince--! glass of quince jelly, whites of 3 eggs; beat jelly a 
little, and whites very stiff and dry; combine the two and beat 
together until stiff. Make custard of i pt. of milk, yolks of 3 
eggs, 2 tablespns. sugar; when cold put into glasses with whip 
on top. Sterilized cream may be used instead of custard, or 
whip may be put into glass first and whipped cream piled on top 
of that. Serve w r ith crackers or cake. 
Other jellies may be used the same. 

Brother Fulton's Strawberry Fluff 

whites 2 eggs ~A cup sugar i pt. strawberries 

Mash berries with sugar and add to unbeaten whites in deep 
cake bowl; beat with egg or batter whip until the mixture will 
stand alone, very light and fluffy. Serve in glasses with cake or 
wafers, or as meringue, garnish, or sauce for other desserts. 
Strawberry fluff makes a nice garnish for strawberry shortcake. 
Raspberries and other fruits may be used. 



316 THE LAUREL 

Strawberries and Cream Whip 

i pt. ice cold cream /^ cup sugar 

/^ cup mashed fresh strawberries 

Add sugar and berries to cream, whip as for whipped cream 
and serve in sherbet glasses. 

Apple Cream 

Pare, quarter, core and steam 12 tart apples, rub through 
colander, cool, add i cup sugar and whites of 2 eggs, beat until 
white and foamy; heap in cold glass dish. Garnish \vith chopped 
candied cherries, bits of jelly or with citron or angelica. Serve 
very cold. 

Rose Apple Cream 

Steam red skinned apples without paring for above recipe. 
Pile on glass dessert plate and surround with whipped cream 
roses flavored delicately with extract of rose. 

Lemon Snow Pudding 

2-2/4^ tablespns. lemon juice ij4 tablespn. corn starch 

i cup water J4 cup sugar 

white of i egg 

Heat sugar and water to boiling, stir in the corn starch blended 
with water, boil up, add lemon juice and pour gradually, beating, 
over the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Beat well and pour into 
molds or cups, cool. Serve with custard or red sauce or cream. 

Pudding may be garnished with halves of candied cherries. 

Birds' Nest Pudding 

Pare and core 6 or 8 tart apples. Steam until nearly tender. 
Set in oiled pudding dish and cover with the following 

Crust i pt. milk 4. tablespns. flour 

2 tablespns. butter or oil 4 eggs 

Cream butter and flour, pour boiling milk over, cook 5 m; 
remove from fire and add yolks of eggs. When cold, chop in 
the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs, turn over apples and bake 
in a slow or moderate oven about /^ hour or until done. The 
success of the pudding depends upon the slow baking. Serve at 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 317 

once with hard, creamy or any suitable sauce, or with sweetened 
sterilized cream. Do not sweeten the apples or batter. \Yith 
some flours and some measurements, l /2-i tablespn. more of flour 
will be required. 

Sponge Apple Pudding 

Fill pudding dish half full of quartered sour apples that have 

been steamed until tender. Fill dish with a sponge cake batter 
and bake until well done. Serve with custard, almond, cream or 
other sauce. May use peaches sprinkled with sugar instead of 
apples, with thin meringue on cake and no sauce. 

Lemon Souffle PuddingUnequaled 

% cup butter 3 tablespns. lemon juice 

/^ cup flour 3 eggs 

1/^2 cup milk % cup sugar 

grated rind of i lemon salt 

Cream butter and flour and pour the boiling milk over; cook 
until thick; add lemon juice and rind and yolks of eggs beaten 
with the sugar; cool a little, chop in whites of eggs beaten to a 
stiff froth with salt; bake in buttered mold in pan of water in 
moderate oven until egg is set, about 30 m. Serve with foamy 
or fruit Sabayon sauce, fruit syrup or egg cream sauce.- -Boston 
Cooking ScJiool Magazine. 

Cream Sponge Pudding 

4-5 tablespns. corn starch 2 eggs 

(according to quality) /^ cup sugar or none 

i qt. milk salt 

Thicken boiling milk and sugar (if used) with corn starch stirred 
smooth with some of the cold milk, boil 3-5 m; add beaten 
yolks of eggs, beat well and pour over stiffly-beaten whites, turn 

into wet molds or cups. Serve with fruit or other sauce if not 
sweetened, or if sweet with cream, 

Fruit Juice Mold 

i cup rich fruit juice salt 

i cup water 4 level tablespns. corn starch 

sugar whites of 2-3 eggs 



318 THE LAUREL 

Heat juice, sugar, salt and water to boiling; stir in corn starch 
blended with cold water; boil well, pour over stiff whites of eggs, 
beating; mold. Serve with custard or whipped cream flavored 
with strawberry, orange, lemon or vanilla or not flavored at all, 
as suitable. 

Snow Blanc Mange No Milk 

i pt. boiling water whites 3 or 4 eggs 

6 level tablespns. corn starch Y^-^A teaspn. vanilla with 
Y\ cup cold water or without a few drops alm- 

cup sugar ond extract 



Thicken boiling water and sugar with corn starch blended with 
cold water; boil well, pour over the stiffly-beaten whites of the 
eggs, beating, add flavoring and turn into wet mold. Serve with 
custard of yolks of eggs flavored with vanilla or a few drops of 
lemon extract. 

Blanc Mange may be garnished with small dice or diamonds 
of citron. 

Flour Blanc Mange 

1 pt. milk i egg 

2 tablespns. flour salt 

Stir flour blended with part of the milk into remainder of milk 
when boiling; cook 10-20 m. in double boiler; add egg slightly 
beaten, heat a moment and turn into cups dipped in cold water; 
serve cold with any desired dressing. In making a larger quantity, 
use a slightly larger proportion of flour. 

Rice Flour Pudding 

4 tablespns. rice flour 2 eggs 

i cup cold milk ?4-i cup sugar 

i qt. boiling milk flavoring 

i tablespn. butter salt 

Add sugar to boiling milk and stir in the flour blended with 
the cold milk; boil 5 m; add butter, beaten eggs and salt; bake 
20 m. or until firm. Serve with strawberry or blueberry sauce 
or with cream. Butter may be omitted. 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 319 

Corn Starch Meringue 

1 qt. milk 6 tablespns. sugar 

2 tablespns. corn starch 3 eggs 

flavoring 

Heat milk and 4 tablespns. of sugar to boiling; stir in corn 
starch blended with cold milk; boil; add the yolks of eggs, flavor, 
turn into serving dish; cover at once with whites of eggs beaten 
with 2 tablespns. of sugar; tint delicately on top grate of oven. 
Serve cold. The meringue may be sprinkled with grated cocoa- 
nut while w r arm. May use I tablespn. more of corn starch and 
lay drained canned peaches on top of pudding before putting on 
meringue. Other fruits, jellies or jams may be used. 

Sea Foam Sea Moss 

Pour hot Irish Moss Blanc Mange, p. 308, over stiffly-beaten 
whites of eggs. Flavor with almond, orange flower water or 
other flavoring. Mold. Serve with anything suitable for Irish 
Moss Blanc Mange. 

Eva's Tapioca Creamnone better 

4 tablespns. minute, pearl or flake tapioca i cup sugar 

(3 only of cassava or inanioca) 3 eggs 

i scant cup of warm water i teaspn. vanilla 

i qt. milk salt 

Soak tapioca in water (pearl or flake 2 hrs., minute or manioca 
10 m.) and cook with milk and sugar in double boiler until trans- 
parent; add beaten yolks, stir for a moment, remove from fire, 
add vanilla and pour into serving dish, cover with the whites of 
eggs beaten with i-i^j tablespn. sugar. Tint on top grate of 
oven. Serve cold. 

Tapioca Cream in glasses 

2 tablespns. tapioca 3 eggs 

scant cup water /^-i cup sugar 

i qt. milk flavoring 

salt 

Soak tapioca in water, cook in the milk with half the sugar 
in double boiler until clear; add beaten yolks of eggs, remove 



32O THE LAUREL 

from fire and while hot or when nearly cold pour over whites 
which have been beaten with the remaining sugar; flavor and 
serve in glasses. 

Beaten whites may be chopped into cold custard just before 
serving, or, they may be served on top of it. 

Water Tapioca Pudding- -Excellent 

6 tablespns. tapioca 4 eggs 

5 cups water i cup sugar 

flavoring 

Soak tapioca in I cup of the water, cook in remainder with 
sugar until transparent, add beaten yolks (it is better to reserve 
a spoonful of sugar to beat with the yolks), flavor and pour into 
pudding dish. Meringue with whites of eggs beaten with 1-2 
tablespns. of sugar, flavored or not. Lemon juice or other 
fruit juices may replace some of the water for variety. Stewed 
or steamed raisins may be sprinkled over the pudding before the 
meringue is put on, but the plain pudding is good enough. 

Molded Tapioca PuddingFine 

y? cup minute tapioca /^ cup sugar 

2 cups milk 2 eggs 

i--!/^ cup water a few drops of lemon extract 

24 teaspn. vanilla 

Pour a good quantity of warm water over tapioca, soak 10 in., 
drain and put to cooking with milk, water and sugar; cook until 
perfectly transparent, stir in beaten yolks of eggs, remove from 
fire, add flavoring, chop in the whites of eggs beaten with I 
tablespn. of sugar; turn into wet mold or cups. Serve plain, 
garnished with nuts or jelly, or with nut or dairy cream, custard, 
or some fruit whip or egg cream. 

^r Cottage PuddingEggs 

Take I egg and y% cup of sugar to each cup of milk in universal 
crust. Bake in any desired shape and serve with lemon or other 
sauce. 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 321 

The sugar may be omitted for some sauces. A different pud- 
ding may be made by steaming instead of baking. 

Steamed Fruit Pudding 

To ingredients for universal crust add I or 2 tablespns. of 
sugar (white or brown) and I or 2 eggs for each cup of liquid- 
milk or water, and flour for a thick batter. When light, mix in 
carefully floured fresh blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, cran- 
berries, cherries or sliced peaches; dried blueberries, cherries, 
raisins or currants; or drained canned cherries. Steam in well 
oiled molds or cups cups ^ hour, mold I hour. Serve with 
sauce suitable for the fruit. 

The batter for Washington cake may be used sometimes. 

if Quaker Pudding 

6 eggs 9 or 10 tablespns. pastry flour i qt. milk 

Beat all together. Bake in moderate oven. Serve with sauce. 

Batter Pudding 

4 eggs salt 

i /4 cup sifted flour i pt. milk 

Beat eggs for 3 m; add the milk and pour on to flour gradually, 
beating. Turn into well oiled mold with cover and steam or 
boil i J/2 hr. Serve with suitable sauce. 

^ Cocoanut Rice Pudding 

3 pts. milk 4 eggs 

YS cup rice i YZ cup grated cocoanut 

i cup sugar i teaspn. vanilla 

salt 

Cook rice in milk until very soft, cool; beat 2 whole eggs and 
the yolks of the other 2 with the sugar, cocoanut and salt and 
add with the vanilla to the rice. Turn into pudding dish and 
bake in moderate oven until eggs are set. Cover with a meringue 
of the remaining whites of eggs and i or 2 tablespns. of sugar. 
Tint delicately in oven. Serve warm or cold. 

Grind desiccated cocoanut when using that instead of fresh. 



322 THE LAUREL 

i-i l /4 cup of cold boiled rice may be used. Vanilla maybe 

omitted. 

Rice Custard Pudding 

Same as above with cocoanut omitted. I cup of raisins, 
whole or chopped, may be cooked with the rice sometimes. 

Rice PuddingLemon Meringue 

i cup boiled rice 2 eggs 

1 good pt. of milk i cup sugar 

2 2/4 tablespns. lemon juice 

Pour hot milk over rice in pudding dish. Beat yolks of eggs 
with X of the sugar flavored with oil of lemon, as on p. 27, and 
add to rice and milk. Bake in slow oven until creamy; beat 
whites of eggs stiff, add sugar and lemon juice, drop by spoonfuls 
on pudding and brown delicately. 

Sweet Potato Mold 

2 Ibs. potatoes 5 eggs 
^^K /^ cup butter flavoring 

/^ cup sugar i pt. thin cream 

Boil and mash potatoes, add butter while warm, beat w 7 ell; 
beat eggs with sugar and add to mixture; then flavoring, Vanilla 
or lemon, and cream. Bake in pudding mold in moderate oven. 
Serve with sauce or cream. 

Dainty Dessert 

Bake rose flavored sponge cake in flat pan, cut in squares and 
serve with Imperial Raspberry Cream, p. 307. 

Cottage Cheese and Cake 

Spread creamy, unseasoned, sweetened cottage cheese over 
sponge cake, cut into squares and serve with whipped cream. 
Molasses or Washington cake may be used. 

o *> 

Molasses Cake with Whipped Cream 

Serve fresh, warm, molasses cake with sweetened whipped 
cream flavored with vanilla. 

Molded Apples 

Grind (not too fine) tart apples, put at once into boiling syrup 



PUDDINGS WITH EGGS 323 

of equal quantities of sugar and water, just enough to cook apples 
and leave dry. Do not stir. When thick, turn into mold to 
cool; unmold and serve with boiled custard or with unsweetened 
whipped cream. 

Apple Dessert 

Stew nice, tart apples in quarters, in just enough w r ater with- 
out sugar to cook them, or, steam them; serve cold with plain 
sweetened egg cream or boiled custard. Apples may be pared, 
cored and steamed. 



PUDDING SAUCES 



"The pudding is nice and the sauce is nice, but the tart of 
the lemon destroys the flavor of the hg, ' was the kindly criti- 
cism which my fig pudding with lemon sauce received from one 
of the ladies of the class in the junior days of my public work. 

To combine desserts and sauces properly requires true artistic 
skill. As a rule, a rich sauce should be served with a plain pud- 
ding and a simpler or neutral sauce with a richer pudding, or 
with one having a characteristic or delicate flavor. Cream- 
almond, Brazil nut, cocoanut or dairy is the only thing that will 
develop the flavor of some desserts, while some puddings are too 
good to be spoiled with any sauce. 

^ Creamy (Apple Dumpling) Sauce 

/4 cup butter /^ cup milk 

i cup sugar i teaspn. vanilla 

Cream butter and sugar, add milk gradually, stirring; set over 
hot water and stir until just smooth, no longer. The sauce is 
not intended to be hot. Add vanilla and serve at once. 

If the sauce should stand and separate, heat carefully again 
before serving. Water may be used in place of milk, or lemon 
juice and water in equal quantities, with lemon flavor, or fruit 
juices for cottage or plain steamed puddings. Orange juice with 
the flavor of the rind and vanilla makes a pleasing combination. 
The sauce is sometimes made with cream and sometimes with 
Y cup each of cream and fruit juice. 

Strawberry or Raspberry Sauce 

Add i cup mashed, drained, canned or fresh strawberries or 
raspberries to above sauce just before serving. 

[324] 



PUDDING SAUCES 325 

if Foamy Sauce 

/^ cup butter 2 tablespns. fruit juice 

i cup sugar /^ cup boiling water 

i teaspn. vanilla white of I egg 

Cream butter and sugar, add vanilla and fruit juice. Just before 
serving, add gradually the boiling water, and pour over the stiffly- 
beaten white of egg; beat until foamy. Vanilla may be omitted. 
Grape juice gives a lavender color. 

Hard Sauce 

X cup butter i cup sugar, powdered or granulated flavoring 

Cream butter, add sugar gradually. When sauce is smooth 
and creamy, add flavoring. Pile on glass or other pretty dish, 
set in cold place to harden. 

Variations of Hard Sauce 

a. Flavor \vith fine ground coriander seed, or very delicately 
with powdered anise seed. 

b. Beat i tablespn. cream with butter and sugar. 

c. Add unbeaten white of i egg and beat 5 m. more. 

d. Add unbeaten yolk of egg and beat. 

e. Add i egg, yolk and white beaten separately. 

f. Add gradually I or 2 stiffly-beaten whites of eggs, beat till 
frothy. 

g. Add 2 tablespns. boiling water. 

h. Flavor sugar with oil of lemon and add i-i/i tablespn. 
lemon juice. 

/. Add 2 tablespns. raspberry, grape or any desired fruit juice, 
sauce or jelly. 

j. Add 2 tablespns. any fruit juice and ]/?. tablespn. lemon juice. 

k. Flavor sugar with oil of orange, add 2 tablespns. orange 
juice and %-i teaspn. vanilla. 

/. Add 2 tablespns. very strong cereal coffee with i teaspn. 
vanilla. 



326 THE LAUREL 

;//. Add i cup fine grated cocoanut and if desired, 2 eggs, 
whites and yolks beaten separately. 

;/. Add ]^.- l /2 tablespn. lemon juice, and one at a time, beat- 
ing well, loor 12 large ripe strawberries. 

o. Add i egg and beat; beat in I cup fresh crushed ripe straw- 
berries Annie's sauce. 

p. Use raspberries in place of strawberries in "0. ' 
(/. Add l /2, cup cream, whipped to either ' V or "/.' 
;-. Add fine ground dates or steamed figs. 

s. Use i cup fine rolled maple sugar instead of white, with 
or without beaten white of i or 2 eggs. 

it Variegated Hard Sauce 

/^--/^ cup butter white of i egg 



i cup sugar yolk of i egg 

pink fruit color 

Cream butter and sugar, add beaten white of egg, divide into 
3 parts, flavor one part with vanilla, add yolk of egg to another 
with 2 or 3 drops of lemon extract and put the fruit color with 
a drop or two of rose into the third part; oil a brick shaped mold 
and press the sauce into it in layers, set in a cold place to harden. 
When firm, dip mold quickly into hot water, turn sauce on a 
platter or flat dish and let stand in a cold place until the outside 
is again hardened. Cut in slices with hot knife and lay a slice 
on each serving of pudding. 

Saffron may be used to color yellow, green and other colors 
may be used, and strawberry flavoring instead of rose sometimes. 
Maple hard sauce might be used for one layer. 

Hard Sauce of Cooking Oil 

/^--/^ cup oil salt 

i cup sugar i white of egg 

flavoring 

Beat oil sugar and salt together until light and creamy; add 



PUDDING SAUCES 327 

flavoring and stiffly-beaten white of egg, set in cool place to 
harden. 

Soft or melted cocoanut butter may be used the same. 

Plain Lemon Sauce 

i cup water 2/^-3 tablespns. lemon juice 

/4-I cup sugar flavored 24-1 tablespn. corn starch 

with oil of lemon 

Heat sugar and water to boiling, add corn starch blended with 
cold water, boil, remove from fire, add lemon juice and a trifle 

of salt. 

Lemon SauceEgg 

i cup water /4-i tablespn. corn starch 

J4-//3 cup sugar flavored yolk of i egg 

with oil of lemon 1/4-2 tablespns. lemon juice 

a trifle of salt 

Boil sugar and water, thicken with corn starch blended with 
water, boil, add yolk, stir well but do not boil; add lemon juice 
and salt. One yolk is sufficient for twice the quantity of sauce. 

Starchless Lemon Sauce 

y cup sugar flavored with yolks of 2 eggs and white of i 

oil of lemon 2-3 tablespns. lemon juice 

i cup water 

Beat sugar, eggs and lemon juice together; add hot, not boil- 
ing, water gradually, cook stirring in double boiler till creamy. 
Set at once into cold water. Add a trifle of salt. 

Cream Lemon Sauce 

Add, beating well, 2-4 tablespns. of cream sweet or sour, to 
each cup of liquid in any of the recipes for lemon sauce. \Yhen 
sweet cream is used it may be cooked with the other ingredients. 

Orange Sauce 

The same as lemon sauce with egg, using 4 tablespns. orange 
and YV tablespn. lemon juice with a scant cup of water. Add 
cream for Cream Orange Sauce. 



328 THE LAUREL 

if Orange Syrup Sauce 

Flavor I cup of granulated sugar with the lightly scored rind 
of 4 or 5 oranges, add the juice of the oranges (i cupful) and let 
the syrup just boil up; strain and add a trifle of salt. For plum 
pudding add also %-i teaspn. vanilla. 

Lemon Raisin Sauce 

i cup molasses i cup chopped seeded raisins 

i cup hot water 2 tablespns. butter 

2-2 /^ tablespns. lemon i tablespn. corn starch 

juice, grated rind if desired a little milk 

Cook raisins 20 m; drain and measure the water for the sauce. 
Mix molasses, water and raisins and heat to boiling; stir in corn 
starch blended with milk; boil up well, add butter and lemon 
juice and serve. 

Raisin Sauce 
y* cup sugar i pound seedless raisins 

Stew raisins y> hr. or until tender, add sugar and cook to a 
thin syrup. Serve over boiled rice with cream. If desired, nut 
or dairy cream or butter may be added to the sauce. 

Fig Sauce 

Grind figs fine through food cutter, simmer in small quantity 
of water ^ hr. or until soft, add a little sugar and simmer again, 
leave just a little liquid. Nut or dairy cream or butter may be 
added, or the cereal or dessert may be served with both fig sauce 
and cream. 

Date Sauce 

Stew dates 10 m. in small quantity of water, rub through col- 
ander; serve rather thick. The date may be flavored delicately 
with anise. 

Cream, with vanilla, lemon, rose or almond flavor, coriander 
or anise may be added to the date pulp. 

Prune Sauce 

Rich prune juice is nice with blanc mange, cottage pudding 
and similar desserts. Stewed prunes may be rubbed through the 



PUDDING SAUCES 329 

colander and their juice added for sauce, with or without orange 
or vanilla flavoring. The thick pulp may be added to whipped 
cream, a little at a time, beating, for Prune Whipped Cream 

Sauce. 

Peach Sauce 

Mix l /i cup sugar and a level tablespn. corn starch. Pour on 
gradually I cup boiling water; boil 5 m., stirring; add I tablespn. 
lemon juice, I of butter and a cup of peaches which have been 
pared, mashed and rubbed through a fine sieve; bring just to 
boiling point and serve. 

Nice with cottage pudding and popovers. Canned or dried 
peaches may be used with the thin juice of the peach instead of 
water; then no additional sugar will be required. 

Pineapple Sauce 

Beat whites of 2 eggs, add powdered sugar till creamy; then 
add 3 tablespns. cream and I cup grated pineapple; serve with 
Irish moss or gelatine blanc mange. 

Cranberry Sauce 

Boil l /2-^i cup sugar and l /2 cup water 5 m, add I cup cran- 
berry juice and boil again. Thicken with I teaspn. corn starch, 
add a few drops lemon extract and I teaspn. melted butter. 
Strawberry or rose extract may be used instead of lemon. 

Fruit Sabayon Sauce 

/^ cup grape, black raspberry i teaspn. lemon juice 

or other fruit juice i egg 

%.-% cup sugar Y^-V^ cup sugar 

Heat juice, the first sugar and lemon juice nearly to boiling; pour, 
stirring, over egg (in double boiler) which has been beaten with 
the last sugar. Cook, stirring, a moment or two, to just thicken 
but not to curdle the egg; serve hot or beat until cold. X cup 
cream whipped, may be added. 

^ Jelly Meringue Sauce 

Beat white of egg stiff, then beat in gradually any desired jelly. 
1-1^2 tablespn. powdered sugar may be added to the egg before 



33 THE LAUREL 

the jelly, and 2 tablespns. cream, plain or whipped. This sauce 
will keep on ice for several hours. 

Cream, White, and Foamy White Sauces 
Cream i^z cup water i tablespn. flour 

/^ cup sugar i teaspn. vanilla 

/^ cup cream salt 

Mix flour and sugar, pour boiling water over stirring, boil up 
well, add cream and a trifle of salt, remove from lire and stir in 
vanilla. For pineapple sago or tapioca, flavor sauce delicately 
with rose. 

White- -Use milk in place of water. Serve plain, or flavor 
with orange, almond or lemon, and vanilla. 

2 tablespns. of butter or the yolk of an egg may be used with 
a half cup more of milk instead of the ^ cup of cream. 

Foamy White- -Pour hot white sauce slowly, stirring, over 
whites of 2 eggs, stiffly-beaten with half the sugar. 

Cocoamit Sauce 

Steep, not boil, 2 tablespns. cocoanut in I pt. of milk for 20 m., 
strain and use milk in white or foamy white sauce. 

Banana Cream Sauce 

Heat cream and sugar nearly to boiling in double boiler. Re- 
move from fire, add fine diced bananas and serve at once. A 
little vanilla may be added. Serve over popovers, molded 

farina, rice or plain tapioca pudding. 



Cold Cream Sauce 
i egg /^ cup cream 

/^ cup sugar, granulated /^ cup milk 

or powdered YI teaspn. vanilla 

Put ingredients all together and beat until thick as whipped 
cream. 

Whipped Cream Sauce 

i cup cream /^-i teaspn. vanilla 

/^ cup sugar white of i egg 



PUDDING SAUCES 33! 

Whip cream until quite stiff, add sugar and vanilla, finish 
whipping, chop in stiffly-beaten white of egg. May beat fresh 
fruit or fruit jelly into white before adding to cream. 

Strawberry Cream Sauce 

/^ pt. cream i/^ cup mashed strawberries 

YI cup sugar white of i egg 

Whip cream, add half the sugar, berries, and white of egg 
stiffly-beaten with remainder of sugar. 

Creamy Sauce of Cooking Oil 

/^ cup cooking oil /^ cup sugar flavored with 

oil of lemon 
X cup cream 2-2/^2 tablespns. lemon juice 

Beat the oil and sugar to a thick cream; when very light add 
cream a little at a time, stir over boiling water if necessary to 
make the sauce smooth and creamy, add lemon and serve. 

Lemon Cream SauceSour Cream 

i pt. sour cream ^C-i cup sugar flavored 

2/^ tablespns. lemon juice with oil of lemon 

Beat all together until very light. 

Sauce AntiqueSour Cream 

i cup sour cream a few drops almond extract 

/^ cup sugar /^ teaspn. vanilla 



Beat cream and sugar together until light and add flavoring. 

Egg Cream or Emergency Sauce 

2 eggs /^ teaspn. vanilla 

y$ cup sugar or a few drops lemon extract 

1 tablespn. cream or i or 2 drops of rose 

Beat whites stiff with a trifle of salt, add sugar, beat until 
smooth; chop in lightly, yolks, cream and flavoring. Do not let 
stand. Nice for plum and other puddings. 

Orange Egg Cream Sauce 

2 eggs 4 tablespns. orange juice 
YS cup sugar X cup cream 



332 THE LAUREL 

Beat whites of eggs stiff, add orange flavored sugar, or use 
grated rind of orange, beat; then chop in yolks, orange juice and 
whipped cream. 

Nice for fig, apple tapioca and other puddings. 

Almond Cream Sauce 

2 tablespns. almond butter i tablespn. orange flower water 

3-4 tablespns. sugar or a few drops of almond extract 

i/i-i^j cup boiling water with or without YI> teaspn. 

salt vanilla 

Blend butter, sugar and salt; add water slowly, boil up well, 
remove from fire and add flavoring. Serve hot or cold. I 
teaspn. flour and a little more water may be used. 

Grape and Almond Sauce 

2 level tablespns. almond 2 tablespns sugar 

butter 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

y$ cup rich grape juice /^ cup water 

Blend almond butter and water, add sugar, bring to boiling 
point, remove from fire and add lemon and grape juice. 
The sauce may be made thinner. 

Almond Whipped Cream 

Rub 2 tablespns. almond butter smooth with 3 tablespns, 
w^ater and chop lightly into the white of an egg that has been 
beaten to a stiff froth with I tablespn. of sugar. 

Almond Cream for Puddings or Cereals 

2 teaspns. flour 2 tablespns. almond butter 

i cup water little salt 

24 cup distilled water 

Heat i cup of water to boiling and thicken with the flour 
blended with cold water; rub almond butter smooth with salt 
and distilled water; add the thickened water, beat well, serve cold. 

Custard Sauce 

i pt. milk YZ teaspn. vanilla, or a 

yolk of 3 eggs few drops of almond ex- 

2-3 tablespns. sugar tract 



PUDDING SAUCES 333 

Gook all together in inner cup of double boiler until mixture 
will coat the back of a spoon. Remove at once from fire and 
set in pan of cold water. 

For plum pudding, the custard may be flavored with orange 
and vanilla. 

Maple Syrup Sauce 

Boil Y% cup maple syrup with Y cup water (or if syrup is thin, 
y cup syrup and no water) until it threads. Add gradually, 
beating, the stiffly-beaten whites of 2 eggs and ^ cup cream. 

For some desserts, add i teaspn. lemon juice. 

Maple Sugar Sauce 

YZ lb. of grated maple sugar, I cup milk or thin cream, salt. 
Simmer together a fe\v minutes, stirring often. 

Molasses Sauces 

Cream--i cup molasses, Y* cup cream. Whip cream, heat 
molasses and pour over it, beating. Serve at once. 

Butter--! cup molasses, J^ cup butter, boil 5 m. 
Lemon Juice 



i cup molasses i tablespn. butter 

i tablespn. lemon juice salt 

Boil 10 m. 

Molasses sauces are nice with rice, bread and puff omelets and 
steamed or cottage puddings. 

if Plain Pudding Sauce 

Rub to a cream ^ cup butter (i tablespn. would do) and I 
cup brown or granulated sugar; add i tablespn. flour, -pour on 
gradually i l /i cup boiling water; boil 5 m., stirring; flavor with 
vanilla, or add i tablespn, lemon juice. 

Rose Sauce 

Boil to a thin syrup I pt. of water and i l /> cup of sugar, add 
a very little salt, a trifle of red fruit color and 1-3 drops of ex- 



334 THE LAUREL 

tract of rose with or without I or 2 tablespns. of lemon juice. 

'Serve with snow pudding or blanc mange. 

For Red Sauce, slice a rich red beet into the water, let stand 
15-20 m. in a hot place without boiling, strain, add sugar and at 
the last, lemon or vanilla flavoring or both, with lemon juice. 



VEGETABLE GELATINE 



In the seaweed, Agar Agar, which comes from the rocky 
coasts of the East India islands, we have a most delightful veg- 
etable gelatine. Besides being clean and pure and sweet, it is 
inexpensive. An ounce of Agar Agar will solidify from two to 
four times as much liquid as an ounce of animal gelatine. The 
method of its use is very simple. 

Directions 

Pour water that feels quite hot to the ringer over the gelatine 
and let it stand covered in a warm place for an hour or longer. 
When ready to use, drain and to the hot water drained off add 
sufficient boiling water to make 4 cups (i qt.) for each ounce of 
gelatine. Pour over gelatine and cook (taking care that it does 
not boil over) in covered vessel until clear, which will be in not 
over 2 or three minutes if the gelatine was well soaked. 

For fruit juices and nearly all liquids, I oz. is sufficient for 16 
cups (4 qts.), including the water in which it was boiled. The 
exceptions will be noted in the recipes. This proportion makes 
that delicate, quaking jelly always so desirable. 

In warm weather a little more gelatine may be required, and 
the proportions vary slightly with different qualities of gelatine. 

Secrets of Success 

Keep cooked gelatine warm by setting dish in hot water (may 
be cooked in inner cup of double boiler, then set into outer boiler) 
until ready to use. 

Leave molds quite wet. Set in cold room or on ice or in ice 
water. When cold surroundings are not obtainable, use a smaller 
proportion of liquid. Do not unmold until just before serving 
time. 

If for any reason gelatine becomes solidified or partly so after 

[335] 



336 TH"E LAUREL 

boiling, before molding, boil it up again as nothing less than boil- 
ing heat will make it smooth. 

When the gelatine is to be cooked in stock or milk, do not 
have water for soaking quite so hot. 

Unless a very transparent jelly is desired, straining after cook- 
ing is unnecessary with a good quality of gelatine. The very 
cheapest quality may require several strainings but I question the 
economy of its use. Strain, if at all, through a double thickness 
of cheese cloth (wrung out of hot water) into a hot vessel. 

Pour cooked gelatine into liquid all at once, stir just enough 
to mix well, and turn immediately into molds. Do not stir 
while cooling. 

For freezing, use l /^- l /2 less of gelatine and l /$ more of sugar 
in recipes. 

To unmold jelly, run a thin bladed knife around the edge care- 
fully, when necessary; turn the dish on which it is to be served 
over it and invert quickly; shake gently. If the mold was not 
drained too much, there will be no necessity for using a warm, 
wet cloth or warm water to loosen jelly. 

Use jellies with fresh pineapple the day they are prepared. 

When whipped cream is used, add all or a part of the sugar to 
it before mixing it with the other ingredients. 

The whites of the eggs must be beaten with all or nearly all of 
the sugar of the recipe to combine well. 

If directions are followed carefully, vegetable gelatine Desserts 
will be found among the easiest to prepare, as well as very de- 
lightful. 

The recipes are all for Agar Agar or gelatine in bulk. 

In each recipe, the quantity of water in which the gelatine is 
to be cooked immediately follows it. 

Fruit Jellies 

The simplest and most desirable of gelatine desserts are the 
molds made of fruit juices, either of one variety alone, or of har- 
monious combinations such as red raspberry and currant, straw- 



GELATINE 337 

berry and currant, strawberry and pineapple, and grape and peach 
( l /i grape and ^ peach). Cherry, cranberry, gooseberry, apri- 
cot and orange are among the many juices suitable for jellies. 

The fruit itself cut fine may sometimes be used in connection 
with the juice, pineapple especially. 

The addition of lemon juice gives character to nearly all fruits. 
Add water and sugar to make not too rich. 

Jellies may be served plain, with fruit juices, or with whipped 
cream or custard; or with egg or whipped cream sauce. 

When obtainable, the fruit and leaves of the fruit used in the 
jelly make suitable decorations. 

Proportions Y\ oz. gelatine i cap water 3 cups fruit juice 

The water is that in which the gelatine is to be cooked. Pre- 
pare the juice, cook the gelatine (after soaking) and pour it, all 
at once, into the juice. Stir just enough to mix well and pour 
into molds. This quantity will make about 12 good sized indi- 
vidual molds. 

Delicate Lemon Jelly 

/^ oz. gelatine /^ cup lemon juice 

i cup water large Y\ cup sugar 

2/^2 cups water 

Fruit and Mint Jelly 

Make delicate lemon jelly with i cup of sugar. Pour some 
of it into the bottom of a mold, keeping the remainder hot. 
When cold, but hardly beginning to set, drop small pieces of grape 
fruit pulp into it and sprinkle with shredded fresh mint. Cover 
with more jelly. Next, place a layer of slices of red skinned apples 
around the edge with another sprinkling of mint. Have the 
next layer of green skinned apples, and finally cover with jelly. 
Follow general directions for cooling and unmolding. Other 
fruits may be used. 

Beets in Jelly 

Layers of sliced or diced boiled red beets may be molded with 
lemon jelly with pleasing effect. 



338 THE LAUREL 

Orange Jelly 

X oz. gelatine I /^ cup orange juice 

i cup water i cup water flavored with rind of 

YZ cup lemon juice /^-/ 3 cup of sugar [orangt 

Heat sugar and water together until sugar is dissolved. The 
orange pulp need not be strained out of the juice. 

Orange or Lemon Jelly with Strawberries 

Press ripe whole, or pieces of strawberries into jelly quickly 
when just cold and beginning to set slightly. Serve with whipped 
cream garnished w 7 ith slices of berries. Red raspberries may be 
used instead of strawberries. 

Jelly in Orange Cups 

Orange jelly with or without fruit may be molded in cups the 
size of orange cups, transferred to them at serving time and fin- 
ished with a meringue or a fluff or with whipped cream. 

^ Wedding Breakfast Salad 

Y% oz. gelatine /^ cup water 

/^ cup water 2 3-i cup sugar 

^2 cup pineapple juice 2 small oranges 

YS cup lemon juice 2-3 bananas 

i cup very dry shredded pineapple 

Heat the sugar and water together, remove from fire, add the 
lemon and pineapple juice and gelatine; then the fruit which 
has been cut into small pieces. Put into molds and set on ice. 
Use the day it is made. Serve plain or with whipped cream. 

I once saw this salad served with two orange cups tied together 
with baby ribbon the color of the bride's dress, having the 
whipped cream piled in one cup and the jelly cut into cubes in the 
other. 

Of course the jelly should be cut just before serving. 

Red Jelly with Fruit 

% oz. gelatine scant 3 cups cranberry juice 

i cup water 24 -i cup sugar 

4-6 drops lemon extract 



GELATINE 339 

Stew berries in an equal quantity of water and strain for juice. 
Pour half of liquid into mold. Let it set slightly, keeping the 
remaining half hot. Cover with shredded or cut fruit (oranges, 
bananas, pineapple, well drained canned pears or peaches) and 
pour remainder of liquid over. Allow jelly to become very firm. 
Serve with garnish of whipped cream or rich meringue flavored 
with lemon or rose. Dark red cherry and lemon juice make a 
most delightful jelly without the flavorings. 

if Orange Garnish for Salad or Cold Entree 
Cut a small hole in one end of as many oranges as desired. 
Carefully scoop out the pulp, leaving the rinds whole. Soak in 
cold water an hour or more. Drain and wipe dry on the inside, 
then leave in cold place until w r ell dried. 

Make a jelly in the proportion of- 

Y\ oz. gelatine ~A cup sugar 

i cup water (or the same quantity of liquid. 

I//3 cup cranberry juice using cherry and lemon juice ' 
5 tablespns. lemon juice 

When nearly cold, carefully fill cups, harden, and at serving 
time cut the oranges in sixths or eighths, rind and all. 

Orange, lemon and other fruit jellies may be used by taking 
only I YA, cup of liquid besides the water in the gelatine. 

Apple Sauce Moldsvery nice 

l /i oz. gelatine 4 cups pulp of steamed apples 

i cup water 2/^-3 tablespns. lemon juice 

i tablespn. sugar 

Serve with egg sauce, custard or \vhipped cream, or with blue- 
berry or grape juice. 

Orange Cream 

l /i oz. gelatine 2-3 tablespns. sugar 

i cup water Y\ cup cream, plain or 

/^ tablespn. lemon juice with whipped 

orange juice to make H of a cup 

Add lemon and orange juice to cooked gelatine, and sugar to 



34 THE LAUREL 

cream, then pour gelatine into cream, mixing carefully if cream 
is whipped. Mold. 

Pineapple may be used the same, or % pineapple and l /:> or- 
ange juice. 

Prune Cream Mold 

l /i oz. gelatine Y? teaspn. vanilla 

i cup water i cup cream, whipped 

pulp of YZ Ib. (24 medium 2 tablespns. sugar 

sized) prunes with water enough to make 2-2/^2 cups 

Pineapple Sponge 

% oz. gelatine 2 teaspns. lemon juice in cup, 

i cup water pineapple juice to fill the cup 

i cup cream, plain whites of 4 eggs 

/^ teaspn. vanilla ^ cup sugar 

i tablespn, lemon juice 

Beat whites of eggs stiff, add sugar and beat, chop in the lemon 
juice, then the cream and the pineapple juice, carefully, and 
lastly add the gelatine, not too warm, and put at once into molds. 
Some of the fruit cut fine may be used with the juice. 

Lemon Snow 

}i oz. gelatine i l /z cup water 

i cup water whites of 3 eggs 

Y$ cup lemon juice i cup sugar 

Beat whites of eggs stiff, add the sugar, beating well, then the 
lemon juice and water, slowly, chopping in lightly, then add the 
gelatine, not very warm. 

May serve with border of grated or shredded pineapple. Make 
pineapple, gooseberry, grape and other fruit snows in the same 

way. 

Sponge Pudding 

Yr oz. gelatine 4 tablespns. (/^ cup) lemon 

i cup water 5 tablespns. sugar [juice 

yolks 4 eggs whites 4 eggs 

6 tablespns. sugar 

Beat yolks of eggs in inner cup of double boiler and pour slowly 
over them the lemon juice and 5 tablespns. of sugar, hot, not 





WEDDING BREAKFAST SALAD, P. 338 GELATINE BLANC MANGE, P. 34! 




ORANGE MINT SALAD, P. 2QI APPLE AND PINEAPPLE SALAD, P. 2QO 



GELATINE 341 

boiling; cook like custard, cool; chop into whites of eggs which 
have been stiffly beaten with the 6 tablespns. of sugar, and add 
the gelatine, not very warm. Serve with unflavored, whipped 
cream or with grape juice. 

^ Gelatine Blanc Mange 

K oz. gelatine 3-4 tablespns. sugar 

4 cups rich milk I teaspn. vanilla 

Soak gelatine in warm water, drain and cook in part of the 
milk in the inner cup of a double boiler (let stand in the outer 
boiler until well heated, then boil carefully over the fire). 
When the gelatine is dissolved, remove from the fire, add sugar, 
then the cold milk and lastly, the vanilla. Mold. Serve with 

* ' 

cream or any desired sauce. 

Cocoanut Blanc Mange 

Flavor milk with cocoanut and proceed as in gelatine blanc 
mange. Serve with rich blueberry juice, or with cream or custard. 

if Rice Charlotte 

y% oz. gelatine i YZ cup milk 

y& cup water 2-2/12 tablespns. sugar 

/^ cup rice /^ cup cream 

flavoring 

After boiling rice in salted water 20 m. to ^ hr. drain and 
cook in milk in double boiler I hr. Add water to that drained 
from the rice to make ^ cup, which add with sugar, flavoring 
and gelatine to rice when partly cooled. Lastly, mix 
whipped cream in lightly and mold. Serve alone or with cream, 
plain or whipped, with orange egg cream sauce or fruit sauce 
and halves of nuts. When serving with fruit sauces omit flavor- 
ings. 

If desired richer, I cup only of milk may be used for cooking 
rice, and I cup cream, whipped, added. A garnish of small 
molds of orange or other fruit jelly around the charlotte is very 
pretty. 



34 2 THE LAUREL 

if Whipped Cream JellyMiss Hughes 

}i oz. gelatine i/^ cup cream 

i cup water Y^-Y^ cup sugar 

Whip cream, not too much, add sugar, then gelatine. Tint 
delicately with pink or green when desired, and flavor with va- 
nilla or rose or both or with orange and vanilla sometimes; but 
as a rule, it is preferred without flavoring. May be served with 
cake or wafers and berries. 

if Maple Cream 

K oz. gelatine i ' 3 cup maple syrup 

i cup water iJ/3 cup cream 

Add syrup to gelatine, then both to whipped cream. Mold 
and serve with wafers. 

Jellied Cafe au Lait 

X oz. gelatine 2 cups milk in which 1/^-2 tablespns. of 

i cup water cereal coffee have been steeped 

Serve with plain or whipped sweetened cream, flavored with 
vanilla if desired. 

Coffee Bavarian 

X oz, gelatine i cup milk 

i cup water ^3 cup sugar 

3 cups strong cereal coffee 4 eggs 

/^-i teaspn. vanilla 

Strain coffee through cloth, mix with milk, sugar and eggs; 
cook like custard. Cool partly before adding vanilla; add gela- 
tine and mold. Serve with unsweetened cream with cake or 
w r afers. 

Coffee Bavarian and Blanc Mange or Jellied Custard 
\lav be molded in layers and served with a sweetened and 

k v 

vanilla flavored meringue or with whipped cream in roses. 

if Jellied Custard 

Yk oz. gelatine 3 cups rich milk 

i cup water 2 eggs 

4-6 tablespns. sugar 



GELATINE 343 

Cook custard, flavor if desired, add gelatine, mold. Serve 
with blueberry, grape or any suitable fruit juice, or with un- 
sweetened cream, plain or whipped. Or, cook milk and yolks of 
eggs together, cool, add gelatine, and pour into whites beaten 
with sugar, chopping quickly together. Or, use Y* cup cream, 
whipped, instead of whites of eggs and 2^/2 cups of milk only. 

Jellied Custard with Meringue 

X oz. gelatine 4 yolks of eggs 

i cup water 4-6 tablespns. sugar 

3 cups rich milk flavoring 

Cook custard and cool; add vanilla and gelatine, mold. Just 
before serving, beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth with 
2 or 3 tablespns. of sugar (powdered preferable). Add \%-iY^ 
tablespns. lemon juice, and heap by spoonfuls around the base 
of the mold. Serve at once. If preferred, I cup of milk ma}' 

be used to cook the gelatine in after soaking, instead of water. 

Marshmallow Pudding 

K oz. gelatine whites 3 eggs 

i cup water Y^-^A cup sugar 

YV, teaspn. vanilla 

Beat whites of eggs very stiff, add sugar gradually, beating, 
then vanilla, lastly the warm gelatine, chopping in quickly. 
Mold in shallow pan. .Just before serving unmold and with hot, 
dry knife cut into cubes. Serve with cream, custard or fruit 
juice or use as garnish for other dishes. 

Cream of Tomato and Carrot Jelly 

X oz. gelatine 2 teaspns. salt 

3 cups rich milk 2 level teaspns. sugar 

i cup strained tomato ~A cup carrot 

Soak gelatine in warm water, drain, cook in milk; add the 
tomato, sugar and salt with cooked carrot which has been rubbed 
through a fine colander, mold. Serve garnished with spin- 
ach or chervil as a cold entree, with nuts and wafers. Or, mold 
in small molds and use as a garnish for other dishes. May flavor 



344 THE LAUREL 

milk with onion or onion and garlic, straining them out after 
cooking gelatine. 

if Tomato Jelly 

X oz. gelatine 3 tablespns. chopped onion 

1 cup water % teaspn. celery seed, crushed, or 

2 tablespns. lemon juice with Y\ cup dried celery tops, or 
strained tomato to make 3 cups i teaspn. celery salt 

1-1/4 tablespn. sugar 2-2/4 teaspns. salt 

i tablespn. chopped parsley 

Simmer all ingredients (except gelatine and parsley) together 
for 20 m., strain, add parsley and cooked gelatine and pour into 
mold. Individual molds may be served on lettuce, spinach or 
endive with or without improved mayonnaise dressing. 

if Tomato Aspic 

/^ oz. gelatine 2^4 tablespns. lemon juice 

i cup water 24- 1 tablespn. salt 

3 cups tomato juice Y\ teaspn. celery salt, tied in 
i tablespn. sugar bit of muslin 

Drain juice from stewed tomatoes without pressing the pulp 
through; add other ingredients. Simmer all together 10-15 m; 
strain, add water to make 3 cups, mix with cooked gelatine and 
mold. 

Green peas, sprays of parsley, sliced celery, or trumese or nut- 
mese in dice (singly or in combinations) may be put in with jelly, 
in layers, the same as fruit, in fruit and mint jelly. Serve 
garnished as a cold entree for luncheon or for supper or for one 
course at dinner. Mold in small molds sometimes and use as a 
garnish. 

AspicLight 

Y oz. gelatine 2^-3 cups light stock 

i cup water (tinted green if desired) 

If preferred pour hot stock over 2 yolks of eggs and cook and 
add to gelatine. May be molded in small molds for garnishing. 



GELATINE 345 

A mold of jellied bouillon or stock surrounded with halves of 
nuts or delicate wafers or both, may be served in place of soup. 

Bouillon for Jelly 

i/^-2/^ level tablespns. raw nut butter 2-3 cloves of garlic 
/<3 cup chopped onion crushed 

i cup strained tomato i /^ level tablespn. salt 

2/4^ level tablespns. browned flour water 

Mix browned flour, salt, nut butter and tomato, add water, 
onion and garlic. Cook l /z-i hour and strain. Add water for 
3 pts. If cleared (p. 77), there will be I qt. only. Use in pro- 
portion of 4 cups to the ^ oz. of gelatine. 

Light Stock for Jelly 

% cup raw nut butter Y\ level teaspn. sage 

i cup chopped onion 2-2 /^ bay leaves 

i level tablespn. celery i/ level tablespn. salt 

seed or salt /^ level teaspn. thyme 

water 

Simmer l /2-i hour, strain and clear (p. 77). 3^2-4 cups after 
clearing. Use in proportion of 3^ cupstothe % oz. of gelatine. 

Dark Stock for Jelly 

/^ cup raw nut butter or meal % level teaspn. sage 

i cup chopped onion Y^-Y\ level teaspn. thyme 

3 cloves of garlic crushed i /^ level tablespn. salt 

y? cup strained tomato i level tablespn. browned 

i level teaspn. celery salt water [flour 

Mix dry ingredients, add tomato with nut butter which has 
been stirred smooth with water, then onion, garlic and water. 
Cook y*- i hour; strain and add water for 3 pts. This may be 
used uncleared, but if cleared (p. 77) there will be I qt. only. 
Use in proportion of 4 cups to the /^ oz. of gelatine. 

Aspic for Garnishing 

l /i oz. gelatine 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i cup water cleared bouillon w r ith it to make i cup 

Pour into shallow mold to desired depth. Unmold and cut 
with hot dry knife into dice or fancy shapes just before serving. 



34^ THE LAUREL 

Jellied Broth Dark 

X oz. gelatine i cup water i qt. dark stock, uncleared 

Mold in small cups and serve in soup plates or on small plates, 
surrounded with soup crackers and halves of nuts with fringed 

celery, 

Gelatine of Trumese 

Cut trumese (some nutmese also if wished) into /^-^ in. dice. 
Mold with light aspic, using sprays of parsley and small button 
mushrooms if wished. 

May serve on a bed of green, with improved mayonnaise roses. 

Jellied Cream Trumese (Salad if Desired) 

X oz. gelatine ?4-/6 cup cream 

i cup broth light stock with- 4-5 oz., (9 tablespns.-M-i 
out celery and bay leaves cup) trumese 

salt if necessary 

Add minced trumese to gelatine cooked in broth and when 
partly cooled, chop into whipped cream. Mold in large or small 
molds. Mold may be garnished with celery tops and served with 
wafers and stalks of celery, or garnished with fringed celery or 
ripe olives and parsley, the celery or olives with wafers to be 
served with mold. 

Or, the one or individual molds may be served with improved or 
cream mayonnaise dressing with ripe olives or celery and wafers. 

The Medical Use of Agar Agar 

Quite recently the use of agar agar as a remedy for constipa- 
tion has been discovered. "Life and Health" says: "Agar Agar, 
a vegetable gelatine prepared from East Indian seaweeds, has 
been given an official recommendation by the Council of Phar- 
macy as a remedy for constipation.' 

One physician suggests cutting it into small pieces and eating 
it with cream as a porridge. It may also be served with fruit 
juices and other liquids. 

The liquid should be poured over it a few minutes before 
serving, to moisten it sufficiently for mastication. A druggist 
said, however, that it might be chewed dry. 



PIES 

Pies are not necessarily unwholesome articles of diet. They 
may be just good rich unleavened bread and fruit. Perhaps the 
greatest objection to pies occasionally, is the length of time it 
takes to make them, for paste that will make a tender crust can- 
not be rolled out in a hurry. It is better to have something else 
for dessert when one has not time to make a good pie. 

Suggestions 

Always use pastry flour (winter wheat) for pie crust. Bread 
flour requires more shortening, creeps together when rolled and 
does not make a nice, tender crust when you have done your 
best with it. 

Always use pastry (never bread) flour for thickening cream or 
lemon pies. If cream pies are not to be used the day they are 
baked less flour will be required. Lemon pies should be used 
the day they are baked. 

Apple and all fruit pies require a little flour in the filling, for 
the flavor as well as to absorb the juice. A little salt develops 
the flavors of fruits. Mix the flour, sugar and salt together and 
put enough of it over the under crust to cover it well in order to 
prevent the crust from soaking and to allow the sugar to cook 
up through the fruit. 

Berry pies may have most of the sugar mixture stirred with 
them before putting into the crust. A little browned flour may 
sometimes be added to the mixture for apple pies. 

Do not peel rhubarb for pies. 

To keep the juice from running out, wet strips of pliable cloth 
2 or 3 in. wide (bias better) and wrap around the edge of pies 
where the crusts join, so that half is on the top crust and half 
under the edge, and press close all around. 

[347] 



348 THE LAUREL 

Milk or hot or cold water may be used; leave the strips quite 
wet; remove from pies while hot; they maybe used several times. 

Another method is to make a small opening in the upper crust 
and insert a little roll of paper, like a chimney, to allow the 
steam to escape. 

It is a good plan, also, to put the upper crust on to the pie as 
loose as possible; lift it and make wrinkles in it all around, back 
from the edge of the pie, before pressing the two crusts together; 
this will keep the steam and juice in the pie instead of forcing 
them out. 

One way to make the edges stay together is to wet the edge 
of the lower crust and sprinkle flour over it (shaking off what 
does not adhere) just before tilling and putting on the upper crust. 

If with all your care the juice begins to run out, either at the 
edge or through the openings in the crust, remove the pie at 
once from the oven and let it stand on the hearth or table until 
it stops boiling. (If necessary, put a little dry flour in the space). 
Return to the oven and by slow cooking it may not run out again ; 
if it does, take it out again, but do not leave it out until the 
fruit is perfectly cooked. It would be too bad to waste all the 
labor of making a pie by serving it underdone. 

Make pies without under crust when preferred. Put a strip of 
paste around the edge of a shallow pudding dish or deep pie pan, 
fill dish with prepared fruit, sugar and flour, cover with a lid of 
paste, press on to the strip and bake. 

Fillings of squash, pumpkin or sweet potato pies may be baked 
on pie pans, in custard cups or in pudding dishes, without a crust, 
and with or without a meringue. 

Serve fruit pies the day they are baked. Those that are una- 
voidably left over, put into the oven and just heat through 
before serving, to make like fresh pies. 

Apple pies may be put together at night, kept in the ice box 
and baked the next morning. 



PIES 349 

For custard or other deep pies, cut the crust with the shears 
about y& inch larger than the pan, moisten the underside of the 
edge slightly and pinch it up with floured thumb and finger so 
that it will stand up above the edge of the pan. The crust may 
be pinched up before trimming and cut around the edge of the 
pan with a knife. It is a good plan to set the prepared crust in 
the ice box long enough to become firm before filling. 

Crust may be put on to several pans when making pies one 
day and baked when desired. 

Several crusts can be baked at a time, then just heated before 



using. 



To bake before filling without blistering, put pastry on to one 
pan, set another of the same size into it and bake between the 
two. 

Another way is to cover the pastry with paraffine paper and 
fill to the depth of */2 in. with flour. The partially browned 
flour may be used in soups and gravies afterwards. 

Fill pastry-lined patty pans with raw rice, cover with an upper 
crust and bake when baked patty cases are desired. The rice 
will not be injured and the crusts will keep their shape. 

Sometimes with two-crust pies, sprinkle sugar over the top of 
the crust when done and leave in the oven for two minutes. 

Lattice work of strips of crust put on in diamonds or squares 
makes an attractive finish for such lemon and orange pies as will 
hold the strips up, as well as for cranberry and mince pies. 

Beat whites of eggs for meringue with woven wire spoon or 
silver fork until stiff; add l /2-i tablespn. of sugar to each white 
and beat till very stiff, add flavoring, pile in rocky form on to 
hot pie, bringing meringue well out over the crust; brown deli- 
cately on top grate of moderate oven. As soon as the tips are 
tinted the meringue is done. Overbaking makes it tough and 
causes it to draw away from the edges. Having the pie hot 
when the meringue is put on helps to cook it more evenly and 
keeps it from becoming watery next to the pie. 



350 THE LAUREL 

When but one white is to be used for a meringue, do not beat 
it quite so stiff and use a little more sugar so that it will spread 
over the top of the pie well. 

Tiny dots of beaten jelly may be placed with a pastry tube in 
the depressions of the meringue of lemon pies, after baking. 

In cutting pies with a meringue, cut just through the meringue 
first with a thin bladed knife dipped in cold water; afterwards 
cut to the bottom. 

Pies should always be left so that a current of air will pass 
under them while cooling to keep the crust from soaking. 

-^ Pastry for one Large Pie 

2/4 cups flour, salt i-i/4 teaspn. lemon juice 

large /^ cup of cooking oil ice water 

Have all ingredients as nearly ice cold as possible. Dip the 
flour lightly into the cup with a spoon, do not shake it down. 
Mix salt with flour; pour oil over and chop it in with a spoon; 
do not mix much. Put the lemon juice in a cup, add water to 
make l /^ of a cup, and pour over the flour and oil mixture, add- 
ing enough more water to make a rather soft dough; chop all 
together with a spoon, press into a mass without kneading, roll 
out without mixing on a well floured board, with a well floured 
rolling pin. A little more oil will be required when lemon juice 
is not used. 

Nut or olive oil may be substituted for cooking oil, with a 
slightly smaller proportion of olive oil. Olive oil does not, of 
course, harmonize as well in flavor with all fillings as the others. 

y$ farina may be used in crust, with less shortening. 

In mixing crust for several pies at once, not quite so large a 
quantity will be required for each. 

Keep crust that is left each time well covered in a cool place 
and when making pies again, chop or grind it and mix it with the 
flour before adding the oil. It will make the new crust more flaky. 

"Pie Flakes" 
Mix flour, salt and oil for a quantity of pies. Put into a large, 



PIES 351 

close covered jar (or tin pail lined with waxed paper) and set in 
cold place. To make a pie, take out about 2^3 cupfuls, add 
water and mix and roll as usual. 

Hot Water Crust 

Mix together equal quantities of oil and boiling water and pour 
over flour which has been mixed with salt. 

This crust rolls out more easily than ice water crust but is not 
as tender'and flaky. A slightly larger proportion of oil may be 
used, but if too rich, the crust cannot be handled at all. 

if Cream Pastry 

Mix flour and salt and pour enough thick sweet or sour cream 
over to roll out well. The thicker the cream, the better the 
crust will be. Sour cream makes more crisp and tender crust 
than sweet and has not the least sour taste when baked. 

Butter Crust 

Rub together J/z cup (% Ib.) butter and 2 cups (^ Ib.) flour; 
wet with ice water to make of a reliable consistency, press into 
a mass and set in the ice box. When thoroughly chilled, roll 
%-% inch thick; spread with butter, sprinkle lightly with flour, 
roll up, cut across the roll and roll pieces out thin for the pie. 
Butter pastry is not tender even when much pains is taken with 
it and the flavor is not agreeable. 

Bread Pie Crust 

4 slices small loaf of bread 6 tablespns. oil 

boiling milk, salt 2-2/4 cups flour 

Dip slices of bread in boiling milk, cool, add oil, salt, and flour 
to roll. This makes two under crusts. 

Nut Meal Crust 

2 cups flour salt 

i cup home made peanut meal cream 

Mix flour, meal and salt, pour enough moderately rich cream 



352 THE LAUREL 

over to make a paste to roll out. A little oil may be added to 
the meal and flour, and water used in place of cream. 

if Granella Crust 

For one good sized pie take about $ cup of granella (less if 
fine, more if coarse, but it is better not to be too coarse nor too 
very fine). Mix a little salt with it and pour over it quickly, 
enough rich milk or thin cream to moisten it slightly, about ^ 
cup, perhaps. (If too moist, the crust will be soggy.) Turn 
immediately on to the pan and spread and press it evenly with a 
spoon over the bottom and sides, dipping the spoon often into 
cold water. A teaspoon is best for the sides, and holding the 
forefinger of the left hand above the edge of the pan as you are 
pressing with the spoon makes the edge of the crust firmer and 
smoother. Do not let the crust come over the edge of the pan, 
because only that part which adheres to the filling will come 
out with the pieces of pie when served; the remainder will drop 
off and be wasted. For that reason the crust should be just as 
thin as it is possible to pat it out on the pan. Be careful to 
make the crust in the angle between the bottom and sides of the 
pan no thicker than in any other part. The novice usually fills 
that in rounding. A positive pressure of the teaspoon in press- 
ing the paste up on the edge of the pan will remove the extra 
portion there. 

In baking these crusts before filling, watch them that they do 
not get too brown, and handle them carefully. 

I have been thus explicit because this is of all pie pastes the 
most important hygienically and in point of time. It is very 
quickly and easily made, in fact, it must be'made quickly. If the 
crust stands long after the liquid is added, it does not spread well. 

In making a large number of pies, mix each crust separately; 
you will save time. Zwieback crumbs may be used instead of 
granella and almond or cocoanut cream in place of dairy. The 
cream must be thin or the crust will not spread well. 



PIES 353 

Granella Crust No. 2 
Allow scant % cup of granella to each pie. Measure up the 

quantity required. Mix the salt with it and pour oil over in 
the proportion of ^ tablespn. of oil to each pie. (^ tablespn. 
melted butter may be used and no salt.) Rub all well together 
with the hands, take out enough for each pie at a time, wet 
with cold water and proceed as in the preceding recipe. This 
mixture will need to be quite wet to spread. 
Zwieback crumbs may be used for this also. 

Fillings for Granella Pies 
The pulp of stewed prunes, peaches, apricots or dried apples, 

or other not too juicy materials, with or without a meringue or 
whipped cream, or a sprinkling of dry granella on the top. 

Cooked fillings of cream or lemon pies are delightful in the 
baked crusts. 

If you have not a pie knife, use two broad flat knives in serv- 
ing a pie with granella crust. 

if Apple Pie 

5 or 6 medium sized, tart, 7^-^A cup sugar 

juicy apples i tablespn. flour 

% teaspn. salt crust 

Prepare apples according to directions for apple sauce, p. 47, 
cut the quarters in two if large, then in halves crosswise. This 
will give irregular shaped pieces which when placed in the crust 
will allow spaces for the steam to come in contact with the fruit 
and cook it more quickly and thoroughly than when packed in 

slices. 

Mix the sugar, flour and salt for each pie in a bowl by itself. 

When the bottom crust is on the pan, spread about half the 
sugar mixture over it, put in a generous quantity of apples so 
that when baked the pie will be level, not depressed, and sprinkle 
the remainder of the mixture over, taking pains to have a little 
more at the edges because of not having any underneath there. 
It is very disappointing to find the last mouthfuls of pie near 
the crust less sweet than the first from the center. 

Be sure that the edge of the under crust is moistened, lay on 



354 THE LAUREL 

the upper crust as directed, press the edges down well, trim off 
the extra crust (unless you fold it under the bottom crust), and 
with the thumb and forefinger press the edges well together. 

Make incisions in the crust with a sharp pointed knife for the 
steam to escape, bind the edges with strips of cloth and bake in 
a moderate oven, turning occasionally, for ^-i hour. To be 
sure that the apples are tender try them with a broom splint 
through the spaces in the crust. 

Brown sugar or molasses may be used to sweeten apple pies 
once in a while as some people are very fond of those sweets. 
The nice dried greening apples that we get sometimes may be 
soaked over night and used the same as fresh apples. 

Other Fruit Pies 

Apple and Elder-berry--!^ pt. apple prepared as for apple 
pie, i pt. elder-berries, ^ cup sugar, I tablespn. flour, 2 teaspns. 
lemon juice, salt. Lemon juice may be omitted. A smaller pro- 
portion of elder-berries maybe used and the pie still be delicious. 

Dutch Apple- -Fill a buttered pie plate with apples without 
sugar, dot with bits of butter, cover with a rather thick crust 
and bake. Invert on dessert plate, sprinkle with sugar (mixed 
with coriander if liked) and serve hot. 

Phoebe's, Delicious Nearly till the crust with dry, nicely sea- 
soned, fresh apple sauce; cover with a % inch layer of raspberry 
jam which has been beaten so as to spread well; bake. The jam 
may be put on after the pie is baked, or both apple and jam may 
be put into a baked crust. The pie may have a meringue, but 
Phoebe's didn't. --It may also be baked with two crusts. 

Rhubarb and Apple- -I % qt. rhubarb, %-% cup thick, slightly 
sweetened, strained apple sauce, i l /2 cup sugar, 2% tablespns. 
flour, Y^ teaspn. salt. Mix apple sauce with rhubarb and pro- 
ceed as in apple pie. 

Blueberry Scant I qt. berries, I tablespn. flour, /^ teaspn. 
salt. A little water if berries are dry. 



PIES 355 

Mock Cherry- - 1 j/2 cup cranberries, ^ cup seeded raisins, ^ 
cup sugar, i% tablespn. flour, a pinch of salt, I /^ cup boiling 
water. Mix sugar, flour and salt; pour boiling water over and 
boil up. Cut cranberries in halves and raisins in small pieces 
with the shears and add to syrup. 2 crusts. 

Cranberry and Raisin--! cup ground cranberries (2 cups before 
grinding), I cup ground raisins (i 72 cup before grinding), I cup sugar, 
i tablespn. flour, 1/4 cup water, salt. Mix sugar, flour and salt; 
pour boiling water over, stirring, boil up, add cranberries and 
raisins. 2 crusts, or strips of pastry across top. 

Cranberry--! Ib. (4^3 cups) whole berries, i l /z cup sugar, I 
tablespn. flour, 74 -/^ cup water, 2 crusts. 

Stewed Cranberry- -Fill crust with thick, strained, stewed 
cranberries, sweetened. Put strips of crust across the top in 
squares or diamonds. 

Currant--! qt. ripe red currants, I 74 cup sugar, 3 or 4 table- 
spns. flour, 74 teaspn. salt, 2 crusts. Bake well. 

Black Currant Black currants with sugar, flour, salt and 
water make a delicious pie. They should not be laid too thick 
in the plate. A layer of thin slices of apple with the currants 
is good. 

Currant and Raspberry About l /i raspberries to 73 currants, 
sugar, flour, salt. 

Currant and Raisin 2 l /2, cups red currants, I cup chopped 
raisins, ^ cup sugar, 2 tablespns. flour, 74 teaspn. salt. 

Elder-berry- -To each pint of elder-berries use i tablespn. 
lemon juice, 72-1 cup sugar, 72-1 tablespn. flour, % teaspn. salt. 

FigMrs. Webster--! Ib. figs, I cup sugar, 3 cups water, 
172-2 tablespns. lemon juice, salt. Wash and grind or chop the 
figs, pour the water over them warm and let stand over night; 
add grated rind of % the lemon with other ingredients. 2 crusts. 

Green Gooseberry--! qt. berries, 174 cup sugar, I tablespn. 
flour, 72 teaspn. salt. 



356 THE LAUREL 

if ^ Mince Filling 

3 pts. chopped tart apples i cup strong cereal coffee 

3 cups (lib.) seeded raisins, i /4 cup nice-flavored dark 

chopped molasses 

/4 cup lemon juice 1-2 teaspns. salt 

2 teaspns. ground coriander seed 

Grind raisins through medium cutter, then the apples which 
have been pared, quartered and cored; mix all the ingredients 
and heat to boiling; put into jars and seal, or keep in cool place 
in stone jar. Add a little water if necessary when making pies 
and do not fill crusts too nearly full. Make a lattice-work top 
of strips of pastry sometimes, instead of a top crust. Serve 
warm as a rule. Follow this recipe exactly. 

We may use a little browned flour and water instead of the 
cereal coffee. 

Green Tomato Mince-meat 

1 pk. green tomatoes 5-6 cups brown sugar 

2 Ibs. (6 cups) raisins 4 cups strong cereal coffee (or 
i/4 tablespn. ground cori- 4 tablespns. sugar, caramel- 

ander seed ized, and water added) 

5 teaspns. salt i cup lemon juice 

Chop or grind the tomatoes, drain, measure the juice and add 
an equal quantity of water in its place. Grind the raisins rather 
coarse, combine all ingredients except lemon juice, cook 30 m., 
or until done, add lemon juice, boil up, put into jars and seal if 
intending to keep for some time. 

Crumb Mince-meat 

i cup cracker or dry bread /4 cup lemon juice 

crumbs 1/4 cup water 

i cup molasses ^2 teaspn. ground coriander 

i cup sugar seed 

i tablespn. butter 

Mix, boil, put into crusts. Grape juice may be used for part 
of the water with or without the coriandar seed. 

Sour Cream MinceAnnie Carter--! cup sour cream, I table- 
spn. flour, i egg, YA, cup sugar, i cup seedless raisins, steamed; 
two crusts. Bake just long enough to set the egg and bake the 



PIES 357 

crust. The crust need not be quite as rich as for fruit pies. One 
tablespn. of lemon juice may be used. May use chopped seeded 
raisins or English currants in place of seedless raisins. The sugar 
may be flavored with oil of lemon. 

Fresh Peach- -Put sliced ripe peaches in baked crust; sprinkle 
with sugar and cover with whipped cream or an uncooked me- 
ringue. Serve at once. Cut pie before covering with cream or 
meringue. Mellow bananas may be substituted for peaches and 
a very delicate sprinkling of sugar used. 

Prune- -Pitted stewed prunes in quarters, flour, salt and a little 
sugar. Do not make filling too thick as it is solid. Two crusts. 
Delicious. 

Prune- -Thick prune pulp, slightly sweetened or not, one crust, 
strips of pastry over top if convenient. May have meringue 
with or without grated lemon rind, or may be covered with 
whipped cream after cutting. 

Raisin- -i cup chopped raisins, I cup water, ^ cup brown 
sugar, i tablespn. flour. Mix sugar and flour, pour boiling water 
over, boil up well, add raisins, cool, bake between two crusts. 
Vanilla or lemon flavoring may be used. 

Raisin Merangue Add yolks of 2 eggs to filling of raisin pie 
with or without i tablespn. of butter a moment before removing 
from the fire; when heated, add vanilla, turn into baked crust 
and meringue with the 2 whites of eggs. Milk may be used in- 
stead of water and white sugar instead of brown. 

Raisin Lemon 

i/<3 cup water 4 tablespns. flour 

y\~y^> cup sugar 3 tablespns. lemon juice and pulp 

i level tablespn. butter grated rind of i lemon 

24 cup seeded raisins i egg, salt 

Mix sugar and flour, pour boiling water over, add butter and 
raisins, cook; when raisins look plump, remove from fire, add 
remaining ingredients and bake between 2 crusts. The raisins 
may be chopped. 



THE LAUREL 

Rhubarb- - 1 - 1 ^ qt. rhubarb, in 3 4 in. pieces, i}4 cup sugar, 
2 l /2 tablespns. flour, /<( teaspn. salt. 

Rhubarb and Pineapple 

i lar^'e pt. rhubarb iX cup suj^ar 

i L> 3 cup shredded pineapple 2^2 tablespns. flour 

l /i teaspn. salt 

Elizabeth's Rhubarb--! cup chopped rhubarb, % cup molas- 
ses, l /2 cup chopped or ground raisins. 2 crusts. 
Rhubarb and Strawberry 

i pt. fresh rhubarb 2 tablespns. corn starch (or 

i rounded pt. strawberries 3 tablespns. of flour) 

iX cup sugar X teaspn. salt 

Canned Rhubarb 

Scant quart canned rhubarb 2 tablespns. flour 

i/i cup sugar /^ teaspn. salt 

Strawberry Meringue- -Put thin layer of universal crust in 
shallow pudding dish or deep pie pan; when light bake; fill with 
berries, sprinkle with sugar, and meringue with the whites of 2 
or 3 eggs, and i l /2 tablespn. sugar. 

Green Tomato Harriet 

i qt. sliced tomatoes 3 tablespns. flour 

i cup sugar ^2 teaspn. salt 

Select tomatoes that are just going to turn, or that may be a 
little white, or that may have a trifle of red on one side, not 
those that are at all ripe, yet not very green ones. Make pie in 
pudding dish or shallow granite basin and do not have the crust 
come quite to the top. Bake very slowly, after the first 10 m., 
for 2 hours. The pie is not good unless baked slowly for a long 

time. 

LEMON PIES 
Lemon PieGranella Crust 

4. tablespns. lemon juice 5 or 6 tablespns. flour 

i/4 cup sugar yolks 2 or 3 eggs 

i/^ cup water K teaspn. salt 

Flavor sugar with oil of lemons (p. 27), add flour, mixing well, 
and pour the perfectly boiling water over, stirring until smooth; 



PIES 359 

boil, add the slightly beaten yolks, lemon juice and salt; heat 
just enough to set the egg. Turn the filling into the baked 
granella crust and spread quickly around the edges so as to touch 
the top of the crust. 

Meringue -Whites of 2 eggs, ^4 tablespn. lemon juice, 2-3 
tablespns. sugar. Beat whites with a little salt to moderately 
stiff froth, add lemon juice and beat stiff; fold in the sugar and 
drop by spoonfuls on the hot pie; brown delicately on top grate 
of oven. This filling may be used in any baked crust. 

if Lemon Cake or Sponge Pie 

i cup sugar 2 eggs 

3 tablespns. flour salt 

i cup milk 4 tablespns. lemon juice 

grated rind 

Mix sugar, salt and flour; add milk gradually, stirring until 
smooth; pour over beaten yolks of eggs, add lemon juice and 
rind and lastly, stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Bake in slow oven 
30 m., or until just done. 

Lemon Cream Pie, large 

2 I/ 3 cups rich milk grated rind of i lemon 

ify cup sugar 4/^2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i y$ cup flour 2 large eggs 

Mix flour, sugar and salt, pour boiling milk over, stirring, boil 
till very thick; add lemon juice and yolks of eggs, stir until well 
mixed and eggs cooked; spread in baked granella or pastry crust 
and cover with the meringue. 

Ma's Lemon Pie 

grated rind of i lemon i cup thick sweet or sour cream 

3 tablespns. lemon juice i cup sugar 

Mix cream and sugar, add lemon juice and rind. Two crusts. 

Starchless Lemon Pie 

y\ cup sugar, flavored 3 tablespns. lemon juice 

yolks 4 eggs in measuring cup. Fill 

whites of 2 eggs cup with water 



360 THE LAUREL 

Meringue- -2 beaten whites, l /2-i tablespn. sugar. 

Lemon Pie--Cornstarch 

i l /i cup water i cup sugar 

/"2 cup sugar 3/^2 tablespns. lemon juice 

1 tablespn. butter lemon rind 

2/^j tablespns. corn starch yolks 2 or 3 eggs 

whites 2 eggs 

Mix corn starch, the l /> cup of sugar and butter, pour boiling 
water over, cook; remove from lire, add the i cup of sugar, the 
lemon juice, grated rind and beaten yolks of eggs; bake in T 
crust, meringue with whites .of eggs and sprinkle sugar over the 
top. Butter may be omitted. 

Lemon Pie without eggs or milk 

24-1 cup sugar 2 tablespns. melted butter 

2 tablespns, corn starch 3 tablespns. lemon juice 

1 cup hot water grated rind of i lemon 

Mix sugar and corn starch in double boiler, pour boiling water 
over and cook until thick, add butter and beat, then add lemon 
juice and grated rind. Two crusts. 

Mrs. Hance's Lemon Pie- -Pare I lemon thick enough to 
remove all the white part, cut in thin slices and remove the 
seeds. Add I egg and ^ cup of sugar, beat well and turn on 
gradually i cup of cold water. Two crusts. 

Lemon Pie that will keep several days 

i large lemon /^ cup sugar 

i egg 1 A cup molasses 

salt 

Grate the rind and as much of the lemon as possible, remove 
seeds, squeeze out the juice and chop pulp and skin very fine; 
beat the egg, mix all the ingredients and bake between 2 crusts. 

Lemon Pie with Bread 

2 slices bread Y?, in. thick 3 tablespns. lemon juice 
i cup boiling water grated rind of lemon 

i level tablespn. butter i scant cup sugar 

2 eggs 

The slices should be from a medium sized, brick shaped loaf 



PIES 361 

of bread. Cut off the crusts and pour boiling water over; add 
butter and beat with a fork until the bread is smooth; then com- 
bine with the rind and juice of the lemon, the sugar and beaten 
yolks. Bake in I crust and meringue \vith whites of eggs. 

Lemon Custard Pie 

4 eggs flavoring 

i cup sugar i 3 /i cup rich milk 

4 tablespns. lemon juice salt 

Leave out 2 whites of eggs and beat the remainder with sugar, 
add lemon juice and flavoring, salt and milk. Bake slowly until 
just set, no longer. Meringue. 

Orange Pie 

5 tablespns. sugar juice and pulp of 2 oranges 
i tablespn. butter grated rind of i orange 

3 eggs juice of i lemon 

grated rind of /^ lemon 

Add beaten whites last. May omit butter. 

Orange Custard Pie 

rind of i and juice of 2 oranges 4 tablespns. sugar 

4 eggs i pt. rich milk 

Leave out 2 whites for meringue. 

CREAM PIES 

CreamPar excellence--!^ pt. rich milk, % cup flour laid 
lightly in cup, scant cup of sugar, 2 eggs, salt, i teaspn. vanilla. 
Mix flour, salt and sugar, put into oiled saucepan, pour boiling 
milk over, stirring until smooth, boil, add yolks of eggs, just heat, 
add vanilla, turn into baked granella or pastry crust. Meringue. 
With some brands of pastry flour, a scant measure only will be 
required. Thin slices of banana may be laid on the baked crust 
before the filling is put in, for banana flavor. 

Cocoanut CreamFamous Same as cream pie with ^ cup 
sugar only and about ^ cup desiccated cocoanut. (If cocoanut 
is fresh grated, use I cup sugar.) Add cocoanut just before put- 
ting filling into crust, reserving enough to sprinkle the top of 



362 THE LAUREL 

the meringue before 1 baking. Do not brown the meringue, just 
heat it until it puffs up and possibly tints the tips of the cocoa- 
nut. 

Nut Cream- -Use chopped hickory or other nuts in place of 
cocoanut in Cocoanut Cream Pie. 

if Farina Cream Scant pt. rich milk, I tablespn. Hecker's, 
i l /2 tablespn. Am. Cereal Co's farina, X cup sugar, 2 eggs (3 
eggs enough for 2 pies), I teaspn. vanilla. Heat milk and sugar 
to boiling, sift in farina and cook for ^-i hour in double boiler; 
add slightly beaten yolks of eggs, just heat through, remove from 
fire, add flavoring, turn into baked granella or pastry crust. 
Meringue. Thin slices of banana may be used to flavor this pie 
also but it is delicious with no flavoring. Farina may be cooked 
45 m. only, yolks and flavoring added and the filling be baked 
in the crust. 

Cream of Rice 

i qt. rich milk /^ cup sugar 

y$ cup rice pinch of salt 

Cook all together until thick and creamy. Turn into baked 
crust, brown delicately over the top, cool. 

Better the second day. Do not use with granella crust. 

Caramel Cream --Steep /^-^ cup cereal coffee in milk of 
cream pie, in double boiler for I5m., strain through 2 thick- 
nesses of cheese cloth, add milk or cream to make \% pt. Fin- 
ish the same as cream pie. Flavor with vanilla. 

The pie may be made with not very rich milk and covered, 
after cutting, with flavored, sweetened, whipped cream instead 
of being meringued. 

Tomato Cream Fine 

i YI cup very rich milk */?> cup flour 

i ^2 cup strained tomato salt 

i cup sugar 2 eggs 

vanilla 

Mix sugar and flour, pour boiling milk over, then boiling to- 
mato, boil up, add salt and yolks of eggs, cook, add vanilla and 



PIES 363 

put in baked crust. Meringue. Use a little more flour when 
pie is to be eaten the day it is made. 

My Mother's 

1 pt. thick cream i tablespn. flour 
/ 7 3-/^ cup sugar I egg 

Mix and bake in i crust; serve in very small pieces. No fla- 
voring but that of the cream is required and no meringue is 
necessary as the cream gives a beautiful finish to the top of 
the pie. 

Parched Corn Cream 

2/ / 3 cups rich milk /^ cup sugar 

K cup parched corn meal salt 

3 eggs 

Soak corn meal in milk I hour, cook until thickened; add 
salt, and eggs beaten with sugar. Put into crust and bake. One 
white may be beaten to stiff froth and stirred in last, and if 
wished, a little sugar may be sprinkled over the top. 

Cream Sour 

i egg salt 

i YI tablespn. flour i teaspn. vanilla 

/^ cup sugar i pt. thick sour cream 

Mix flour, sugar and salt; turn beaten egg over and stir in 
cream gradually; add vanilla and turn into crust; bake in 
moderate oven. If preferred, I more egg may be used, the 
white beaten to a stiff froth and stirred in last. 

Sour Cream 

2/ / 2 cups sour cream salt 

2/ / 2-3 tablespns. flour 2 eggs 

i cup sugar vanilla, almond, rose or lemon 

Bring cream just to boiling and pour over sugar and flour which 
have been mixed together; boil up, add yolks of eggs, heat to 
thicken but do not boil; add flavoring, turn into baked crust. 
Meringue with whites of eggs. 

White Cream 

whites of 3 eggs /^-i cup sugar 

2 level tablespns. flour flavoring i pt. cream 



364 THE LAUREL 

Beat whites with sugar, add other ingredients which have been 
mixed together; bake in I crust. 

Custard Pie 2^ cups rich milk, % cup sugar, 3 eggs, salt. 
Dusting of coriander or anise, or any suitable flavoring. 

Custard Pie that Makes Its Own Crust--!^ pt. rich milk (or 
scant i l /2 pt. skimmed milk and \ l /> tablespn. of butter), Y^-^/2 
cup sugar, 3 eggs, 4 tablespns. flour, salt; almond, lemon or cori- 
ander flavoring. Mix ingredients, stirring flour with milk and 
pour into an oiled pie pan. Bake very slowly. 

The flour will settle to the bottom and form a delicate crust. 

Use I more egg, mix ingredients with 2 whole eggs and 2 yolks 
more, then add the 2 whites stiffly-beaten, at the last. This 
makes a more attractive pie. 

Custard Pie Without Milk 4 eggs, 3 or 4 tablespns. sugar, 
salt, i pt. boiling water, flavoring. Beat 2 whole eggs and 2 
more yolks with sugar and salt, pour boiling water over gradually, 
stirring, pour into crust, dust with coriander, bake; meringue with 
whites of 2 eggs. Vanilla, lemon or orange flavoring may be 
used in the pie. The whites may be beaten stiff and stirred 
into the filling before baking instead of adding the meringue. 

Rice Pie 

i good pint rich milk 2 eggs 

i cup well cooked rice 4 tablespns. sugar 

vanilla, or no flavor 

Dust with coriander sometimes. May beat eggs separate and 
add whites last. One crust. 

Crumb Pie 

Line the pan with crust, put into it a large pint of rather dry 
bread crumbs (cracker crumbs may be used) and turn over them 
sweetened, thin cream to fill the crust. Bake. Serve warm or 
cold. Any desired flavor may be used. 

* Crumb Pie No. 2 

i cup fine dry bread crumbs i egg, 2/4 cups milk 

/^ cup sugar ground coriander seed 

i tablespn. flour or other flavoring 



PIES 365 

Mix crumbs, sugar and flour, add milk to beaten egg and pour 
over dry ingredients, stirring, turn into crust, dust with coriander, 
bake in moderate oven. Lemon or vanilla flavoring may be used 
in the pie but they do not compare with the dusting of ground 

coriander seed. 

Buttermilk Pie. Excellent 

\% pt. buttermilk 2 eggs 

^A cup sugar salt 

scant /^ cup flour lemon and rose flavor 

Mix lemon flavored sugar with flour, heat buttermilk quickly 
in double boiler and pour over the mixture, boil up well, add 
yolks of eggs, heat to cook eggs but do not boil, add salt, turn 
into baked crust, cover with meringue flavored with rose. 

Buttermilk Pie No. 2 

?4 cup sugar flavored 2/^2 tablespns. (/icup) flour 

2 eggs [with lemon i /^ pt. buttermilk, salt 

Mix, bake in crust ^2 hour in moderate oven. Flavor 
meringue with orange. 

Sour Milk PieMock Lemon 

2 eggs 2/ / 2 cups sour milk 

i cup sugar lemon flavor 

i/'o tablespn. corn starch salt 

Mix, leaving out whites of eggs, bake, meringue. 

Sour Milk Pie with Raisins 

i cup chopped raisins i cup sour milk 

1 cup sugar i tablespn. butter 

2 eggs flavoring if desired 

2 crusts 

May use juice and grated rind of I lemon instead of butter. 

Sweet Potato Pie 



i cup mashed sweet potato yolks of 2 eggs 
% cup sugar 2 cups rich milk 

salt 

Mix all with beaten yolks of eggs, bake slowly, flavor meringue 
of whites of eggs with vanilla. 



366 THE LAUREL 

Squash Pies. Two large 

2/ / 2 cups squash, not very dry 2 eggs 

1 scant cup sugar i qt. rich milk 

2 tablespns. flour i /4 teaspn. vanilla 

salt a few drops of almond flavor 

Mix sugar, flour and salt and stir into squash. Break eggs in 
and beat a little, add milk gradually, then flavoring, bake in 
moderate oven. 

\Yith 3 cups of squash use a little less flour. For variety, 
flavor with lemon or vanilla only, or with neither and stir in a 
little cocoanut, sprinkling a little over the top. 

Bro. Cornforth's Squash and Sweet Potato Pie 
2 eggs, y* cup sugar, i pt. dry mashed squash and sweet potato 
(^2 potato, % squash), i qt. milk, salt. No other flavor. 

Lemon Squash Pie 

i/4 cup nice dry squash ^ teaspn. vanilla 

2/ / 3 cups water or 2/^ 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

of milk i/4-i24 tablespn. flour 

y\-i scant cup sugar 3 eggs 

salt 3-5 drops lemon extract 

Mix as usual, reserving the lemon extract and white of i egg for 
the meringue. Bake in moderate oven and meringue with the 
white of egg beaten not very stiff with i-i ^tablespn. sugar and 
the lemon extract. (A thick meringue seems out of place on a 
squash pie.) If preferred, i or 2 of the whites may be beaten 
stiff, flavored and stirred into the pie before it is baked. /4-2i 
cup soup cracker crumbs may be used instead of eggs. 

Pumpkin Pies 

Suggestions Select a dark, rich-colored pumpkin with deep 
indentations and thick meat. Some of the small sugar pumpkins 
are very nice. 

Good pies cannot be made out of coarse-grained, watery pump- 
kins. 

Baked pumpkin makes richer pies than stewed, with less work. 



PIES 367 

To bake, cut or saw a pumpkin into halves, and if large, cut into 
quarters; place on a large tin and turn another over it; bake 
until tender. 

To boil, cut in strips, remove fibrous portion from center, cut 
in pieces and put over the fire in some thick-bottomed utensil, 
either copper, re-tinned, or iron; add just enough water to keep 
it from burning and simmer slowly, stirring often, for several 
hours until the pumpkin becomes a rich brown and is \vell dried 
out. Rub through colander while hot. 

Pumpkin may be steamed in strips, unpeeled, but is not so rich. 

The question of peeling is an open one; many claim that the 
rind gives a richer flavor to the pies as well as a darker color, 
while others fear it may give a strong flavor. 

"The real genuine old-fashioned golden-brown pumpkin pie 
our great-grandmothers prided themselves on' : is made without 
eggs. 

Long, slow baking is necessary to the perfection of pumpkin 
pies. 

Cover crust of pies with a circle of paper if in danger of be- 
coming too brown. 

Meringued patty pan pies or tartlets are very dainty and nice. 

The addition of l /i cup of date pulp (^2 cup of dates steamed 
and rubbed through the colander) to the filling for each pie gives 
a more old-fashioned flavor, without harmful condiments. 

Pumpkin Pies Without Eggs--3 pies 

iX qt. rich, dark, dry pump- i teaspn. salt 

3 pts. rich milk [kin i/^ tablespn. browned flour No. 3 

Y\ cup sugar or 3-6 tablespns. browned flour 

X cup molasses No. 2 

Bake in not too rich crust in moderate oven \ l /2 hour. Use I 
cupful more of pumpkin if not dry, and if necessary, I l /z level 
tablespn. of white flour. 



368 THE LAUREL 

Pumpkin Pies with Eggs--3 very large pies 

1 qt. rich dark dry pumpkin or ?4 cup sugar and /4 cup molasses 

2 qts. milk i teaspn. salt 

6 eggs i Y* tablespn. browned flour No. 3 

i- 1 %. cup sugar or 3-6 tablespns. browned flour No. 2 

Beat whites and yolks of eggs separate; bake slowly until firm 
in center. Use i l / qt. of pumpkin if not dry, and i^ qt. only 
of milk. May use a little less pumpkin when adding dates. 

if One Pumpkin Pie 

\y\ cup moderately dry pumpkin X cup sugar 

% tablespn. browned flour No. 3, or i tablespn. molasses 

1-2 tablespns. browned flour No. 2 /^ level teaspn. salt 

Y* level tablespn. white flour 2/ / 3 cups milk 

i egg 

Bake in moderate oven. Y?> nice winter squash improves the 
pie. 

One recipe says : /^ teaspn. ground coriander seed. Some of 
the best pies have no added flavoring. 

i teaspn. of butter or i or 2 tablespns. of thick cream in the 
filling will give a gloss to the surface. 

Some prefer flour, a little granella or a few zwieback crumbs 
to eggs, for thickening when the pumpkin is not very thick. 

Grated Pumpkin Pie 

Grate pumpkin without peeling. If moist, put into a piece of 
cheese cloth and squeeze out the water; for each pie take: 

1 cup pumpkin i teaspn. ground coriander, 

2 eggs or l /i level teaspn. ground 
2 tablespns. molasses anise seed, or i teaspn. va- 
i or 2 tablespns. sugar nilla, or no flavoring 
pinch of salt small piece of butter 

% tablespn. browned flour 2 tablespns. cracker or zwie- 
No. 3 back crumbs 

or 1-2 of No. 2 1/^-2 cups milk 

Sprinkle top with cocoanut or not. Bake thoroughly. 



PIES 

Carrot Pie 

1 24 cup mashed cooked carrot 

/^ tablespn. browned flour No. 3 

or 1-2 tablespns. browned flour No. 2 

i level tablespn. white flour 

y$ cup sugar 



369 



i tablespn. molasses 
/^ level teaspn. salt 
2, J/ 3 cups milk 
i egg 
dust with coriander 



Or, use 3 tablespns. only of carrot, omit browned flour and 
flavor with lemon or vanilla. 



Turnip Pie 

cups mashed turnip 2 eggs (or i egg and scant K cup 

of granella) 

/^-i tablespn. browned flour No. 3 
2 teaspns. ground coriander seed 
2 cups milk salt 



y&-% cup brown sugar 
2 tablespns. molasses 
i tablespn. melted butter 



The turnip should be the sweet Swedish turnip. 













CAKES 

The fact that soda and cream of tartar are the ingredients of 
the best baking powders is well understood. 

Dr. Lillis Wood Starr says: * 'Cream of tartar belongs to the 
same class with soda. Soda is bi-carbonate of sodium; cream of 
tartar is bi-tartrate of potassium. Sodium, potassium and cal- 
cium (lime) all belong to the same group of metals and are inju- 
rious to the tissues of our bodies.' 

Dr. Lauretta Kress- ; 'Cream of tartar or Potassium Bi-tartrate 
is a gastro-intestinal irritant like soda. By combining cream of 

tartar and soda, we have Rochelle salts. If needed as a cathar- 

\i& < 

tic, they are better given as such on an empty stomach; then 
the system quickly gets rid of them. If taken in food they are 
retained longer and become more irritating.' 

"Sugar when largely used is more injurious than meat.' 
Cake at its best is not to be recommended, but for those who 
have not yet discarded it, we give a variety of recipes for cakes 
without baking powder or soda: there are some, also, without 
eggs. 

When a few more eggs are used in a cake than would be re- 
quired with chemicals, remember that less of the nitrogenous 
is necessary in other dishes: also, that the health of your 

family is of the first importance and it would be better not to 
give them any cake at all than that which will poison their 
systems. 

Suggestions 

Use pastry flour for all cakes; and since different brands even 
of pastry flour differ, it is best to use the same brand when you 
find a good one and become accustomed to it. 

Sift flour once before measuring; and from 3-5 times for angel 

[370] 



CAKES 3/1 

and other sponge cakes after measuring. The best way to sift 
flour several times is to lay down two pieces of large letter or 
Manila paper and to sift the flour first on to one and then 
on to the other. 

All measurements have the sifted flour laid lightly into the 
cup with a spoon. If the cup is shaken or knocked on the side 
with the spoon there will be too much flour. 

Skimmed milk and oil may be used in cakes and the cream 
saved for other purposes. 

At great altitude, more flour and less shortening and sugar will 
be required in cakes. 

In recipes calling for cream of tarter, use lemon juice in the 
proportion of I tablespn. or more to each teaspoon of cream of 
tartar. A larger quantity of lemon juice makes the cake more 
tender. 

2 whites of eggs are said to equal I rounded teaspn. of baking 
powder, for lightness. 

Boil molasses or syrup before using in cakes. 

Half oil instead of all butter may be used in nearly all cakes, 
and in some cases, all oil is better. Use salt with oil. 

It is usually thought important to cream butter and sugar well 
together, but one professional cake-maker told me that cakes 
were lighter when the butter and sugar were just mixed. 

Always add a little of the flour for cakes to the creamed but- 
ter or sugar and butter, before adding eggs, milk or other liquids. 

Saffron is used for both color and flavor: a very small quantity 
only, is required of the imported for a deep color. 

For variety, thin slices of sweet prunes or dates are nice in 
place of other fruits in cakes. 

Round tube pans bake cake the most evenly, Turk's head 
molds being the best of all. 

Do not oil the tins, for cakes without shortening. 



3/2 THE LAUREL 

For cakes with shortening, oil the tins and sprinkle flour over, 
shaking off all flour that is loose; or, line tins with well oiled 
paper. 

Some recommend dipping angel cake pans into cold water and 
rilling while wet; then the cake falls out white when cold, leav- 
ing the crust sticking to the mold. 

Always beat w r hites of eggs on a platter or in a large cake bowl 
or "bombe" with a whip, not with a revolving beater. 

Chop and fold, never stir, the whites into cake, the flour also. 

Have all ingredients and utensils for sponge cake cold, and if 
possible, put it together in a cold room. 

For sponge cakes, follow directions for putting nut and citron 
cake together, or the hot water way following sponge layer cake. 

Bake sponge cakes very slowly and evenly in an oven that 
bakes well from the bottom. They will retain their lightness 
better if carefully inverted in the tin after baking and left in 
that position until cool. 

Bake cakes with shortening in a moderate oven. 

Cool all cakes slowlv. One colored cook told me that she 

j 

always set her cakes on the stove hearth for a little while after 
taking them out of the oven. Of course they should be handled 
carefully. 

Set warm layer and other cakes on a cloth wrung out of cold 
water and they will quickly loosen from the pan. 

Loaf or layer cakes may be set in ice box in tins for 2 hrs. 
before baking. 

3 or 4 rose geranium leaves laid in the bottom of the tin be- 
fore the batter is poured in will flavor cake with rose, or the 
leaves may be laid between layers after baking, while cooling. 
If the loaf is one that will bear removing from the tin while 
warm, lay it on some of the leaves. 

Cakes may be steamed instead of baked sponge cakes I hour, 



CAKES 373 

fruit cakes longer. One recipe for fruit cake says, steam 4 hours 
and bake I hour. Use your judgment. 

Sponge cakes angel and others, are supposed to be broken 
apart with 2 forks, not cut. 

If loaves of cake that are to be covered with whipped cream 
are cut before the cream is put on, the cake will look smooth 
and nice and the pieces will come out more neatly. 

Cakes made with yeast require to be kept a little warmer than 
bread (unless you keep bread too warm), and flour, fruit and all 
ingredients should be warm when added. 

if Nut and Citron Cake 

3 large or 4 small eggs "fe-^A cup Brazil nut, almond, 

i scant cup granulated sugar pecan or shell-bark meal 

i tablespn. lemon juice /^ cup (X Ib.J fine chopped or 

i tablespn. ice water ground citron 

i cup pastry flour salt 

Have all the ingredients as nearly ice cold as possible; sift the 
sugar, sift the flour twice and leave it in the sifter; beat the yolks 
of the eggs in a cake bowl with a revolving egg-beater (a large 
one if you have it), adding sugar gradually. When stiff, add part 
of the water and more sugar; beat, add more water, sugar and 
half the lemon juice, beating, until all the sugar is in. 

Stir into this mixture half the nut meal, a pinch of salt and 
the citron. Rest the egg beater on a quart measure (or some 
dish of the required height) by the side of the bowl, and let it 
drain into the bowl while beating the whites of the eggs. It 
will drain much cleaner than it could be scraped, besides saving 
the time. Beat the whites of the eggs to a moderately stiff 
froth, add the remaining half tablespn. of lemon juice and whip 
till dry and feathery; let them stand a moment, then slide onto 
the yolk mixture; sprinkle part of the nut meal over them and 
sift on a little flour; chop in lightly, dipping from the bottom 
with a large thin spoon three times; add more meal and flour; 
chop; continue this until the flour is all in. Take care not to 



374 THE LAUREL 

mix too much; the mixture must not get soft. Put into pan at 
once and bake slowly until the cake stops singing, or does not 
stick to a broom splint. Bake i-i /4 hours, according to the 
heat of the oven. The fine particles of citron give an unusually 
delightful flavor to the cake. Preserved orange peel, ground, 
may be used sometimes; or fine cut raisins or dried blueberries. 

if Julia's Birthday Cake 

2 cups sugar 8 eggs 

/^-i cup butter 2 cups flour 

flavoring 

Cream butter and sugar; add flavoring and a little of the flour, 
then the beaten yolks; beat well. Slide the stiffly-beaten whites 
on to this mixture, sift flour over gradually and chop together as 
for nut and citron cake; bake in moderate oven in 3 medium 
sized layers; sift a little sugar over one layer before baking, 
sometimes, to make a crust for the top. If possible, set in ice 
box for an hour before baking. 

Patty Cakes 

Use y$- l /2 cup of milk and 2^-2^ cups of flour in preced- 
ing recipe, and bake in patty pans. 

Cocoanut Loaf or Layer Cake 

2 cups sugar 2 cups fine grated or ground cocoanut 

4 level tablespns. butter 2 teaspns. lemon juice 
8 eggs 1-2 teaspns. vanilla if desired 

2 cups flour 

Put together the same as "Julia's Birthday Cake," let stand on 
ice for 2 hours, or bake at once in loaf or layers. 

If baked in layers, use Washington pie filling with it. 

Rich Loaf Cake 

i cup butter 5 eggs 

i/<3 cup granulated sugar 2-2 /4 cups flour 

Cream butter, add sugar and work very light; add I egg at a 
time and stir only until no yolk can be seen; mix in flour, turn 
into paper-lined pan and set in ice box for 2 hours. Bake in 
slow oven about an hour, or until the cake stops singing. 



CAKES 375 

Rice Flour Cake 

y\ cup butter ?.%. cups rice flour 

2 scant cups sugar 6 eggs 

2-3 tablespns. lemon juice with grated rind 

Cream butter, add sugar, a little of the flour and beaten yolks 
with half the juice and all the rind of lemon. 

Beat whites of eggs with a little salt, adding the remainder of 
the lemon juice when half beaten; slip on to cake batter, sift 
flour over gradually, and fold all lightly together. Put into pan 
to depth of not over 2 in. Bake in moderate oven. 

Fruit and Nut Cake. Unsurpassed 

1^3 cup sugar 3 cups (i Ib.) currants 

/^ cup butter i/4 cup (/4 Ib.) ground citron 

1/^3 cup flour large % cup blanched almonds, ground 

6 eggs /-% teaspn. extract rose, according 

4 cups (i/^ Ib.) seeded raisins [to strength 

(rose leaves in their season) 

Mix fruit with part of the flour, add nuts; cream butter with 
a little of the flour; beat together the sugar and yolks of eggs 
until very light and add with extract to creamed butter ; beat well ; 
whip whites of eggs with pinch of salt to stiff froth, add fruit and 
nuts to yolk mixture, chop in beaten whites and remainder of 
flour; bake in well oiled tin ij4-2% hrs. in moderate and slow 
oven; cover when necessary. 

The cake may be steamed 3-4 hrs. and baked /4-i hr. 

This cake will keep a long time with care and is unusually 
desirable. 3 times the quantity given will make 4 medium sized 

loaves. 

Corn Starch Cake 

6 eggs 1/^2 cup flour 

/4 cup butter (part oil) 3 tablespns. corn starch 

i/<3 cup sugar flavoring 

Beat yolks with half the sugar and cream butter with the 
other half; mix, beat. (Part of the flour and corn starch may 
be added to the butter and sugar.) Beat whites of eggs stiff, 
slide on to the mixture, add flour and corn starch (which have 




C/3 

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w 

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u 



W 

C/3 
C/5 



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[376] 



CAKES 377 

been sifted together) gradually, chopping and folding in with the 
whites; bake in moderate oven. Two thick round layers. 

fc Silver Cake 

i Ib. (2 cups and 3 tablespns.) sugar rose flavor 
y Ib. (3/^-3/^2 cups) flour \Yz cup citron or prunes 

6 oz. (% cup soft) butter in slices 

whites of 14 eggs 

Cream butter and sugar, add flavoring, beaten whites and flour, 
lay slices of fruit in and on top of cake. One very large square, 
or two rather small round loaves. 

if Scotch Short Breadno eggs 

/4 cup butter i teaspn. caraway seed or not 

/4 cup granulated or brown, or 2 cups flour 

slightly rounded ~/4 cup 

powdered sugar 

Cream butter, add sugar and flour mixed, seeds also if used. 
A little of the flour may be saved for rolling. 

Roll to about i in. thick, of the shape to fit your tin; crinkle 
the edges, press them with a fork or cut with pastry jagger, slide 
on to tin, prick lightly with fork and bake in a slow oven for i 
hour; or, roll >2 in. thick and bake % hour only. The cake is 
sometimes creased in squares before baking, or the dough may 
be cut in round cakes and the edges crinkled. 

The cake is better with oil and ^ teaspn. of salt in place of 
butter. One cup of sugar is sometimes used with % cup of but- 
ter or oil, and again, I cup of butter or oil with ^ cup of sugar, 
but the cake is very nice with the proportions given. By 
some, brown sugar is considered most suitable. 

German Light Cake 

i/ cup butter or i/ cup oil 7 /% cup almonds, blanched and 

\}i cup granulated sugar 4 eggs [chopped 

2/^-2^4 cups flour grated orange rind 

ground coriander seed 

Cream butter with a little flour, add eggs, one at a time, 
beating, add sugar (except a little for the top), rind and flour; 



378 THE LAUREL 

spread thin in oiled pans, sprinkle with almonds, coriander and 
sugar, bake in moderate oven, cut in squares while hot, leave in 

pan to cool. 

if Sister Elliott's Plain Loaf Cake and Cookies 

/4 cup oil 4^2 cups flour 

1/4 cup sugar i cup milk 

yolks 2 eggs salt, flavoring 

whites 3 eggs 

Cream oil and sugar, add a little flour, yolks of eggs, salt and 
flavoring, then milk and flour alternately; beat well and fold in 
the stiff whites of eggs. Chill, or bake at once thoroughly, in 
i large or 2 small loaves in moderate oven that bakes well from 
the bottom. 

For cookies, use 2 whites of eggs only and make dough stiff 

enough to roll. 

Molasses Cake 

4 large eggs i teaspn. lemon juice 

3 level tablespns. butter i/4 teaspn. grated orange peel 
*/* cup molasses i% tablespn. browned flour 
y? cup sugar, brown or white i cup pastry flour 

Beat eggs and lemon juice in bowl set in boiling water, add 
sugar, then boiling molasses, with butter and orange peel, and 

lastly the flour. 

Molasses Sugar Cakes 

4 eggs YS teaspn. lemon extract 
y~> cup (4% level tablespns.) butter i cup pastry flour 

7 /% cup molasses sugar i /^ tablespn. browned flour 

i teaspn. lemon juice 

Mix butter and sugar and add to beaten yolks, beating well; 
slide on to this the whites beaten with salt and lemon juice, 
then sift over gradually the two flours mixed, chopping and fold- 
ing them in with the whites. Bake in small cakes in moderate 
oven i 5-20 m. Use grated maple sugar for maple cakes. 

if Molasses Bread or Hard Molasses Cakeno eggs 

i^/i qt. (7 cups) flour i cup molasses 

i cup butter (part oil) i teaspn. ground anise seed 

i/i cup pressed down, medium salt 
brown sugar 



CAKES 379 

Cream butter and sugar, add anise and molasses, beat well and 
add flour; turn mixture out on floured board, mold up and 
put into flat tins about I in. deep, wash over with milk arid bake 
in a very slow oven. 

When done, wrap or cover with damp cloths and keep at least 
4 days before using. If necessary, moisten the cloths again, 
and perhaps again. The cakes will be hard and dry when taken 
from the oven, but keeping them for a few days in damp (not 
wet) cloths makes them nice and tender. Grated orange peel 
and vanilla, together or separate, may be used for flavoring; 
but the delicate flavor of anise is especially agreeable. 

By weight, the ingredients are I ^ Ib, pastry flour, l /2 Ib. 
butter, l /2 Ib. brown sugar, % Ib. molasses. 



YEAST CAKES 

It is especially important to use pastry flour in cakes made 
with yeast. 

A good liquid yeast gives better results in cake, but compressed 
yeast may be used. 

if Saffron Cakeno eggs 

2 cups milk more than i teaspn. of imported 

4 tablespns. yeast I cup water in which saffron has 

8/4 cups flour been steeped /4 hr. 

2 cups ( i Ib. ) butter 3 cups currants 

-2/4 cups sugar 2 cups fine cut or ground citron 

/i cup domestic saffron, not i teaspn. lemon extract 

%-i cake compressed yeast dissolved in a very little water, 
with sugar, may be used instead of soft yeast, and i extra 
tablespn. of water added to the sponge. 

Make a sponge at night of the milk (just warm), yeast and 4^ 
cups of flour, and in the morning add the cup of warm saffron 
water. Cream the butter and sugar with a little flour, add the 
sponge gradually, mixing and beating, then the remainder of the 
flour warm (except a little which has been used to dust the fruit), 
beat well, add the extract and warmed, floured fruit, mix and 



380 THE LAUREL 

pour into 3 good sized paper lined cake pans. Let stand until 
bubbles appear in the batter, usually 2-3 hrs. with soft yeast; 
not so long, perhaps, with compressed; when light, put into 
a slow oven; let cakes come up slowly and bake very moderately 
until they stop singing, i l /2-2 hrs., depending upon the heat of 
the oven, but they must bake slowly. 

When cake is started in the morning, 6 tablespns. of soft, or 
a whole cake of compressed yeast may be used. The quantity 
of flour may need to be varied a little according to the brand. 

Citron and Cocoamit Cakes no eggs 

1 cup milk iX cup sugar 

2 tablespns. yeast, (or /^-/^ % cup water 

cake compressed yeast with extra fy-i cup ground citron 

/4 tablespn. of water in sponge) X teaspn. weak extract rose 

4% cups flour i cup shredded cocoanut 

i cup butter i teaspn. vanilla 

Prepare as in preceding recipe (of which it is just half) and at 
the last divide into 2 parts, add the citron and rose to one, and 
the cocoanut and vanilla to the other. The loaves will not be 
very large. 

White Fruit Cake no eggs 

The whole of the above recipe, using only ^ cup of butter, 
with Y-\ cup of citron, i cup of cocoanut and ^3 cup of almonds, 
all ground. 

^ Dried Apple Cake yeast 

Cut 2 cups dried apples into small pieces with shears, soak 
over night in I ^ cup water, then cook in ^ cup molasses until 
transparent. 

Sponge- i cup water, I cake compressed yeast, 2^2 cups 
flour. 

When light, add % cup butter (or half oil) and ^ cup sugar 
creamed together, the dried apples, grated rind of orange or 
lemon, 2 beaten eggs and 2 cups flour. 

One egg only may be used; the cake is excellent with no eggs. 



CAKES 38l 

if Washington Cake no eggs 

Remember to lay flour lightly into cup, 

Sponge i pt. milk /^ cup sugar 

i cake yeast I qt. flour 



IDien light salt iK cup oil and butter. 

i-iX cup sugar half of each 

i cup water in which a little ^i-i teaspn. lemon 
saffron has been steeped extract 

6/4 cups flour 

Prepare same as saffron cake and bake in not too thick loaves. 

Washington Pieno eggs 

Bake Washington cake in rather thin, flat loaf, split and put 
the following cream between and around, or put cream over and 
around cake without splitting. 

Cream 1% tablespn. cooking oil large /4 cup sugar 

2/^-2^ tablespns. flour yellow color 

i pt. milk salt i teaspn. vanilla 

Heat oil, add flour, then hot milk, salt and sugar, stirring 
smooth at different stages. Steep a trifle of saffron in the milk, 
Add vanilla when cold. 

Another 

Cream i tablespn. butter /^ cup sugar 

2/^2 tablespns. flour salt 

i pt. boiling milk i egg 

flavoring 

Elizabeth's Raised Cake 

Sponge 5-5% cups flour 2 tablespns. yeast (or /4 cake 

/^ cup sugar compressed yeast) 

i /4 cup milk 

ir/ien light 1/4 cup sugar 2 eggs 

i cup butter i cup raisins 

/"i cup citron 

Make sponge at night with soft yeast or early in the morning 
with compressed. 

When light, add the butter, well creamed with the sugar, and 
beaten eggs. Beat all very thoroughly and put into the tins. 
When partly risen, stick the fruit in all over the top; let rise 



382 THE LAUREL 

about i% hr. , or until bubbles may be seen; bake I hr. in mod- 
erate oven. The cake is excellent without fruit. 

German Almond Loaf 

Sponge- y\ cup milk or i cake compressed yeast 

3 tablespns. liquid yeast 3 cups flour 

U'licn light 4 yolks of eggs 3-4 cups flour 

i cup sugar halved blanched almonds or 
Y\ cup butter halves of pecans or walnuts 

Y cup of warm milk grated rind of i-i/4 lemon 

Beat yolks with sugar and add to butter which has been creamed 
with part of the flour; then add the flavoring, the sponge, the 
milk and the flour alternating, beating until the flour is all in. 
Butter tube mold or other pans thick with cold butter and stick 
almonds to sides in regular rows. Do not put any in the bottom. 
Half till pan with batter and let rise until pan is nearly full ; bake 
i hr., or until cake stops singing, in moderate and slow oven so 
as not to burn nuts. 

Cake Without Chemicals 

(Mrs. W. W. Wheeler, Ambato, Ecuador.) 

i large cup thin bread sponge i cup sugar 

3 eggs, save out i white or yolk 5 tablespns. oil 

/<3 cup flour 

Beat eggs and sugar, add oil, then the sponge, lastly fold in 
the flour; put into 3 layer cake pans and let stand for 2 or 3 
hours in a not very warm place. Bake in moderate oven. 

Filling- -&e&\. the white of egg stiff, add i tablespn. sugar 
and 2 tablespns. thick cream, or, make a cream sauce of the yolk. 

Maple Loaf Cake 

i cup bread dough i egg 

YZ cup butter i cup maple sugar 

Cream the butter, add the sugar and beaten egg and mix all 
thoroughly with the dough; add a little flour, turn into tin and 
let rise ^ hr. or longer before baking. 



CAKES 383 

Raised Molasses Cake--no eggs or two whites 

Sponge 2 cups skimmed milk, 4 tablespns. yeast, 4^2 cups 
flour. 

When light 2 cups (i Ib.) butter, 2 cups molasses which has 
been boiled and cooled to lukewarm, 3 cups (not too fine) nuts, 
raisins, citron or cocoanut or combinations of same, 4-4/2 cups 
flour, part for fruit. The whites of 2 eggs may be used with the 
4 cups of flour. 

Attend to sponge and cake as soon as light. Steam or bake. 

German Coffee Cakeno eggs 

i pt. milk %~i cake compressed 

1 tablespn. butter salt [yeast 

2 tablespns. sugar flour for soft dough 

Let rise, knead, spread on flat tin with floured hand, ^-i in. 
thick, spread with butter, sprinkle with sugar and ground cori- 
ander seed; or, spread with an egg beaten with a teaspn. of 
sugar, sprinkle with sugar and chopped or split blanched almonds; 
let rise; bake in moderate oven. 

Use universal crust dough if a more tender cake is desired. 

if Royal Sponge Cake 

3 eggs i tablespn. ice water 
*/Z cup sugar 2 /l cup pastry flour 

i tablespn. lemon juice 3 drops extract rose 

Put together and bake same as nut and citron cake except for 
the nut meal. This makes i loaf or 2 small layers. 3 times 
the quantity makes 2 large square loaves, or 4 large layers. 

May use i ^2 tablespn. of orange juice with yolks of eggs and 
}/2 tablespn. lemon juice with whites in place of the water and 
lemon juice. Flavor sugar with oil of orange and add /^ teaspn. 
vanilla to the cake. Finished with royal filling and icing, this 
makes a cake suitable for a royal occasion. 

Variations of Royal Sponge Cake 
(i) Use 2 tablespns. of cream in cake instead of lemon juice 



384 THE LAUREL 

and water, with or without I teaspn. of lemon juice in whites 
of eggs. 

(2) Use % cup of molasses in place of the sugar, no water, I 
teaspn. only, of lemon juice in the whites of eggs, I cup of flour 
and 1-2 teaspns. ground coriander seed. 

(3) Use brown sugar in place of white, and orange or vanilla 

flavoring. 

if Sponge Layer Cake 

3 eggs 4 tablespns. water 

i cup sugar i-i/^ cup flour 

Boil sugar and water till syrup will thread, pour hot syrup slowly 
over beaten yolks; beat until cool, chop in stiffly-beaten whites 
and flour; flavor if desired. 2 small layers. 

The sponge layer cake and all sponge cakes containing the 
yolks of eggs may be put together as follows: Break the eggs 
into a cake bowl, set the bowl into a pan of boiling water on the 
table and beat until light; add hot water (if any) and the sugar 
(or the hot syrup) gradually, beating. When light, remove from 
water, add flavoring and fold in flour lightly. 

if Old Friend Sponge Cake 

1^2 cup granulated sugar fla- i-i/^ tablespn. lemon juice 

vored with oil of lemon 2/4 cups flour, sifted 5 or 

large /4 cup cold water 6 times after measuring 
7 eggs 

Pour cold water over sugar, heat and boil slowly until perfectly 
clear; cool, beat yolks of eggs, add syrup and half the lemon 
juice and beat very light; slide whites of eggs beaten to a stiff 
froth with the remainder of the lemon juice on to mixture, sift 
flour over, a little at a time, and chop in with whites until all 
the flour is in. Bake ^-i hr. in slow oven until just done, no 
longer. I large loaf in deep square tin. 

Cocoanut Sponge Cake. 1846 

6 eggs a trifle of salt 

i cup sugar i /4 cup grated fresh cocoanut 

i cup flour lemon or vanilla flavoring 



CAKES 385 

Put together as nut and citron cake, or beat eggs in dish set 
in hot water, add sugar, cocoanut and flavoring , then flour. Put 
mixture I ^ in. deep in pans lined with buttered paper. 

Rice Flour Sponge Cake. 1846 

6 eggs flavoring 

y?, cup sugar '3 cup rice flour 

scant 1 A cup pastry flour 

Beat eggs in dish set in hot water, add sugar, flavoring and 
rice and pastry flour mixed. Bake in moderate oven. 

Angel Cake 

i cup of egg whites- i cup flour 

8 large or 10 small eggs 1-2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i/i cup granulated or \/i a pinch of salt 

cup powdered sugar i teaspn. vanilla 

Sift 2 or 3 cups of sugar twice; measure out I cup; sift a sifter 
of flour 4 times; measure out I cup and mix it with the cup of 
sugar; put both in the sifter and sift once, return to the sifter 
and set in cold place; separate the eggs, putting the whites into 
the dish in which they are to be beaten and set them in a cold 
place for 15-20 m; when cool, add the salt to the eggs and begin 
beating with a long slow stroke, gradually increasing the veloc- 
ity until the eggs begin to stiffen, then pour the lemon juice over 
and beat more rapidly for a time; continue beating until whites 
are stiff and feathery, then add flavoring; sift flour and sugar 
mixture over gradually, chopping and folding it in carefully; 
when all is in, drop by spoonfuls evenly into the pan and bake 
in slow oven 35-50 m., testing with broom straw. When done, 
turn the pan upside down with the sides resting on two saucers 
(unless you have the pans with projections for that purpose), so 
that a current of air will pass under and over the cake. 

Tri-Colored Layer Cake 

Angel cake--^ white flavored with vanilla; ^ pink flavored 
with rose, 3 or 4 large layers. Other layers, of sponge layer cake 
lemon flavored, or some nice light brown cake such as molasses 



386 THE LAl'RKL 

sugar cake or sponge layer cake with part browned flour. Fill- 
ing of raisin dressing. 

Miss Lubey's Cream Puffs. 1 doz. 

i large cup boiling water i cup pastry flour 

YZ cup butter or oil 3 eggs 

salt 

Add dry flour all at once to boiling water and butter; stir 
quickly over the tire until mixture forms a ball which leaves the 
pan; remove from fire and stir till partly cool; add beaten yolks 
of eggs, part at a time, beating well, then slightly beaten whites; 
beat; set in cold place, covered, for i hr. or more; drop by spoon- 
fuls about 2 in. apart on oiled and floured tin, flatten with brush 
or fingers dipped in milk (may leave without shaping); have oven 
rather quick at first, then slow r er until there is no kk singing". 
Puffs are light weight when done. They will keep for several 
days. Reheat before filling. To fill, cut open at the side with 
shears. 

The butter and flour may be creamed together first, and the 
boiling water poured over, then the w^hole cooked as before. 

Cream- -i pt. milk 2 eggs 

/4 cup sugar salt 

i tablespn. flour i teaspn. vanilla 

Mix sugar and flour, pour boiling milk over, boil up well; pour 
over beaten eggs, return to fire until just creamy, not boiling, 
cool; add salt and flavoring. 

If cream is preferred thicker, use % cup of flour and cook in 
double boiler i 5 m. before adding the eggs. 

Whipped cream may be used for the filling, but does not har- 
monize as well with the shells. 

These shells are sometimes used for trumese and celery salad, 
or for creamed meat dishes. 

Dainty little puffs filled with different creams may be used for 
garnishes for desserts, or piled on fancy plates for cakes. 



CAKES 38/ 

Additions to Cookies and Small Cakes 

Caraway or anise seeds, ground coriander or anise seed ; chopped 
shelled nuts; grated or shredded cocoanut; grated orange or 
lemon rind; English currants; fine cut or ground raisins, citron, 
figs and dates; sometimes a raisin or half a blanched almond or 
half of a pecan or hickory nut meat in the center of each. 

Suggestive Combinations 

Coriander, English currants and English walnuts; raisins in 
molasses cookies; almonds chopped without blanching, and rai- 
sins; almonds same, and caraway or ground coriander seed. 

Graham flour cookies with English currants; I part raisins and 
X part each of nuts, cocoanut and citron, with or without va- 
nilla or lemon. 

All cooky dough should be set in a cold place for 2 hrs. or 
longer before rolling out. Roll out in cool room on well floured 
board. Cut the cakes all out, put on tins and set in cold place 
before beginning to bake them as the baking will require all one's 
attention. 

Very thin dough may be cut oblong, round or in any desired 
shape and some of the following fillings placed between each 
two pieces before they are baked- 

Ground or mashed dates or figs rolled thin and cut with the 
same cutter that the dough was cut with; raspberry or other 
fruit jams and jellies or orange marmalade, also some of the suit- 
able cake fillings. 

It may sometimes be more convenient to cut the dough into 
strips 4 in. wide, spread half the width with the fruit, fold the- 

other half over, pinch down the edge and cut into 3 in. lengths. 

Tops of cookies may sometimes be brushed with white of egg 
and water or with syrup of % cup each sugar and water boiled 
together; or, sprinkled with sugar, coriander, chopped nuts or 
suitable fruits. 

Instead of sprinkling cookies with different materials, brush 



388 THE LAUREL 

the tops with milk and turn them on to any preparation or mix- 
ture desired. 

Grated and sifted maple sugar may be used in place of other 
sugar in cookies by using a somewhat smaller quantity. 

Oil and flour pans for baking cookies. 

It is a good plan to bake cookies on the bottom of inverted 
dripping pans. This prevents them from burning on the bottom 
and it is easier to remove them from the tins. 

if Rich Small CakesCookies 

(From an old recipe book oj niy auntie's, published in 1^46 J 
i cup butter 2/ / 3-2% cups pastry flour 

scant iK cup sugar 2 eggs 

vanilla, almond or any desired flavoring 

By weight /^ Ib. butter, /^ Ib. sugar, 10 ozs. flour. 

Cream butter, add sugar, beaten eggs, flavoring and flour; let 
stand in cold place until thoroughly cold; roll ^-^2 in. thick. 
Bake in oven which is moderately hot at first, so cakes will not 
spread. Be careful not to burn. 

A little more flour may be used if preferred, also half oil instead 
of all butter, and brown sugar instead of granulated. 

or Jumbles, break off pieces of dough the size of a walnut 
and make into rings by rolling out rolls as large as the finger and 
joining the ends; or, cut in rings; dust with sugar. 

Yolk Jumbles 

% cup butter yolks 4 eggs 

/^ cup sugar scant pint of flour 

lemon flavoring salt 

Poach yolks of eggs dry and mealy; rub them smooth and add 
butter gradually, creaming; add sugar and flavoring, then flour, 
a little at a time; cool, roll thin, cut with doughnut cutter, dust 
with sugar, bake. 

^ Cream Cookies 

i/4 cup sugar yolks of 3 eggs 

i cup thin cream scant 24 cup butter and oil half 

i teaspn. vanilla about 4^2 cups flour [and half 



CAKES 389 

Cream butter and sugar, stir in a little flour, add beaten yolks, 
beat well, then add the cream gradually with the flavoring, and 
lastly, all of the flour. Handle after mixing the same as rich 
small cakes. Fruits, nuts or seeds maybe added. These cook- 
ies will keep almost indefinitely. 

Lunch Cakes 

Take ^2 the sugar and a little more flour in rich small cakes, 
or cream cookies, and roll to % or I in. in thickness. Cut of 
the size to fit tins, crinkle edges or press with fork, crease in 
squares and bake in moderate oven. Caraway or other flavoring 
may be used. Chopped nuts, a little sugar and ground or shredded 

citron may be mixed on a board or flat pan and one side of the 
cakes pressed into the mixture before baking. Set in cold place 
before rolling out. 

Anise Wafers, or German Christinas Cakes 

% cup butter ^ teaspn. ground anise seed or 

i cup sugar i teaspn. whole seed 

3 eggs flour for soft dough 

Cream butter, add sugar and a little flour, with seeds, then 
the yolks of the eggs, one at a time, and the stiffly-beaten whites, 
with flour, folding together lightly; knead in flour for soft dough, 
cover and set in cold place; roll rather thin, cut cakes about the 
size of a half dollar. 

Sour Cream Cookiesno soda 

i y-2. cup sugar scant % cup oil or butter 

i cup thick sour cream any desired flavoring, fruits 

yolks 3 eggs nuts or seeds 

5-5 **/ cups pastry flour 

Mix lightly, set in cold place, roll rather thin. 

Honey Wafers 

i cup honey boiled and cooled 2 small eggs or i large one 
-3 cup butter pinch salt 5 cups flour 

Cream butter with a little flour, add beaten egg and honey, 
then remainder of flour. 



39O THK LAl'KEL 

Molasses Cookies 

y&t cup molasses /4 cup granulated sugar 

2 eggs w~y\ teaspn. lemon extract 

i cup butter 2 tablespns. browned flour 

about 3/4 cups pastry flour 



Heat molasses to boiling and pour slowly, stirring, over well 
beaten eggs; cool; cream butter and sugar, stir in browned flour 
mixed with a little of the white flour, add flavoring with eggs 
and molasses, then the remainder of the flour or enough to make 
a not too soft dough. Set in cold place and roll out the same 
as small cakes. Care must be taken in baking, as molasses 
burns easily. 

/ 

Or, boil and cool molasses, cream butter and sugar, add beaten 
eggs, a little flour, then molasses gradually, beating well, and 
finally, the flour. 

Browned flour may be omitted and a few drops of rose extract 
used in flavoring. 

if Molasses Cakes-- no eggs 

l/^ cup oil or butter coriander, anise, rose or 

2 cups molasses vanilla flavoring 

orange or lemon rind or pastry flour 

Cream butter with a little flour, add molasses which has been 
boiled and cooled, with flavoring, and flour for stiff dough, about 
2^ qts. Mix as little as possible, cover and set in cold place 
for several hours. Shape into small thick cakes, or, roll about 
^2 in. thick, prick with fork or crease and cut into small cakes. 
Bake in moderate oven. Remove from tins as soon as baked. 

With nice flavored molasses, no other flavoring is necessary. 
More shortening may be used. 

if Molasses Snapsno eggs 

/4 cup oil or butter, or 2 cups flour 

half of each 2 cups molasses 

i cup sugar flavoring 

more flour 

Cream butter, sugar and the 2 cups of flour, pour hot molasses 



CAKES 391 

over, add flavoring and flour for stiff dough, perhaps about 6 cups; 
press together lightly, set in cold place for several hours; roll 
thin, bake in moderately quick oven and remove from tins at 
once. These cakes will be brittle when first made and will grow 
softer with time. One cup of butter may be used for richer cakes. 

Nut Wafers 

i cup chopped English walnut, 2 eggs 

pecan or hickory nut meats 4 level tablespns. flour 

i cup dark brown sugar salt 

Beat eggs, add sugar gradually, beating well; then add flour, 
salt and nuts. Mix, spread as thin as possible on buttered pans, 
set in cold place, bake in quick oven. \Yhen nearly cold, cut 
into squares. 

Nut Cakes--Bro. Hurdon 

i cup chopped nut meats i cup flour 

i cup sugar i egg 

Mix, drop on well oiled tins some distance apart, bake. Re- 
move from tins when taken from the oven. 

Hard Sponge Cakes 

Cream together l / cup butter and I cup sugar, add i well 
beaten egg and I cup of flour to which has been added a pinch 
of salt; stir in I cup chopped nut meats; drop in spoonfuls on 
buttered tins and flatten or shape a little; bake in moderate oven. 

Risen Doughnuts Baked 

Sponge i cup milk 2 3 cake compressed yeast 2 cups flour 

Add dissolved yeast and flour to warm milk, beat well, let rise. 

When light- 

y?. cup sugar vanilla, lemon, coriander or 

5 tablespns. oil or melted anise for flavoring 

butter 2-2 / cups flour 

% teaspn. salt 

Beat oil and sugar together with a little flour, add flavoring, 
salt and light sponge, gradually, beating; then enough flour for 



392 THE LAUREL 

a moderately stiff dough; knead a little and let rise. When well 
risen, roll ^2 or 3^ in. thick, cut with doughnut cutter and place 
on floured, oiled tins some distance apart. Let rise, bake. 

Roll in sugar with or without ground coriander seed or chopped 
nuts before laying on tins, if desired, or moisten with sugar syrup 
or white of egg and water and roll in sugar after baking. 

Another half-spoon of oil may be added to sponge, with I 
white and 2 yolks of eggs well beaten, but eggs are not necessary. 
If a yellow color is desired, use a little saffron. Mix softer when 
eggs are used. 

Risen Doughnuts 

Sponge i cup skimmed milk 2 tablespns. soft yeast 

^i cake compressed, or 2 cups flour 



When 

3 tablespns. oil or melted salt 

butter flavoring 

/^ cup sugar yolk of i egg or not 

flour for rather stiff dough 

Proceed as in baked doughnuts, lay on floured board, cover; 
when very light, fry in cooking or olive oil, hot enough for the 
cakes to rise to the top almost instantly. Turn at once with a 
fork. ^ of a cup of oil may be used in the cakes and i whole 
well beaten egg. 

Our grandmothers' twisted doughnuts are dear to all our hearts. 

Sometimes roll the dough thin, cut with biscuit cutter and put 
a teaspoonful of some jelly or jam on one side, fold the other 
side over, having moistened the edges, press well together, fry 
when light, roll in sugar. Baked doughnuts may be prepared 
the same. 

\ 

Crullers 

Y^-% cup butter 3 eggs (separate if desired) 

Y^-% cup sugar flour for soft dough 

Mix, chill, roll thin, cut in strips 3^2 in. long and 2 in. wide; 
cut 2 slits in each piece and give each strip of dough a twist. 



CAKES 393 

Fry in oil or bake in oven. When to be fried, use the smaller 
quantity of butter and sugar. 

Crullers may have 4 incisions made lengthwise to within y$ of 
an in. of each end. To fry, take up the second and fourth strips 
and let the others separate in the middle from those in the hand 
as you drop them into the hot oil. For baking, it is better to 
twist the strips. 

Fried Cakes 

1 cup milk salt, flour 

2 eggs 3 tablespns. oil or 
y cup sugar melted butter 

Add sugar and yolks of eggs to cold milk, agitate with wire 
batter whip until full of bubbles, sprinkle flour in gradually, 
keeping up the agitating motion. \Yhen the batter is quite stiff, 
beat in the oil gradually, and chop in the stiffly-beaten whites 
of eggs. Add flour for rather stiff dough and set in cold place 
for 2 hrs. or longer. Shape and fry the same as risen doughnuts. 

ICINGS AND FILLINGS FOR CAKES 

Starch, which is changed into sugar in the process of digestion, 
and cane sugar, form so large a part of all cakes as to furnish in 
themselves an excess of that element; so why should we put a 
coating of almost solid sugar over the outside ? Certainly not for 
hygienic reasons. If a cake is well baked, the icing only hides 
its beauty, and the excessive sweetness destroys the flavors of 
the finest cake. Let us not use it. Protest and recipes are 
both given. 

Instead of icing, sometimes sift granulated, brown or powdered 
sugar over the top of the loaf of cake, or over one layer to be 
used for the top, before baking. 

Glaze the top of molasses cookies or cakes before baking with 
a mixture of I yolk of egg and 2 tablespns. of milk. 

Sprinkle half a cup of chopped or ground blanched almonds 
or other nuts over the top of the cake just before it goes into 



394 THE LAUREL 

the oven, and cover the cake until nearly done to prevent 
browning the nuts. 

The tops of cakes may be brushed after baking with equal parts 
of molasses and milk mixed. 

Water Icing 

The simplest of icings is granulated, powdered or xxxx confec- 
tioner's sugar formed into a paste so that it will run just smooth, 
by the addition of hot or cold water. That made from granu- 
lated sugar must be made with hot water and be pretty stiff. It 
takes longer to dry and is more likely to run; that from powdered 
sugar is also quite likely to run. The icing made from confec- 
tioner's sugar is the most satisfactory. It is usually made with 
cold water, but one authority recommends hot water very posi- 
tively. 

One recipe for granulated sugar frosting is- 

i cup sugar, i tablespn. boiling water, beat until it will spread. 

Fruit Juice Icing 

Stir rolled and sifted confectioner's sugar into any desired 
fruit juice until of the right consistency to spread; use a knife 
dipped in cold water to smooth the icing; 1-1/4 tablespn. of 
liquid will be enough for the top of a medium sized loaf of cake. 

If you have never made such an icing, you will be surprised to 
see how much sugar a little liquid will take. More icing is quickly 
made if you do not have enough. 

When juices of different fruits are used in their season, the 
top of the cake may be decorated with the fruit whole, in halves 
or in slices. For instance, slices from the heart of strawberries, 
or, halves of red raspberries. The fruit may also be placed be- 
tween the layers of the cake. 

Cream Icing 

Stir confectioner's sugar into cream, plain or whipped, for 
both filling and icing. 

If you have a little of these icings left over, cover it and set 



CAKES 395 

in a cold place, and add more liquid and sugar to it the next time. 

White of Egg Icing Miss Stokes 

white of i egg speck of salt 

i tablespn. ice water i cup confectioner's sugar 

flavoring 

Beat white of egg with water, flavoring and salt to a stiff dry 
froth; add sugar until of the right consistency to spread, if too 
stiff, add quickly I teaspn. of cream or a few drops of water. 

The icing is sometimes made by mixing the water and egg 
without beating and stirring the sugar in, making a smoother 
and more tender frosting. May use powdered sugar. 

White of Egg Icing with Lemon Juice 

white of i egg i tablespn. lemon juice 

i cup powdered sugar /^ teaspn. vanilla 

Put the white of egg into a bowl and add the sugar by degrees, 
beating; when the sugar is all in, add lemon juice and vanilla. 

Golden Icing 

Yolks of 2 or 3 eggs and powdered sugar to make stiff enough 
to spread, about I cupful for 3 yolks; vanilla or orange flavoring 
or both. Beat until thick and creamy. 

For an orange cake, use the juice and grated rind of a small 
orange to 3 yolks with the powdered sugar, and use for filling 
and icing. Sections of orange may be laid on top. Confec- 
tioner's sugar may be used. 

if Butter Frostingalmost like whipped cream 
Work together I cup confectioner's sugar and I level tablespn. 
of butter. Flavor with vanilla. Add I Y^-\ YZ tablespn. of milk. 
Beat well. 

Jelly Icing 

Beat a glass of jelly, a little at a time, into the whites of 2 
eggs. If the jelly is very tart, use 2-3 tablespns. powdered sugar. 
Prepare the icing some little time before it is to be used and set 



396 THE LAl'RKL 

on ice. Elder-berry jelly gives a delightful flavor and beautiful 
color. Quince is also nice. 

Boiled Icing 

i cup granulated sugar /^ teaspn. vanilla, or the 

1 i cup water proper proportion of any 

white of i egg desired flavoring 

Stir sugar and water together over the fire until sugar is dis- 
solved, then boil without stirring until the syrup will spin in 
threads when dropped from the tines of a fork, or until a hard 
ball is formed when dropped into cold water. Pour slowly over 
the stiffly-beaten white of egg, beating briskly, until stiff enough 
to spread. If the icing gets too stiff, set over hot water or thin 
with a trifle of lemon or other fruit juice, or hot water. l /2-i 
teaspn. of lemon juice added to the white of egg when about 
half beaten will make the icing more creamy. Some beat the 
white of egg slightly, only. 

2 or 3 whites may be used with this quantity of syrup. One 
writes that she turns her syrup on to a platter and allows it to 
become perfectly cold before beating in the eggs, and she thinks 
it is much smoother and nicer. 

One combination of flavors is, ^ teaspn. each vanilla, orange 
and strawberry, or I or 2 drops of rose in place of strawberry. 

Bro. Cornforth's directions are excellent: 'Boil the sugar and 
water till it threads well, not just till it begins to thread; then 
set the dish off the stove and cover tight while you beat the 
whites stiff; then pour the hot syrup in a small stream into the 
whites, beating continuously; beat till it becomes cool enough 
to spread on the cake.' 

Boiled Milk Icingno egg 

i cup granulated sugar without a little butter 

4 tablespns. milk, with or or 1/4 cup sugar and % cup milk- 

Boil 5 m., or until syrup stiffens in cold water; stir until thick 
enough to spread. 



CAKES 397 

Caramel Icing no egg 

i l /2 cup brown sugar, ^2 cup cream. Boil until syrup stiffens 
when dropped in water. Substitute /3 cup sour cream for sweet, 
with brown or granulated sugar. 

Boiled Maple Icing--no egg 

Add ^ cup sweet cream to 2 cups rolled or grated maple sugar. 
Boil slowly until mixture will thread. Cool about half, stir in 
l /2 cup chopped English walnut meats, beat until creamy, and 
spread over cake. 

Half granulated sugar may be used, and l /> cup of milk with 
a little butter substituted for the cream. 

Maple Syrup Icing and Filling 

Boil y-\ cup of maple syrup until it will form a soft ball in 
cold water. Pour over beaten white of egg. Beat until stiff 
enough to spread. If desired, stir in ^ cup of rolled butternut 
meats just before spreading on the cake. The syrup may be 
boiled until it threads. 

Whipped Cream 

Flavored with vanilla is delightful, of course, on the top of 
thin loaves of cake cut in squares. Or, for filling, with chopped, 
blanched almonds, dry, fine-cut stewed prunes, or slices of banana. 

Molasses cake baked in layers, with whipped cream between 
the layers and over the top, with or without a sprinkling of grated 
cocoanut, is considered a great treat in some households. 

Cocoamit Cream 

i cup cream, whipped. Vl cup sugar 

i YI cup fresh grated cocoanut 

Two layers and on top of cake, with cocoanut sprinkled 
over top. Some additional flavoring if desired. 

Butternut Filling 

i cup sweet cream, /^-^ cup sugar and i cup rolled butter- 
nut meats, mixed without whipping cream. Flavoring if desired. 



A3 



398 THE LAUREL 

if Sour Cream Filling 
Before I gave up cake I used to think this filling had no equal: 

/4 cup thick sour cream i /4 cup chopped blanched alm- 

/^ cup sugar i teaspn. vanilla [onds 

* 

Whip cream (ice-cold), sugar and vanilla together until just 
thick, taking care not to whip too long as sour cream turns to 
butter more easily than sweet; add the almonds, spreadly quickly 
between layers of cake and roughly on top. The nuts may be 
sprinkled over the layers of cream instead of being mixed with 
it. The white of an egg beaten stiff with part of the sugar is 
sometimes added to the whipped cream. Shellbark, English 
walnut or rolled butternut meats may be substituted for almonds. 

Creamed Apple 

White of i large egg, 1^2 cup granulated, powdered or confec- 
tioner's sugar, 2 or 3 medium sized apples. Peel apples and 
grate on to unbeaten white of egg and sugar in large bowl; beat for 
20 m; or until light and creamy. Lemon, rose or strawberry 
may be used if flavoring is desired. Spread between layers and 
on top of cold cake. Bananas, peaches and other fruits rubbed 
through a fine colander may be used the same as apples. 

Steamed quarters of apples may be used. 

Cocoanut Filling 

Spread under and upper sides of layers of warm cake with soft 
icing. Sprinkle tops with fresh grated cocoanut and put other 
layers on. Use plenty of icing on top of last layer and sprinkle 
well with cocoanut. 

Date Filling 

Stone and skin dates after boiling a moment, mash or grind 
them, and add water if necessary; spread between layers of cake. 
Cover the top of the cake with coffee icing with cream. Chopped 
nuts may be mixed with the dates and sprinkled over the 
top of the cake. 



CAKES 399 

Pineapple Filling and Icing 

Chop fresh pineapple and sprinkle with sugar; drain after 3 or 
4 hrs; add beaten whites of 2 eggs, 2 /$ cup sugar and I teaspn. 
lemon juice to I cup of pineapple and place between layers. 
Use some of the juice with confectioner's sugar for icing the top 
and sides of the cake. When using confectioner's sugar with 
pineapple omit whites of eggs. 

Drain canned pineapple very dry, chop and add lemon juice 
and confectioner's sugar, when fresh pineapple is not obtainable. 

Imperial Filling 
Spread layers of cake with jelly and the following : 

Filling i cup chopped raisins /^ cup grated cocoanut 

/^ cup chopped almonds white of i egg 

Beat white stiff, add other ingredients and spread. 

Coffee Icing 

Add confectioner's sugar and vanilla to strong cereal coffee, 
with or without a little heavy cream. 

j 

Fig Jelly Filling 

i Ib. figs, chopped fine i cup sugar /^ cup boiling water 

Boil to a jelly, stirring constantly, or cook in double boiler 
until thick. 

Prune Filling 

Stew T/2 Ib. of prunes in a very little water, rub through col- 
ander or cut fine, add whites of 2 eggs beaten to a stiff froth 
with 2 tablespns. of sugar. 

Nut and Raisin Filling 

i % cup sugar i cup each of chopped or ground 

y?. cup water raisins and nut meats 

white of i large or 2 small eggs i teaspn. vanilla 

Boil sugar and water till the syrup will form a soft ball in 
cold water; pour it into the stiffly-beaten white of egg, add nuts 
and raisins and spread while warm between the layers. 



4OO THE LAUREL 

Raisins or nuts alone may be used. Shellbarks or butternuts 
are especially enjoyable. Figs or dates may be substituted for 
the raisins or for the nuts. 

if Cream Filling 

1 cup milk i egg or 2 yolks, or i egg 

l A-/4 cup sugar and yolk of another 

2 K tablespns. (K cup) flour /4 teaspn. vanilla 

Mix sugar and flour dry, pour boiling milk over, boil up, turn 

over beaten eggs, stirring, return to fire and heat until creamy 

but do not boil; set dish at once into cold water, add flavoring. 

Use */2 tablespn. less of flour for Washington Pie, and % 

cream (or a small piece of butter) in the milk. 

/4 cup of flour is sometimes used. Add cocoanut for a cocoa- 
nut cake. 

Royal Filling and Icing 

% cup milk y?, cup sugar 

% cup orange juice 3 7 olk of i egg 

% cup flour oil from rind of half an 

6 drops vanilla [orange 

i drop rose 

Flavor sugar wth oil of orange, make cream according to di- 
rections for cream filling and add rose and vanilla when partly 
cool. Icing of cream and confectioner's sugar, tinted with pink. 

I have usually used this for Royal Sponge Cake and this quan- 
tity is sufficient for one large layer. 

Filling for Lemon Pie Cake and Washington Pie 

?4-i cup sugar yolk i egg 

i% tablespn. corn starch or 2 3 tablespns. lemon juice 

i teaspn. butter [of flour 2-6 drops lemon extract or 

i cup water grated rind of % a lemon 

salt 

Mix sugar and corn starch or flour, drop the teaspoon of but- 
ter on and pour the boiling water over gradually, stirring; boil 
up well and add 2 or 3 tablespns. to the yolk of egg stirring; 
then add yolk to the mixture and cook like custard. Remove 
from fire and when partially cooled add flavoring. Use some- 



CAKES 



401 



times for the filling of a cake with whipped cream on the top. 



cup butter 
cup sugar 



Lemon Cheese for Cakes 

2 whites and 3 yolks of eggs 

3 tablespns. lemon juice 
grated rind of I lemon 

Cook in double boiler, cool, spread between layers of sponge 
or other cake or on crisp pastry, or put it into cream puff shells; 
or, without cooking put into pastry in patty pans and bake in 
moderate oven. 

Marshmallow Filling 

I oz. (about 4 tablespns.) sifted powdered gum arabic, 4 table- 
spns. water, ^ cup sugar, whites 3 eggs, I teaspn. vanilla. 
Soak gum arabic in water for I hour, add sugar, cook in double 
boiler ^ hour, add stiffly-beaten whites of eggs and vanilla, 
beat until stiff and white. 

Nice for 2 or 3-days old angel cake split in halves or thirds. 





THE 'LADY BALTIMORE" CAKE AND BREAD PAN. 



ICE CREAM AND FRUIT ICES 



Neither very hot nor very cold foods should be taken at 
meals. If foods are too hot, the stomach is debilitated, and if 
they are very cold, vitality must be drawn from the system to 
warm them before the work of digestion can be carried on; so it 
would be better to take ice cream and all ices by themselves 
rather than as a dessert. 

When ices are served for dessert, they should be eaten very 
slowly. 

Water ices, sherbets and frozen fruits, without large quanti- 
ties of sugar, are invaluable in cases of fever. 

I am not going into the subject of ice cream exhaustively for 
there are plenty of books on that subject already, but will give 
you my own recipe which must be tried to be appreciated. 

The little flour in it gives it a smoothness and creaminess with 
one third to one half milk equal to all cream without it; and 
does not give the disagreeable flavor of corn starch; also, made 
by this method, the cream and milk are sterilized. 

Try the cream without any flavoring and see how delicious it is. 

Use wet snow instead of ice for freezing in the winter. It 
works even better and is less trouble. 

Beat the cream well with a wooden spoon after removing the 
dasher. 

Add fruit or nuts to cream when removing the dasher, so that 
they will not become hard as they would do if frozen with the 
cream. 

For freezing, have the ingredients cold. Have the ice very 
fine; the finer it is, the better the results. One-third as much 
rock salt should be at hand. The ice and salt may be mixed, 
or may be put around the freezer in the proportion of 3 inches 

of ice to I inch of salt. 

[402] 



ICES 4O3 

First, adjust the freezer, having the mixture to be frozen in 
the can. Fill not over ^ full to allow for expansion. Then 
pack with the ice and salt, turning the handle around once in 
a while during the operation, to keep the mixture from freezing 
to the sides of the can. Have a stick to pound the ice and salt 
down well around the can. 

Turn slowly at first to make a fine grain, then more rapidly 
as the cream thickens. 

Before removing the cover to take out the dasher, scrape away 
the ice and salt and wipe off the \vater on the lid and near the 
top of the can, so that none can possibly get into the cream. 
Beat the cream and replace the cover, with a clean cork in the 
top. Drain off a part of the water and repack the can, using 
less salt than at first, sometimes not any, so as not to have the 
cream too hard. To be at its best, cream should be stiff enough 
only to hold its shape. Cover with paper, a blanket or carpet 
and let stand to "ripen" for 2 hours or longer. This part is im- 
portant, as the flavor and texture are perfected only by standing. 

If possible, open the can in an hour and a half and stir the 
cream so that the soft center comes to the edge of the can. 
Repack and cover the same and let stand for 2 or 3 hours. 

Save the salt from the bottom of the freezer to use another 
time, and it is a good plan to save a little of the thick salt water 
to use instead of the last layer of salt near the top of the can 
for the next freezing, as it facilitates the work very much. 

In serving, dip the spoon into hot water each time before 
putting it into the cream; this, with care, will give a nice shaped 
serving. 

Pop corn without butter or salt is more suitable to serve with 
ice cream than cake. 

Sugar syrup gives a finer, smoother and more substantial grain 
to frozen fruits, sherbets and water ices than sugar and water, 
and they do not melt as quickly when exposed to the air. 



404 THE LAUREL 

Pack all ices the same as creams and let stand the same after 
freezing, to become smooth and mellow. 

For water ices, do not turn the crank continuously. Turn 
slowly and rest between, until the ice becomes quite stiff. This 
is the rule, but for a change the freezer may be turned rapidly 
and continuously, with a different result. 

Stir sherbets constantly. Serve both sherbets and water ices 
in glasses. 

Vegetable gelatine is an improvement to ices, giving body to 
them. 

There is a great difference in freezers. Be sure to get a good 
one. The construction of the dasher has much to do with the 
texture of the cream. Those that freeze the quickest are not 
necessarily the best. 

Do not buy a small freezer: you can freeze a small quantity 
in a large freezer, but you cannot freeze a large quantity in a 
small freezer. 

if The "Laurel" Ice Cream 

2/4 pts. heavy cream 2 cups sugar 

2/^ pts. whole milk 4 or 5 tablespns. pastry flour 

Stir the flour smooth with some of the cold milk and heat the 
remainder of the milk, with the cream and sugar, in a double 
boiler and when hot, set over the fire. Let it boil up quickly, 
stir in the flour and when boiling all through, return to the double 
boiler for a few minutes, beating well. Or, heat the milk and 
cream only in the double boiler and pour gradually, stirring, 
over the sugar and flour which have been mixed together. Re- 
turn to boiler and cook for 10-15 m. Turn through a fine wire 
strainer into a large pan to cool quickly; stir while cooling. 

Do not take too large measures of flour. 

Any kind of cream may be made from this. Flavor with 
vanilla for vanilla cream, or tint pink and flavor with Y^-i 
teaspn. of strawberry extract for strawberry cream, or with a 
few drops of rose, for rose cream. Tint green and flavor with 



ICES 405 

almond and vanilla for pistachio cream, using only a few drops 
of almond to a teaspn. of vanilla. This may have a few shred- 
ded almonds stirred into the frozen cream. 

Sometimes sprinkle fresh grated cocoanut over each serving 
of cream, or the cocoanut may be stirred in as other flavorings are. 

A very pretty cream is one with citron and candied cherries 
cut into tiny pieces and added when the dasher is removed. 

We make a fruit and nut cream which is liked very much, by 
adding well washed English currants, raisins cut in quarters, 
citron in small pieces and coarse chopped English walnuts or pe- 
cans. Omit the nuts for a fruit cream. 

For coffee cream, steep (not boil) cereal coffee in milk for 10 
to 20 m. Strain through a cloth and use as plain milk with the 
cream. Flavor with vanilla. 

One quart of sweetened, crushed strawberries or raspberries 
added to the recipe makes the right proportion for fruit cream. 
Drained, finely-shredded or grated pineapple makes a general 
favorite in cream. 

Maple Ice Cream 

i qt. genuine maple syrup i qt. light cream 

i qt. heavy cream ~/i qt. milk 

7 tablespns. flour 

Lemon Ice 

8-12 tablespns. lemon 2^2 cups sugar 

i orange [juice i qt. water including the 

oz. vegetable gelatine [gelatine 



Soak and cook gelatine according to directions (p. 335), add 
water to make i cup, keep warm; cook sugar and 3 cups of 
water together for 5 minutes and strain into the gelatine. Pre- 
pare the lemon and orange juice, and if desired, shave off a lit- 
tle of the thin yellow rind and let it stand in the juice for a few 
minutes, then strain it out. When the gelatine mixture is par- 
tially cooled, add the juice gradually, stirring. The orange may 
be omitted. 



406 THE LAUREL 

Or, omit gelatine, boil sugar with I qt. of water and when 
cool combine with the juice. 

Orange Ice 

i pt. sugar i pt. of orange juice 

i qt. water 6-8 tablespns. lemon juice 

Y% oz. vegetable gelatine 

Flavor juice with thin yellow rind of orange and proceed as in 
lemon ice, omitting gelatine if preferred. 

Raspberry Ice 

1 cup raspberry juice i pt. water 

yh cup sugar (less if 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

juice is already sweetened) i sixteenth oz. vegetable 

gelatine, or not 

Cook sugar and water together and add to prepared gelatine. 
When nearly cool, add raspberry juice and stir occasionally until 
cool. Freeze. 

Currant and Raspberry Ice 

2 cups currant juice i pt. water 

i cup raspberry juice i-i/^ cup sugar 

y% oz. gelatine, or not 

Proceed as in Raspberry Ice. 

Use cherry, strawberry, quince, gooseberry, grape or pine- 
apple for ices, varying the proportion of sugar and water accord- 
ing to the sweetness of the fruit. Pineapples should be grated 
and with the lemon juice added to cold syrup and strained 
through a sieve. Pineapple is one of the most delightful ices. 

Mint Ice 

Add fine cut or chopped spearmint to lemon ice mixture just 
before freezing, or to orange ice for orange mint ice. 

if Grape Sherbet 

i/4-ify cup sugar 5-6 tablespns. lemon juice 

i qt. water, scant 2 cups grape juice 

scant K oz. vegetable whites of 2 eggs 

gelatine 2 tablespns. powdered sugar 

Flavor the sugar with oil of lemon if desired, and boil with 



ICES 407 

the water for 5 m. only. Prepare the gelatine with a scant cup 
of water, and add to warm syrup; cool; add lemon and grape 
juice, stirring. Put into freezer and stir for 15 m. Beat the 
whites of eggs until light but not stiff; add the powdered sugar 
and beat 2 m., add to the sherbet in the freezer and finish freez- 
ing. Ripen from 2 to 4 hours. This sherbet is of a beautiful 
lavender color when finished. 

Substitute other fruit juices for the grape, varying the quantity 
of sugar. Red raspberry is better in water ice, as the whites of 
the eggs spoil its flavor. 

* Mint Sherbet 

i qt. water white of i large or 2 small eggs 

1/^2 cup sugar 1/^2 tablespn. powdered sugar 

5-7 good-sized stalks of mint scant X oz. vegetable gelatine 

y^-Yz cup lemon juice scant cup of water 

Boil sugar and water and add to gelatine prepared with the scant 
cup of water. When cool, add stirring, the lemon juice and fine 
cut or chopped mint. Stir in freezer I 5 m. Add whites of eggs 
beaten with powdered sugar as in grape sherbet and finish freez- 
ing. Ripen. 

Pineapple Sherbet, or Frozen Pineapple 

i y*r pint fine ground pineapple X oz. gelatine 

large 2 /^ cups sugar 1/^-2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i qt. liquid, gelatine and all whites of 2 eggs 

2 tablespns. powdered sugar 

Shred and grind nice, ripe pineapples. Prepare gelatine with 
i cup of water and add more to make I ^ cup. Cook sugar and 
2^ cups of \vater together for 5 m. and add to gelatine. When 
nearly cool, combine with pineapple and lemon juice; cool; stir 
in freezer for I 5 m. Add whites of eggs beaten with powdered 
sugar and finish freezing. Ripen. 

Mina's Lemon and Orange Sherbets 

Lemon 4 lemons i qt. water 

4 oranges whites of 4, or less, eggs 

i Ib. sugar /^ oz. of vegetable gelatine 



4O8 THE LAUREL 

Ora) . -io oranL- s i qt. water 

i lemon whites of 4. or less, eggs 

i pt. su_ /^ oz. vegetable gelatine 



Follow directions for Grape Sherbet. 

Frozen Strawberries 

1 qt. berr; 3 or 4 tablespns. lemon 

2 cups sugar i qt. water [juice 

Add i cup of su,s:arand the lemon juice to well mashed berries. 
Let stand in ice box 1-2 hours. Boil water and remaining sugar 
together for 5 m., cool, add to berry mixture, freeze, ripen. 
Serve plain or with whipped cream. 

Frozen Peaches 

i qt., in pieces, of nice ripe i qt. water 

i- 1/2 cup sugar [peaches 1-2 cups cream 

Rub measured peaches through colander; add cold syrup 
made by boiling sugar and water together for io m. Freeze. 
Stir in cream whipped and slightly sweetened, when dasher is 
removed. Repack and ripen. 

Frappes 

Frappes are partly frozen mixtures of fruit juices, pulps or 
line grated fruits and when not too sweet are excellent in fevers 
and are often served in place of a drink or a sherbet to well 
people. Of course they are served in glasses. 



CEREALS 

"The grains, with fruits, nuts and vegetables contain all the 
nutritive properties necessary to make good blood.' 

"Those who eat flesh are eating grains and vegetables at sec- 
ond-hand; for the animal receives from these things the nutri- 
tion that produces growth. 

"The life that was in the grains and vegetables passes into the 
eater. We receive it by eating the flesh of the animal. How 
much better to get it direct, by eating the food that God pro- 
vided for our use.' 

"Grains used for porridge or mush should have several hours' 
cooking; but soft or liquid foods are less wholesome than dry 
foods which require thorough mastication.' 

When porridges are used, something dry like zwieback or crisp 
crackers should be eaten with them to induce mastication. 

Foods containing starch should be well insalivated by thorough 
mastication before any tart foods are introduced into the stomach, 
as acid hinders the digestion of starch. 

The large proportion of starch contained in grains is changed 
to sugar in the process of digestion, so the addition of more sugar 
gives an excess of that element, overtaxing the liver and increas- 
ing the tendency to fermentation, since both starch and sugar 
are substances that ferment easily. Then if milk, another easily 
fermented food, is added what can be said of the combination? 
Besides: ' 'the presence of a considerable amount of sugar actually 
retards the digestion of starch.' -Dr. Kress. 

For those who feel that they cannot at once forego the sweet, 
stir in a few sliced dates to graham porridge or sprinkle them 
over the top and serve with nut or dairy cream. Chopped figs 
or stewed raisins may also be used the same with different cereals. 

[409] 



4IO THE LAUREL 

A vt.-ry harmonious combination is pearled barley cooked with 
raisins. Nice ripe blueberries or black raspberries may be served 
with cereals. 

A complete meal may be made of graham or any preferred por- 
ridge, blanched almonds, English walnuts or pecans, with dates, 
figs or raisins. The combination will be satisfying without any 
milk or cream. 

My readers will many of them be surprised to find that cat- 
meal and some other porridges are delightful served with cream 
sauce, old-fashioned milk gravy, macaroni sauce and other gra- 
vies; the cooked parched grains especially so. A poached egg 
may be placed on each serving of porridge, with or without sauce. 

Raw rice may be ground coarse or fine for different purposes. 
The parched grains may be served with suitable, sub-acid fruits. 

The toasted breakfast cereals on the market, prepared without 
malt or any additional sweet are many of them excellent foods 
because of the dextrinization of the starch, and \ve can easily 
prepare dextrinized grains in our own homes. 

Parched Sweet Cornthe Ideal Cereal Preparation 

Put dried sweet corn into a corn popper, iron frying pan or 
round bottomed iron kettle; cover, and shake over the fire until 
the grains are browned and puffed up nearly round. Served 
plain, this corn supplies a complete and satisfying food, as any 
one will find who sits down with a nice fresh-parched porridge 
dish of it and chews it until it is fine and creamy in the mouth. 
It is much more delicious than the finest popcorn. It may be 
ground and eaten in cold or hot milk, nut or dairy, and it may 
have a little salt and sterilized butter mixed with it while it is 
warm. A cup of cereal coffee or tea-hygiene with a dish of 
parched corn makes a nice luncheon or supper. 

The corn may be dried on the cob or shelled and dried. It 
may often be bought from dealers in seeds, after the planting 
season is over. 



CEREALS 411 

Parched field corn is a good nourishing food but not so sweet 
and tender. It is usually better to be ground. 

One doctor says, "I could travel the world around on parched 
corn and never want grease of any kind.' 

It is well understood that corn and oatmeal are the richest in 
oil of any of the grains. In some countries the soldiers carry 
parched corn in their pockets on long marches. 

Yolk--Egg 

Put yellow corn meal into an iron kettle or saucepan over a 
moderate lire; stir until of an even rich brown color. Serve 
warm or cold with hot or cold milk or cream. The donor of 
this recipe says: ' 4 When I was a child this was considered a 
great dainty, but I do not know how it obtained its name or 
where we learned to make it.' 

The different preparations of grains may all be parched the 
same as sweet corn and corn meal in the preceding recipes. If 
more convenient they may be done in the oven but the flavor 
is not as good. Some of them are tender enough to be eaten 
dry or in milk without any further preparation; others are better 
to be ground before adding the milk or cream, and some need to 
stand in the milk, hot or cold, for a time, before serving, while 
others (rice especially) require cooking after parching. Some 
are better cooked in milk. 

Pop-corn 

To pop: "Wet the corn slightly and let it dry on the stove; 
put it in the popper while it is hot and in four minutes every 
kernel should be turned inside out, crisp and tender.' -From 
a clipping. 

Serve the popped kernels plain with nuts, cereal coffee, tea- 
hygiene, cream or milk, or sprinkle delicately with salt and turn 
a little oil or melted butter over, mixing thoroughly. 

Put together the poorly popped kernels of corn and all the 
remains, cover with cold water and soak until soft, perhaps over 



412 THE LAUREL 

night. Then add milk and cook in a double boiler ^ hour or so. 
Serve with cream or more milk if necessary, or, cook in all water 
and serve with cream. These left-overs may be ground and 
soaked in milk until soft. 

Rusk 

Dry slices or pieces of bread in the oven and brown delicately, 
grind through the food cutter and serve in milk or with cream. 

Porridges 

"Some people degrade these foods by calling them mushes, 
a horrible name, by the way; the good English word porridge 
is much better, and porridge is not gruel.' -An Editor. 

Unless cereals are steamed, they should be cooked in a double 
boiler or something that answers the same purpose. 

A flat or round wire batter whip is the best for stirring the 
grain into the water, as that keeps even the finest flour from 
becoming lumpy. 

The very most important thing in making porridges is to have 
the liquid boiling when the cereal is put in. If it stops boiling 
while the grain is being added there will be a raw taste to the 
porridge, no matter how long it cooks. 

Put the required amount of water, with the salt, I teaspn. to 
a quart of water, into the inner cup of a double boiler. Heat the 
water to bubbling boiling, sprinkle the measured grain in so slowly 
as not to stop the boiling of the water, stirring continuously. 
Let it boil up well, and if a coarse grain, cook over the fire until 
it thickens, then set into the outer boiler containing perfectly 
boiling water and keep it cooking rapidly the required length of 
time. 

Do not stir after the grain thickens. Watch that the 
outer boiler does not become dry. Grains for breakfast may be 
cooked while you have a fire the day before, then all that is 
necessary in the morning is to set the inner boiler into the outer 
one containing boiling water and heat it through. If there 



CEREALS 413 

should be water standing on top of the porridge, pour it off before 
heating, but under no circumstances stir the porridge, or add any 
more water while heating, or a pasty, tasteless dish will be the 

result. 

When the porridge is to be re-heated, a slightly larger propor- 
tion of water should be used, and for steaming, a smaller quantity. 

One advantage in steaming is that the cereal (after being 
started over the tire in some suitable utensil) can be turned into 
an earthen dish and set into the steamer, warmed in the morn- 
ing: and sent to the table in the same dish. 

o 

Farina, cream of wheat and similar cereals are more palatable 
and nourishing if cooked in part milk. These finer preparations 
may have milk or cream stirred into them just before serving. 

Proportion of Water and Length of Time for Cooking 

Different Cereals 

Graham Flour . . . i part to 2 or 3 of water . . . cook 1-2 hrs. 

Rolled Wheat . . . i part to 2 or 3 of water . . . cook 3-4 hrs. 

Cracked Wheat . . i part to 4.^ 5 of water . . . cook 4-6 hrs. 

Pearled Wheat . . i part to 4 or 4/^ of water . . . cook 4-6 hrs. 

Whole Wheat . . . i part to 6 of water . . . cook 6-8 hrs. 

Rolled Oats . . . . i part to 2 or 3 of water . . . cook 3-4 hrs. 

Oatmeal i part to 4 or 4 /^ of water . . . cook 4-6 hrs. 

Pearled Barley . . i part to 5 of water . . . cook 4-5 hrs. 

Hominy, coarse . . i part to 5 of water . . . cook 6-8 hrs. 

Hominy, fine . . . i part to 4 or 5 of water . . . cook 4-6 hrs. 

Corn Meal . . . . i part to 3 or 5 of water . . . cook 2-5 hrs. 

Rice i part to 3 or 4 of water . . . 25 m.-i/^ hr. 

Farina 5 tablespns. to i qt. liquid i hr. 

Different lots of graham flour and rolled oats vary, so that it 
is not possible to make an exact rule for them, but graham flour 
should be stirred into water until the mixture is quite stiff be- 
cause it grows thinner by cooking. 

Rye meal makes one of the most delightful porridges. Stir 
the meal slowly into boiling salted water, the same as graham 
flour, and cook for I hour at least. 



414 THK I.ACKKL 

Whole wheat is ;i ver\ satisfying and inexpensive food. 
Sonic families buy it by the bushel and use large quantities of it 
in different ways. Some put the boiled wheat into bread sponge 
before mixing it up. 

Different kinds of corn incnl vary, too. Only about % or % 
as much granular meal is required for a given amount of liquid 
as of other kinds. 

Oatmeal is difficult of digestion, is apt to cause fermentation 
,ind should be partaken of sparingly even when well cooked, 
except by those of strong digestive powers. One young man 
said in my presence, 'I never know I have a stomach except 
when I eat oatmeal.' 

("racked wheat is very nice cooked with an extra quantity of 
water, molded and served cold. 

With a Vegetarian Society mill delightful cracked wheat and 
many other cereal foods can be made. 

Cracked corn samp grits hominy, is a valuable food. Be- 
sides the package preparations I have bought it at feed stores in the 
East and obtained it from the mills in the West, and with a mill 
it can be made at home. It should be thoroughly cooked. The 
old-fashioned way is to put it into a round bottomed iron kettle 
with salt and plenty of water (adding more water when neces- 
sary) and cook it all day. It may be served with milk, butter 
or gravy, or with any of the sauces used for macaroni, and may 
be cooked with tomato and onion the same as pilau, p. 131. 

RICE 

44 Rice is the most easily digested of all the cereals. The 
Japanese, famous for their athletic superiority and wonderful en- 
durance, use rice unpolished. The rice of commerce is not only 
stripped of much of its most desirable qualities, but in order to 
make it attractive it is coated with glucose and talc to produce 
the pearly appearance. Persons using such rice should be 
careful to wash it thoroughly. After once eating unpolished 



CEREALS 415 

rice, the rice of commerce will never again be accepted. To 
eat polished rice is like eating shavings instead of real, satisfying 
substance. ' -Henry S. Clnbb, 1* resident Vegetarian Society of 
America, in "Life and Health, " and ' The Vegetarian,' 

Wash commercial rice in several waters, scrubbing it thor- 
oughly with the hands, in a colander set in a pan of water, 
rinsing the colander up and down. Then put it over the fire in 
cold water, boil for 5 m. and drain, before cooking after any of 

the methods. 

To Boil Rice 

After washing and parboiling rice, throw it into 3 or 4 times its 
bulk of boiling salted water, stir it over a hot fire until it rolls 
up in the rapidly boiling water. Let it boil in this way until it 
swells, then set into the outer boiler or on the back of the stove 
on a pad until it is perfectly tender. If rice is cooked in a 
double boiler, use the smaller quantity of water, and the larger 
if cooked altogether over the fire. Do not stir after it begins to 
swell. This is practically the Japanese method. 

Another Japanese way is to soak the rice over night, drain and 
put to cooking in an equal quantity of boiling water, keeping 
closely covered all of the time. 

Chinese Way of Cooking Rice 

After washing, put rice over the fire in double its bulk of cold 
water, let it boil up well, carefully lift cover to see if water is 
all absorbed; if not, drain, sprinkle salt over if desired (the Chi- 
naman does not use it), return to fire closely covered and watch, 
listening until a faint crackling of parching grains at the bottom 
is heard; then remove to the back of the range where the rice 
will just steam- l 'steam fragrant.' When ready to serve, care- 
fully stir the grain with a wooden skewer or some small round 
stick, when the snowy mass should crumble apart into indis- 
tinct kernels. Try the Chinaman's way and be convinced 
that plain boiled rice is a palatable, substantial food.' -Adapted 
from Mrs. J. N. Anderson, Canton, China, in "Life and Health. ' 



416 THE LAUREL 

The Indian Way 

Wash the rice, put little by little into 8 times its bulk (2 qts. 
to a cup) of rapidly boiling salted water. Stir occasionally at 
first with a fork until the rice is rolling up continuously from 
the rapid boiling. Cook until tender, 15-25 m., according to 
the age and quality of the rice. Be sure to cook it until it is 
tender but not a moment longer. Drain in a fine colander, 
pour cold water over to separate the kernels, put into the dish 
in which it is to be served and set in a steamer or in the edge of 
the oven for a half hour. The water drained from the rice may 
be used for soup. 

To Steam Rice 

After washing, soak I cup of rice in I X CQ P f warm water 
for an hour or longer, in a dish suitable for serving it in. Add 
i level teaspn. of salt and I cup of milk and steam, without stir- 
ring, for just I hour. Serve at once, or if it has to stand, cover 
close so that the top kernels will not become hard. 

All milk may be used by taking 2^-3 cups. If the milk fills 
the dish so that it is just ready to run over, the rice when steamed 
will stand snowy white above the top of the dish. 

if Baked Rice 

A nice supper or luncheon dish or dessert. 

y&-^A cup rice /^ teaspn. salt 2 qts. rich milk 

Parboil rice 5 m. and drain, add it to milk in pudding dish, 
stir even in bottom of dish, set in slow oven, cover and bake 
2-3 hrs. without stirring, or until milk is all thickened and 
creamy with rice; if the milk boils over under the cover, the 
oven is too hot. This is so delicious that it does not require 
anything additional in eating but it may be served with sugar, 
maple sugar or syrup. 

Parched Rice 

Wash if commercial rice, spread on tin and put in warm place 
to dry. When throughly dried, put in slow oven and color to 



CEREALS 417 

an even light brown. Soak for I hour in an equal quantity of luke- 
warm water, then add 3 times the quantity of rich milk, with or 
without i level teaspn. salt to the cup of rice; steam, or cook in 
double boiler for I hour. Serve plain. The rice may be ground. 

Granella--to Serve 

Pour just enough hot water over granella to moisten it a trifle. 
Mix lightly and serve with cream. Granella is nice in hot milk. 

Baked Hominy 

i cup cold, fine hominy porridge i pt. milk 

i teaspn. butter salt 

i teaspn. sugar 3 eggs 

* 

Mix hominy and yolks of eggs thoroughly; add melted butter, 
then sugar and salt and the milk gradually, mixing hominy to 
smooth paste. Chop in stiffly-beaten whites and bake in buttered 
dish in moderate oven. Serve as vegetable for dinner or as 
principal dish for luncheon or supper. 

To Hull Corn 

2 gallons cold water, i tablespn. concentrated lye or potash, 
4 qts. corn, white corn if possible. Dissolve lye in water, add 
corn, and boil (adding water to keep covered) until the hulls will 
rub off. Wash and rub in several clear waters until the hulls 
are all off. Soak over night or for several hours in cold water; 
drain and put to cooking in boiling water. Cook until tender, 
all day if necessary. Add salt a little while before it is done, 
then cook until as dry as possible without scorching. Serve 
as a vegetable, plain, or with cream or cream sauce. Eat in 
milk or with nut meats. 

The hulled corn may be dried. Hard wood ashes may be 
used to make the lye for cooking the corn, or a bag containing 
2 cups of ashes may be boiled in the kettle with the corn. 
By boiling for 4 hrs., the hulls may be removed by using i 
tablespn. of soda to each 4 qts. of corn. Some prefer strong 
lime water for hulling. 



4T8 THE LAUREL 

Instead of soaking over night, the corn may be parboiled in 2 
waters before cooking. 

if Granella No. 1 --wheat, corn and oats 

/4 Ib. (2 cups) bread flour /4 oz. (i/4 tablespn.) common 

i oz. (scant /^ cup) rolled yellow corn meal trifle salt 

oats about :/ 7 8 cup cold water 

Mix dry ingredients and to ^ of the quantity add water for a 
stiff dough, then work in the remaining % until almost too stiff 
to knead; roll and pound out to ^ or ^3 inch thick, cut in round 
or square biscuit and set in cold place for 2 hours or more. 
Bake in a slow oven until a rich cream color or golden brown 
all through. Then grind coarse or fine as desired. 

When w&\. flour is used, % of a cup only will be required. 

It will take 2 tablespns. of Rhode Island meal to make ^2 oz. 
and i only of yellow granular meal. The granular meal will 
need to be scalded with a part of the water or it will feel sandy 
in the granella. 

The weights for a larger quantity are: 

8>2 Ibs. bread flour, I Ib. oats, l / 2 Ib. corn meal, i^ oz. salt. 

Granella No. 2 rice, wheat and barley 
K cup rice Y\ cup barley grits 

-2 l /i cups bread flour salt 

water 

Cook rice in one cup water, cool, add salt, flour and grits, 
knead to very stiff dough, adding a trifle more water if neces- 
sary. Finish as No. i. 

l /2 cup rice flour, I ^2 cup bread flour and ^ cup barley grits 
may be used instead of the above combination. 

Granella No. 3rye, wheat and barley 

YZ cup rye meal i cup barley grits 

2 cups bread flour salt 

Granella No. 4 rye, wheat and corn 

YI cup rye meal 1-2 tablespns. corn meal 

2 cups bread flour salt 

water 



MACARONI (ITALIAN PASTE) 



Macaroni is one of the most important of cereal foods. The 
best- -Italian is made from a wheat rich in gluten, so to a great 
extent it supplies the place of meat. 

One of the first things we do when we go into a new place is 
to hunt up an Italian macaroni store, as that is the only place 
where the genuine article is to be found. That made in this 
country, put up with a foreign label on the package, is inferior. 

The Italian pastes come in a great variety of shapes and are 
named according to the shape. Macaroni, spaghetti and ver- 
micelli are well known; then there are lasagne (broad and flat), 
rigatoni (large corrugated), da natali, ditali rigati, cannaroni 
rigati and reginnetti with mostacioli bianchi, soprafini (fine 
vermicelli), ditalini and acini di pepe a few of the many. There 
are some small fine pastes put up in dainty boxes, especially for 
invalids, that are very delicate and digestible. 

Those who have visited macaroni factories in Italy where 
macaroni is made for exportation, say that everything in con- 
nection with the food is neat and clean and that the macaroni 
is dried in closed rooms entirely removed from the dust of the 
street. That which travellers see drying by the roadside, ex- 
posed to the dust, is from small or private factories for home 

consumption. 

To Cook Macaroni 

Do not wash or soak it. Break it when necessary and put 
into perfectly boiling salted water, 8 parts water to I of maca- 
roni. Stir as soon as it is put into the water and often, until it 
begins to roll up, from the rapid boiling. Keep over a hot fire 
where it will continue to roll in boiling until well swollen and 
nearly done, then set back to simmer slowly. When perfectly 

[419] 



42O THE LAUREL 

tender (which will be in from }/2 to I hour according to the size, 
age and quality, the better quality taking longer) turn into a col- 
ander and when drained, turn cold water over it, or, let it stand 
in cold water until ready to use. 

Vermicelli and the other small varieties for soup require only 
twice their bulk of water, and some of them require 10 m. only 
for cooking. They will usually just absorb the water. 

When preferred, macaroni may be cooked in just the amount 
of liquid it will absorb, which will be about 4 times its bulk. It 
may be cooked sometimes in a rich consomme, sometimes in 
milk in a double boiler, or in milk and water. It is often partly 
cooked in water, drained and finished in milk. 

The "traditional" way of cooking spaghetti is to put the ends 
into water and coil it around in the kettle as it softens, cooking 
in full lengths and eating it the same, but the propriety of this 
method is questionable. In the first place, its sauce is apt to spatter 
in the effort to introduce the coil into the mouth, and mastication 
is sure to be incomplete. 

The measurements of macaroni vary according to the size. 
For a large open variety, a cup and a half will be required where 
it would take only a cup of a small kind, or of the ordinary pipe- 
stem macaroni broken into inch lengths. 

There is nothing that gives such character to macaroni as to 
cook a little garlic with it, a very little for some tastes, not 
more than ^2 a clove to each cupful, less even, if the macaroni 
is not to be drained and the cloves are large. We seldom cook 
any preparation of macaroni without it, and people wonder why 
our macaroni has such a good taste. Not enough should be used 
to give a positive garlic flavor. 

Pine nuts and sour cream give the cheese flavor. A good 
quality of macaroni is good without any sauce, just cooked in 
salted w^ater and eaten slowly with nuts; but it may be served 
with any desired, tasty sauce. The mushroom sauces, Italian 
or Boundary Castle are especially delightful with it, but many 



MACARONI 421 

others are excellent, olive and nut butter, old-fashioned milk 
gravy, lentil gravy, a good cream sauce, cream of tomato sauce, 
or any of the nice, meaty flavored sauces, or parsley butter. 

Sometimes return macaroni to the fire after draining, and add 
a little butter, with or without chopped parsley, for those who 
use butter, or a little milk and butter or a few spoonfuls of cream. 
Then another time, put this cream or butter macaroni into a 
vegetable dish and pour a few hot stewed tomatoes over it. 

Baked Macaroni in Cream. Sauce 

i-i/4 cup macaroni, accord- 1-2 small cloves of garlic 

ing to size I qt. water 

2 small onions 1/4-2 teaspns. salt 

Sauce. 1^2 tablespn. oil i large pt. milk 

i% tablespn. flour salt, crumbs 

chopped parsley 

Make cream sauce in the usual way with the oil, flour, salt 
and milk and pour into baking dish, turn into it the macaroni 
which has been cooked in the salted water with sliced onion 
and garlic until tender and the water absorbed, and press down 
into the sauce; sprinkle with crumbs and parsley and bake in 
moderate oven until bubbling and delicately browned. If pre- 
ferred, Y cup of flour may be used in the sauce. 

Make enough of this dish for two days, and another day stir 
salted tomato into what is left and bake as before for Macaroni 

in Tomato Sauce. 

MacaroniPine Nuts 

Add % cup of pine nut butter or meal to the sauce in the 
preceding recipe (by mixing a little of the sauce with it) and 
sprinkle with chopped meats and crumbs. 

MacaroniCorn 

24-i cup macaroni i small onion 

3 cups boiling water ^2-1 small clove of garlic 
1-1^2 teaspn. salt if wished 

i cup canned, or stewed fresh corn 

Sauce: i cup rich milk or thin cream /^ tablespn. flour 

/^ teaspn. salt 



I 
422 THE LAUREL 

Add corn and cooked macaroni to sauce, turn all into baking 
dish, sprinkle with crumbs and pour a little melted butter over 
if sauce is made with milk. Brown in oven. 

Browned Macaroni and Granella 

i cup macaroni, ^-i cup granella, 3 cups rich milk (more if 
necessary). Dry and delicately brown macaroni in oven and 
cook the same as unbrowned. Put into baking dish in layers 
with granella, turn milk, slightly salted, over and heat in mod- 
erate oven. It should be quite moist when done. Unless the 
milk is about one-fourth cream, there may be a little oil or but- 
ter poured over the top. 

MacaroniTomato and Onion 

Simmer onion in oil or butter, add stewed tomatoes and salt; 

simmer a few minutes and add cooked macaroni; set back 
where it will heat slowly for a short time and serve. 

Tomatoes, onions and macaroni may be put into baking dish 
in layers, with a sprinkling of pine nut meal; with tomatoes, 
crumbs and chopped nuts on top, and baked. 

Vermicelli-- Asparagus 

Cook vermicelli in salted water, drain, spread on platter, lay 
stalks of cooked asparagus on it and pour egg cream sauce over. 
Cut asparagus into inch lengths if preferred. 

Macaroni in Milk 

Heat i qt. of milk in inner cup of double boiler, add I cup of 
macaroni and cook until tender, perhaps for 2 hrs. Serve plain 
as side dish or for luncheon or supper. It may also be served 
with stewed raisins, with or without cream. 

if Cream Mold of Macaroni 

Cook T/2 cup of macaroni with or without a few slices of onion 
and a suspicion of garlic, in 2 cups of water with ^2 tablespn. 
of butter until tender and well dried out; drain, add 73 cup milk, 
i large egg and salt. Turn into well buttered mold and bake cov- 
ered in pan of water in moderate oven until egg is set, 2i-i hour. 
Serve with Boundary Castle or any suitable sauce. 



MACARONI 423 

if MacaroniSour Cream 

2-3 cups macaroni i teaspn. salt 

i pt. sour cream (or sour milk i egg 

with butter or oil) 

Add beaten egg and salt to cream and pour over cooked mac- 
aroni in baking dish; sprinkle with crumbs and bake until egg is 
set. 

Rice may be used in place of macaroni, tomato also may be 
be added sometimes with chopped onion; a delicate flavoring of 
sage gives another variety. 



BREAD S LE A VENED 



Yeast 

Yeast is a plant and success in bread-making depends upon its 
growth. 

Plants require warmth, food and moisture and thrive the best 
when not too warm nor too cold. 

A temperature of from 75 degrees to not over 90 degrees is 
the most favorable for the growth of the yeast plant. 

Compressed yeast is the most convenient to use when it can 
be obtained fresh, but the bread made from it lacks the sweet 
rich flavor of that made from a good soft yeast; so from the great 
number of good recipes for liquid yeast I give two with which I 
have had excellent success. 

Use only mature, well ripened potatoes for yeast. Hops may 
be omitted but the yeast keeps better and the bread is lighter 
and sweeter when a few are used. 

Keep yeast in several small jars rather than in one large one, 
so as not to disturb the whole when using from it. 

Bread rises slowly from yeast that is less than 48 hours old. 
When liquid yeast is used, let it count as part of the w r etting. 
Compressed yeast is meant when dry is not specified in recipes 
calling for cakes of yeast. 

To use compressed yeast, slice it in rather thin slices, sprinkle 
sugar between the layers and pour just enough lukewarm water 
over it to moisten the sugar, not enough to cover the yeast. 
Let stand until foamy and use at once. 

One cake of compressed yeast equals 4 tablespns. of either 
grated or mashed potato yeast. 

[424] 



BREADS LEAVENED 425 

Grated Potato Yeast 

2 qts. water X cup salt 

2 tablespns. hops i cup soft yeast, or 2 
6 medium sized or 3 very cakes of good dry 

large potatoes yeast (yeast foam 

y?, cup sugar when obtainable) 

Dissolve yeast in warm water with part of the sugar. Simmer 
the hops in water for half an hour, strain, add enough water to 
make 2 qts. and keep at boiling point. Put sugar and salt into 
a large granite or porcelain kettle, quickly grate the pared po- 
tatoes over them, set the kettle over the fire and pour the boil- 
ing hop water on to the mixture, stirring; let boil until thick- 
ened, remove from fire, cool to lukewarm, add the yeast, beat- 
ing it in well and let stand on table or shelf in warm kitchen; as 
it rises, stir it down once in a while; when well risen, set in a 
cool place and stir down occasionally until it does not rise any 
more. Fill clean cold jars about ^3 full and when settled, fasten 
covers on and put in ice box. 

Use i tablespn. of yeast to each pint of water when setting 
bread over night, and double the quantity for starting in the 
morning. 

Mashed Potato Yeast 

i/i cup smooth mashed potato i tablespn. sugar 
i tablespn. loose hops i teaspn. salt 

3^ cup of water in which potatoes and hops were boiled, i 
cake of dry yeast dissolved in % cup of water with a little of 
the sugar, or, y% cup of hop water and /^ cup of liquid yeast. 

Tie the hops in a piece of cheese cloth and cook with the well 
washed but not pared potatoes (the yeast is lighter if the skins 
are left on); when done, drain and peel potatoes and rub through 
colander on to the salt and sugar; beat well, pour water on grad- 
ually, add yeast, beat, put into a clean glass jar, lay the cover 
on without fastening down and let stand in a warm room until 
full of bubbles, no longer; then set in a cold place. When 
thoroughly cooled, fasten the cover tight and keep in refrigerator. 



426 THE LAUREL 

Use l /i~ l /2 cup of yeast to a pint of liquid, according to the 
time you wish to give the bread to rise. 

Dry Yeast 

1 cup loose hops i qt. pared potatoes in small 

2 qts. water flour [pieces 

i cup corn meal 

Boil potatoes with hops tied in cheese cloth until tender; re- 
move hops (squeezing bag when cool), put potatoes and water 
through colander, and stir into the liquid while scalding hct, 
enough flour to make a rather stiff batter. Beat well, add ^2 
cup of yeast or 2 dry yeast cakes dissolved in water. \Yhen 
light, add the cup of corn meal or enough to make a dough stiff 
enough to roll; roll y$- l /2 in. thick, cut into small square or 
round cakes, dry in the sun or in a slightly warm oven (they are 
sometimes dried between two boards covered with corn meal) 
until so much of the moisture is expelled that they cannot 
ferment. 

If kept dry the cakes will retain their strength for a long time. 
The small pieces of dough may be crumbled and dried. 

Flour 

White, graham and whole wheat are the flours most com- 
monly used in making bread. White bread flour is made from 
spring wheat, which is richer in gluten than winter wheat and is 
of a rich cream color. 

Winter wheat flour is more suitable for cakes and pastry, and 
for that reason is called pastry flour. 

A blended flour, spring and winter wheat combined, is con- 
sidered by some the most nearly perfect bread flour. 

Graham flour is composed of the whole kernel of the wheat, 
its bran overcoat and all, ground up together. The bran con- 
tains no nutriment and is irritating to some stomachs. Graham 
flour is nearly always made from winter wheat. 

In making whole wheat or entire wheat flour, the bran or fi- 
brous covering of the kernel is removed and the entire nourishing 



BREADS LEAVENED 427 

part of the grain is ground. Whole wheat flour is usually made 
from spring wheat. 

Some so-called "whole wheat" flours are simply very fine 
graham; that is, the bran is all there, but ground very fine. 

The best grades of flour are the cheapest as a smaller quantity 
is required for the same amount of liquid. Good flour also re- 
quires less kneading. 

Perhaps the greatest deception has been practised in ''gluten" 
flours. Some which have been advertised as pure gluten have 
been found to contain as high as 63 and 75 per cent, of 
starch. A pure gluten flour for making yeast bread is out of 
the question. 

Flour made from new wheat will for a time improve with age, 
but after a certain period it begins to deteriorate; so it is not 
best to lay in a too large supply at once. 

Keep flour in a warm, dry place, as all bread, cakes and pastry 
are lighter made from dry flour. 

'For use in bread-making the superfine white flour is not the 
best. Its use is neither healthful nor economical. Fine flour 
bread is lacking in nutritive elements to be found in bread made 
from the whole wheat. It is a frequent cause of constipation 
and other unhealthful conditions.' 

BREAD-YEAST 

Suggestions 

Bread should not be set over night when there is the least 
possibility of its becoming light enough to fall before it can be 
attended to in the morning. 

Dough mixed stiff at first requires double the quantity of 
yeast of that started with a sponge, but as this method has 
several advantages it is becoming the favorite. Beat the batter 
very thoroughly for either method, as that has much to do with 
the lightness of the bread. 

Keep bread at all stages at as even a temperature as possible 



428 THE LAUREL 

and away from draughts of air. A large pasteboard box is an 
excellent thing to set it into. 

A moist atmosphere is most favorable for raising bread. 

Keep bread covered close to prevent a crust from forming 
over the top. Paper is better than cloth to exclude the air. 

To hasten the rising of bread, use a larger quantity of yeast 
rather than a higher temperature. Above 90 degrees the bac- 
teria which were in the flour or yeast may begin to grow and 
the bread will be sour. Given more time and raised at a lower 
temperature, bread will be sweeter and of a finer texture. 

Attend to bread at every stage as soon as light, before it be- 
gins to fall; exercise especial care in this respect with compressed 
yeast as it loses its life very quickly after becoming light. 

Bread will rise better in a deep vessel, such as a pail or a 
stone crock, than in a broad flat pan. Always oil the dishes 
used for raising it in. 

Each time that bread rises it loses some of its sweetness and 
nutritive value, so the fewer times it is allowed to rise the bet- 



ter, if light enough to be digestible. 

Some cooks prefer flour that has been delicately browned for 
setting the sponge for bread. 

A good bread kneader is one of the best investments in cook- 
ing utensils. It saves time and strength and makes better bread. 

"In the making of raised or yeast bread, milk should not be 
used in place of water. The use of milk is an additional expense 
and it makes the bread much less wholesome. Milk bread does 
not keep sweet so long after baking as does that made with water 
and it ferments more readily in the stomach.' 

In cakes and crusts where milk is used with yeast, sour milk 
may be substituted for sweet with the same results. 

To aid fermentation, a little sugar may be used in starting 
bread, but not enough to cover the sweet taste of the flour. 

At a great altitude, bread rises very quickly; and requires less 
yeast. 



BREADS LEAVENED 429 

Do not allow bread to get over light, even if it does not be- 
come sour; for the sweet taste will be destroyed, and if in the 
loaf, it will fall in the oven. 

Whole wheat and graham bread will be lighter if l /z white flour 

is used; and if white flour alone is used for the sponge the bread 
will not be so apt to sour. 

Whole wheat and graham bread need to be mixed stiffer than 
white and must not be allowed to become very light or they 
will fall in the oven and have a hollow place in the loaf. 

Bread from whole wheat and graham flour requires slower and 
longer baking. 

Whole wheat, graham or rye bread may be steamed 3 hours 
and baked slowly % hr., sometimes. 

Salt delays fermentation, so when bread is started with a 
sponge the salt should not be added until the sponge is light, and 
it may be worked in at the end of the first rising of the mass of 
dough. 

When a large quantity of bread is made at a time, a smaller 
proportion of yeast is required. Stir soft yeast well before using 
from it. Do not let the jar of yeast stand in a warm kitchen 
for a few minutes even. 

It is impossible to give an exact rule for the proportion of 
flour to liquid in bread as different brands of flour vary and the 
same brand may be dryer or more moist at different times; but 
usually not less than three times as much flour as of liquid is 
required, and not much more. 

Near the sea level bread dough may be mixed as soft as it can 
be well handled; but as the altitude increases the stiffness of the 
dough should increase. 

Flour must be warm when added to bread at any stage. 

Do not add any flour to bread after the last rising before put- 
ting it into the tins, "as all the flour in it is, in a fermentative 
sense, cooked and the addition of raw flour injures its quality.' 
-Charles Cristodoro. Oil the board and your hands instead. 



43 THE LAUREL 



> . 



'Bread should be light and sweet, not the least taint of sour- 
ness should be tolerated. The loaves should be small and so 
thoroughly baked that so far as possible, the yeast germs shall 
be destroyed. When hot or new, raised bread of any kind is 
difficult of digestion. // sliould nrrcr appear on tJic table.' 

The loaves should be baked in separate tins, brick shaped 
ones being best. If the loaf feels soft on the sides when re- 
moved from the tin, return it to the oven for it is not done. 
When done, leave loaves where the air can circulate around 
them until cool. 

Keep bread in tin or stone receptacles, never in wood; wash 
them often in warm soapsuds and scald thoroughly. 

Never cover bread in the box with a cloth, if anything is re- 
quired, use paper. Cloth causes a musty taste and smell. 

Do not allow crumbs or bits of bread to collect in the box or 
jar. 

To freshen stale bread or buns, place them in a hot oven 
above a pan of boiling water; or put into one tin and cover with 
another and leave 10-30 m. according to size of loaf and heat 
of oven. 

Rolls are sometimes dipped in milk or water and heated in 
the oven; or, put into a paper sack and left in the oven for 10 m. 

White Bread 

2-4 tablespns. liquid yeast, or 2 tablespns. oil 

i cake compressed yeast i teaspn. sugar 

warm water to make i qt. of liquid i teaspn. salt 

3-3/^2 qts. flour 

Put yeast in a quart measure (compressed yeast will have been 
dissolved according to directions) and fill the measure with warm 
water. Turn into warm mixing bowl, add oil, sugar and salt 
(sugar may be omitted), mingle, add flour until a drop batter is 
formed; beat vigorously for 5 m., then continue to add flour. 
When too stiff to stir, knead on molding board until dough is 



BREADS LEAVENED 43! 

smooth and does not stick to the board by deft handling, place 
in a well oiled deep dish, cover well and let stand in a moder- 
ately w r arm place until light. It may now be folded down and 
turned over and allowed to come up half way again, or be put 
at once into the tins. 

Allow bread to rise in tins to a little more than double its bulk 
(experience will do more for one in determining the proper de- 
gree of lightness than any recipe), and put into a moderate oven 
with spaces between the pans; when well risen and moderately 
browned, lower the temperature of the oven a little and finish 
baking. Cover with asbestos sheets or paper if bread is in dan- 
ger of becoming too brown. ^-i hr. will be required for bak- 
ing a medium sized loaf. 

Fruit Bread 

Use double the quantity of oil and from l /^.-% cup of sugar in 
the recipe for white bread, add 2 large cups of seedless raisins or 
i cup each of raisins and currants. Dates or figs may be used 

when preferred. 

Nut Bread 

Use 2 cups coarse chopped nuts instead of fruit, in fruit bread 
recipe. Brown sugar may be used instead of white, or sugar may 
may be omitted altogether. 

Irish Bread 

Brown sugar, raisins, currants and caraway seeds in fruit bread 
recipe. 

Whole Wheat and Graham Bread 

Use /^ white flour and 2 /$ whole wheat or graham instead of 
all white flour in the recipe for white bread. These breads re- 
quire to be kneaded a little stiffer than white flour bread to pre- 
vent their being coarse grained and falling in the oven; also, 
care must be taken that they do not get too light before bak- 
ing. It is a mistake to put molasses or sugar into graham bread 
as it conceals the sweet nutty flavor of the flour. 



432 THE LAUREL 

Zwieback Bread 

i pt. water i cake compressed yeast 

/^ teaspn. salt A-}h cup corn meal 

4 tablespns. yeast or white flour to knead 

It is better not to use oil in zwieback bread. 

New York "Home Made" Bread 

2-4 tablespns. liquid yeast or i cake compressed yeast, warm 
water to make I qt., white flour for drop batter; beat well. 
When light, add i cup corn meal gruel (to make, use i tablespn. 
of granular meal to each cup of boiling water and cook 2 hrs.), 
i X teaspn. salt, and flour for smooth dough. Let rise in bulk 
once, then put into pans. A baker gave me this idea. He said 
he had a great run on it once in New York City under the name 
of "Home Made" bread. The bread is very moist and sweet. 

Oatmeal Bread. Mrs. Cobb, Bay City 

24 cup oatmeal or i cup X cup sugar 

(pressed down) of rolled oats 2-4 tablespns. yeast or i cake 

1 qt. water compressed yeast 

2 tablespns. oil i teaspn. salt 

white flour 

Cook oats in water as for porridge, 1/^-3 hrs., cool to luke- 
warm, add sugar, oil, yeast, and flour for sponge; beat, let rise, 
add salt, and flour for soft dough; when risen form into loaves 
and when moderately light bake from ^-i hr. Sugar need not 

be used. 

if Rye Bread 

i pt. water 3 cups rye meal, not flour 

i tablespn. oil 4/^-5 cups white flour or 

24 teaspn. salt enough to make a very 

3 tablespns. liquid j^east stiff dough 

Let rise once in bulk and put into tins; when light, bake in 
moderate oven. Add caraway seeds when liked. 

if Rice Bread 

Cook 2 cups of rice in 2 qts. of water until tender; cool to 
lukewarm; add 4-6 tablespns. yeast with water to make i pt., 



BREADSLEAVENED 433 

1*4 teaspn. salt and 4-5 cups white flour, or enough to make a 

very stiff dough. 

if Crisp Bread 

Sponge: I cup water /<3 cake yeast 

i tablespn. oil i/4-i^i cup bread flour 

When light, add I cup fine dry bread crumbs, knead well, use 
crumbs to roll the dough, roll % in. thick, cut into large rings, 
let rise and bake in moderate oven until crisp. 

Crumbs may be kneaded into bread dough and finished the 

same. 

Potato Ball Bread 

2 cups mashed potato i teaspn. salt 

i cake dry yeast 2 teaspns. sugar 

Add yeast cake powdered fine, to the potato when lukewarm, 
and the salt and sugar when cold; form into a ball, cover and 
keep in cool place 2 or 3 days. When ready to bake, add 2 cups 
mashed potato mixed with I teaspn. salt and 2 of sugar to the 
ball. Make a ball of half the mixture and add enough warm 
water to the remainder to make 2 qts. or more. Add warm flour 
to knead, let rise in bulk once or twice before putting into pans. 

Proceed in the same manner for each baking, keeping the ball 
covered in a cool place between bakings. A new ball will not 
need to be started oftener than once in three months if at all. 

This veast works very quickly and makes beautiful bread. Of 
course for small bakings, half the quantity of yeast would be 

sufficient. 

"Delicious" Bread 

I do not know the origin of this yeast but the bread is truly 
named. 

Put into a pitcher or some suitable deep vessel 2 cups of mashed 
potato to which has been added i cup of sugar and I qt. of 
warm water. Cover and let stand in a warm room for from i 
to 3 days or until covered with a foam almost like the meringue 
on a pie. Mix some of this foam with I cup of warm mashed 
potato, let stand in a warm place 1-2 hrs., add i tablespn. of 
salt and set away in a cool place. 



434 THE LAUREL 

To the original yeast add 1-2 qts. water, 2-3 teaspns. salt and 
warm flour to knead; when light, stir down, and put into pans 
the second time it rises. Be careful not to let it get over light 
in the pans before baking. 

For the next baking, add I cup of sugar and the I cup of po- 
tato reserved from the last baking, to 2 cups of fresh mashed 
potato; take out I cupful as before, let stand in warm place I hr., 
add I tablespn. of salt and set in a cool place. 

To the 2 cups of potato add a little water and set in a warm 
place until light, when water to make 2 or 3 qts. may be added 
and the bread kneaded up. 

This bread needs to be eaten to be appreciated. 

The yeast may be used in universal crust, raised cakes and 
wherever other yeast is used, with delightful results. 

Boston Brown Bread. Corn and Rye 

i pt. warm water ^ cup molasses 

i tablespn. oil /^-i cake of yeast 

i teaspn. salt i pt. rye meal 

i pt. granular corn meal 

Mix all ingredients, let rise; pour into tins, let rise, not too 
light; steam 3 hrs. bake 20-30 m. in slow oven. 
Raisins or nuts or both are good in brown bread. 

Boston Brown Bread, No. 2. 

i pt. water i teaspn. salt 

i tablespn. oil i l /Z cup pastry flour 

% cup molasses lYz cup rye meal 

//3-I cake yeast 3~3/^ cups granular corn meal 

Mix all ingredients except corn meal, let rise, add meal, turn 

into tins and when risen not quite double, steam for 3 hrs. and 

bake 20 m. to ^2 hr. in slow oven. 

West Virginia Scalded Corn Meal Bread 

i cup Rhode Island meal 24 cake of compressed yeast 

i cup boiling water i small egg 

1/^2 cup warm water i-i/i teaspn. salt 

3-3)^ cups dry meal i tablespn. oil 

A little more meal may be used. 



BREADS LEAVENED 435 

Scald I cup of meal with boiling water, add warm water, yeast, 
oil and dry meal. When light, add salt and beaten egg, let rise 
in the dish in which it is to be baked. The bread is best baked 
in an iron skillet or frying pan with a cover. 

if Corn Cake 

Sponge i pt. skimmed milk i tablespn. sugar 

i tablespn. oil Y? cake yeast 

4/^-4^2 cups pastry flour 

When light; i teaspn. salt, 2 cups granular corn meal, 2 eggs 
slightly beaten. Turn into well oiled pan to depth of 1-1% in., 
let stand in warm place a few minutes, bake in moderate oven. 

The quantity of flour will vary with the brand, 3^-4 cups 
only of bread flour will be required. The eggs make a finer 
grained as well as lighter bread. One egg will do if eggs are 
scarce. 

Salt Rising BreadSuggestions 

Tastes and opinions differ concerning this bread but no other 
takes its place to those who were accustomed to it in childhood. 

With a little practice, salt rising bread becomes less work to 
make than hop yeast bread. It is more wholesome and richer 
flavored and keeps better than other yeast bread, and it has a fine 
cake-like texture. 

The experience of some persons is that salt rising bread is less 
apt to cause acidity in the stomach than hop yeast bread. 

The secrets of success with it are in keeping it evenly warm; 
in not making it too stiff; and in not kneading it too much. Too 
much flour renders salt rising bread dry and powdery. 

The water surrounding the rising at different stages should be 
at a temperature of 1 10 to 125 degrees, or so that it feels hot to 
the hand, but not scalding. 

In cold weather, an ideal way to keep the loaves warm while 
rising is to put them on bricks in a pan or tub of warm water 
and cover them with a blanket. 

It is well to scald all utensils used for the bread with boiling 



43^ THE LAUREL 

sal-soda water and to use the same water to stand the yeast in 
while rising. 

While the flour added to salt rising bread should be warm, it 
must never have been hot at any time before using as it is the 
yeast germs which it and the other ingredients contain that 
raise the bread. 

The loaves should be wrapped in a thick cloth when taken 
from the oven and left until cold. Salt rising bread makes sweet 
and tender zwieback. 

Salt Rising Bread. No. 1 

Mix i tablespn. each of salt, sugar and corn meal (white or 
Rhode Island if obtainable) with 3 tablespns. of oil, pour over 
all 1^2 pt. of boiling water; stir until sugar and salt are dissolved, 
then add I ^2 pt. cold water that has never been heated. Add 
warm flour for thick batter which will be rather thin after beat- 
ing (about 2 qts., perhaps). Beat thoroughly and set in pan of 
water at 110 to 125 degrees or in some place that can be kept 
at a uniform temperature much warmer than for common yeast 
bread but not warm enough to scald the rising. When the first 
bubbles appear, beat the batter thoroughly and repeat the beat- 
ing each hour until light, which will be in from 4-6 hours. The 
rising should not be allowed to become too light at any time. 
When the batter is light, close the doors so that there will be 
no draughts. Have the pans oiled and warm, and the flour 
warm. Add the flour rapidly with very little stirring, to the 
batter; when stiff enough, turn all out on to a warmed, floured 
board and work in quickly with as little kneading as possible 
enough flour for a rather soft dough; form into loaves and place 
in oiled pans, set in a warm place, covering well to keep a crust 
from forming over the top as well as to keep the loaves warm. 
As soon as light, place in a moderate oven and bake thoroughly. 

Salt Rising Bread. No. 2 

To i cup very warm water add }4 teaspn. of salt and fine mid- 
dlings (shorts) to make a rather stiff batter; beat well, cover and 



BREADS LEAVENED 437 

set in a dish of very warm water, covered, beat 2 or 3 times 
while rising. When light, turn into a warm mixing bowl, add 
i pt. or more of warm water, a little more salt and warm graham 
flour (part white flour if preferred) for a soft dough, and finish 

the same as No. i. 

if Universal Crust 

For shortcakes, fruit tarts, meat and vegetable pies, pot pie 
dumplings, crackers, buns, steamed puddings, loaf cake, dough- 
nuts and cookies, rusk and Sally Lunn. 

i cup skimmed milk % teaspn. sugar 

y?> cup (large 4 tablespns.) oil 1-2 tablespns. liquid yeast or 
K teaspn. salt / 7 3 cake compressed yeast 

pastry flour 

Mix all ingredients except salt and add flour for sponge batter; 
beat; when light, add salt and warm flour for moderately stiff 
dough. Knead a little and cut into biscuit for the top of fruit 
tarts or meat or vegetable pies, or place on tins for shortcake 
crusts. For dumplings, use only % cup of oil or i ^ tablespn. 
of raw nut butter. 

The crust may be kneaded stiff at first and allowed to rise twice. 

If the crusts are not fine grained it is because you have not 
used enough flour or have not kneaded them enough; but they 
do not want to be quite as stiff as bread is usually mixed. 

Shortcake crusts or tins of thin biscuit may be made and kept 
on hand and just warmed up w r hen needed, or laid over meat or 
vegetable pie fillings or hot cooked fruit fillings and left in the 
oven long enough to warm through. 

We consider this one of the most valuable recipes in the book 
since it can be used in so many ways in the place of baking pow- 
der crusts. 

Sour Cream Crustno soda 

i cup thick sour cream /^ teaspn. salt 

y^-Y'i cake compressed yeast white flour 

Make sponge or knead at once to soft dough, let rise, make 
into any desired shape and when light, bake. This is very nice 



43$ THE LAUREL 

for shortcake crusts and can be used for nearly all purposes that 
universal crust is. That the cream was sour would not be known 
after the crust is baked. 

Sally Lunn. Breakfast or Supper Bread 

Use I egg, with or without I tablespn. of sugar to each cup 
of milk in universal crust. Bake in shallow or thick loaf as pre- 
ferred. 

if ^ Soup Crackers 

i cup of skimmed milk or water /^ teaspn. sugar 

YZ cup (scant half cup with i or 2 tablespns. liquid yeast 
water) of oil or oil and or Y^-Yz cake compressed 

melted butter pastry flour for [yeast 

YZ teaspn. salt stiff dough, 4/^-5 cups 

Knead thoroughly (dough may be put through food cutter 5 
or 6 times); when light, fold down and turn over and when risen 
again, roll thin, prick all over quickly with fork or docker, cut 
into any size or shape desired and bake at once before the crack- 
ers have time to rise and acquire a bread like taste. Bake in a 
moderate oven until well dried all through, but not too brown. 
When properly baked these crackers are more suitable for soups 
than unleavened crackers, as they are more porous and tender. 
Tiny ones cut with a plain round pastry tube are attractive for 
special occasions. They may be cut in larger sizes, sometimes 
as large as a saucer, like the Swedish milk biscuit, for serving 
salads or entrees upon. For salads, they may have a hole in 
the center. I have an oblong cutter, made by bending a small 
round tin tube into that shape, that makes pretty soup crackers. 
Bake the dough in long slender rolls for Soup Sticks. 

if Rolls 

Dough i pt. milk Y^-^A teaspn. salt 

/4-i cake compressed yeast 2 tablespns. oil 

or 2-4 tablespns. liquid yeast about 3 pts. flour 

Add yeast to warm milk with flour for batter; let rise, add salt, 
oil, and flour to knead. Knead and pound dough until elastic. 
Let rise in bulk or roll out at once. I tablespn. of sugar is some- 



BREADS LEAVENED 439 

times added to light sponge; also I egg or 2 yolks or 2 beaten 
whites. 

An excellent way is to let the dough rise in bulk after knead- 
ing, and when light, turn from the oiled bowl on to the board 
and roll out without mixing. 

For Parker House rolls, roll dough ^ in. thick, cut out with 
large biscuit cutter, press across the center or a little one side of 
the center with a small round stick (the bakers have a piece of 
broom handle rubbed smooth with sandpaper) or knife handle, 
brush one side with oil or butter and fold the other side over, 
place on oiled and floured pan with spaces between so the shape 
will not be spoiled in baking. Let rise until very light, when 
nearly light, wring a cloth out of warm water, not too dry, and 
lay it over the rolls for a short time. Bake in quick oven. 

For Crescents, roll the dough as nearly square as possible, less 
than % in. thick, cut into strips 7 in. wide, cut the strips into 
squares and the squares diagonally into halves; brush lightly 
with water, then commence to roll firmly from the long side, 
opposite the point of the triangle; leave the point underneath. 
Lay on the pans in the shape of a horseshoe, when light, bake 
in a quick oven. May brush with white of egg or thin cooked 
starch paste when nearly done. 

The Vienna roll is made by shaping the same as the Vienna 
loaf (a little smaller at each end), about 6 in. in length. When 
the rolls are light in the pan, gash the top of each diagonally 
three times with a sharp knife. Bake in a moderate oven. 

Roll dough into a long strip, cut into 3-in. lengths, lay close 
together in pan, brush with syrup made by cooking together for 
one minute equal quantities of milk and sugar; let rise, bake, for 
Finger rolls. 

Sometimes roll dough thick and cut with small round cutter. 

For SJiamrock rolls, put three small round balls of dough in 
each gem or muffin cup. 

Cleft rolls. Make dough into balls; when light, cut each roll 



44O THK LAI' K EL 

across the top with a sharp knife, about I in. deep, or, once 
each side of the center, or, once each way, making 1 a cross roll. 

Buttermilk Rolls 

i pt. buttermilk i tablespn. sugar 

Yz-Y\ cup oil i teaspn. salt 

4 tablespns. yeast with warm white flour 

water to make Y* cup 

Warm buttermilk, add yeast and sugar with flour for sponge; 
when light, add salt, and flour for soft dough, let rise and shape 

into rolls. 

Swiss Rolls. Bennett's 

i % cup skimmed milk i cake compressed yeast 

i tablespn. sugar /^ teaspn. salt 

1^2 tablespn. butter i egg, white flour 

Boil milk, sugar and butter together, cool, add yeast, sprinkle 
in flour gradually, agitating and beating liquid with batter whip; 
beat in the egg and flour, beating with strong spoon, for a very 
stiff batter, so stiff that it beats hard (may knead to soft dough). 
Leave in warm kitchen I hr. or longer, set in icebox for several 
hrs. or 2 days; roll, handling lightly, ^ in. thick, spread with 
soft butter, roll up, cut off I Y* in. thick, let rise, bake in mod- 
erate oven. The dough may be baked in loaves and used for 

dainty sandwiches. 

^ Crumb Rolls 

Sponge i pt. skimmed milk /^ cake yeast 

YI cup oil 4 cups bread flour 

When light 2 cups dry bread crumbs (not very fine), a little 
salt if crumbs are not very salt, flour to knead rather soft. 
Shape, and bake when light. 

One chef made himself famous by making rolls of crumbs. 

^ Crumb Rolls of Brown Bread 

Sponge i pt. water *A cake of yeast 

2 tablespns. oil 3 cups bread flour 

When light Y* teaspn. salt 2 cups flour, or 

i qt. fine, stale, brown enough to knead 

bread crumbs 

Let rise in bulk, shape as desired, bake when light. 



BREADS LEAVENED 441 

Rolled Rolls 

Roll dough for rolls (p. 438) in a square X~^ i n - thick, brush 
with butter or not, sprinkle with maple sugar or chopped hick- 
ory nuts or granulated sugar and ground coriander or anise seed, 
with or without currants or raisins, or with a mixture of chopped 
citron, English walnuts and sugar (maple or granulated), cr 
chopped nuts, figs, raisins and cocoanut. Roll tight, cut from the 
end in i or i ^ in. lengths, lay close together in pan, let rise, 
and bake in moderate oven. Or, roll bread dough out and 
spread with hard sauce flavored with vanilla, lemon, coriander 
or anise. Sprinkle with currants or raisins. Roll, take, glaze 
with sugar and hot water. 

if Potato Biscuit 

i cake yeast i scant cup oil (or oil and 

i qt. water melted butter mixed ) 

1 cup sugar 4 or 5 eggs 

2 cups mashed potato salt 

white flour 

Add beaten eggs, warm water and all other ingredients to 
warm mashed potato, with flour for stiff dough; when light, roll 
out, cut into biscuit, let rise, bake. 

Split Biscuit 

Use only 2 tablespns. of sugar in potato biscuit with milk for 
wetting. 

Roll light dough l /2 in. thick, cut into biscuit, butter half of 
them on top and lay one of the other half on top of each; lay 
close together in pan, brush with butter, let rise, bake. 

if Raised Biscuit 

Take roll dough or add a little more oil to bread dough, cut 
into small biscuit and place a little way apart in pan, prick with 
fork, let rise and bake. Or, cut strips of dough into small pieces, 
roll into balls and place close together in tin. \Yhen there is a 
little piece of dough left, break it into small, irregular pieces 
and put one on the top of each biscuit. 



442 THE LAUREL 

Breakfast Biscuitrice, corn and flour 

Take cold boiled rice, double its quantity of flour, a little fine 
corn meal, and yeast. Mix with water to dough and let rise 
over night. Roll and cut into biscuit in the morning, let rise 

and bake for breakfast. 

* Rusk 

i pt. milk 2 eggs 

y$ cup oil i cake yeast 

jHz-l cup sugar white flour 

coriander or anise 

Beat oil and sugar together, stir in a little flour, add beaten 
eggs and warm milk, then dissolved yeast and flour for sponge. 
When light, add flour for smooth dough, let rise, mold into small 
biscuit, place close together in biscuit tin or put into muffin 
rings, or roll I in. thick, cut with biscuit cutter and place on 
pans a little distance apart; \vhen light, brush with equal quan- 
tities of sugar and cream (or milk) boiled together i minute, 
dust with ground coriander or anise, bake, and sprinkle with gran- 
ulated sugar or chopped almonds as they are taken from the 
oven. The brushing and dusting may be done after baking if 

preferred. 

Browned Rusk 

Bake rusk dough in loaf cake pans in a moderate oven and 
the next day cut into slices and dry and brown delicately the 
same as zwieback. Only 72 cup each of sugar and oil may be 
used or the sugar may be omitted entirely. Thin biscuit of the 
dough baked separately without brushing may be toasted the 

same as slices. 

Buns plain 

i pt. milk 2 tablespns. to 73 cup of 
y^-i cake yeast sugar 

70-72 cup oil or melted 72-1 teaspn. salt 

butter white flour 

Add sugar, oil, salt and yeast to warm milk, with flour for soft 
dough; knead, let rise, turn down and when half risen turn on 
to board without stirring, roll out and cut with biscuit cutter, 
place on pans with spaces between, let rise, bake. When buns 



BREADS LEAVENED 443 

are done, the tops may be wet with molasses and milk, sugar 
and milk, or spread with beaten white of egg, dusted with sugar 
and set in the oven to dry. 

Nut Buns Add I cup coarse chopped nuts to dough after 
first rising. 

Currant Bnns--\ cup of currants in place of nuts in above, 
with or without 3 or 4 teaspns. ground coriander seed or ^2 
teaspn. ground anise seed. 

Raisins cut in quarters may be substituted for currants, with 
any desired flavor, and nuts and raisins may be used for Fruit 
and Nut Buns, and dried blueberries for Blueberry Buns. 

Beadles 

Mix universal crust stiff at first; after rising twice, roll /^-/^ in. 
thick, cut out with large round cutter, wash with mixture of 
beaten yolks, milk and sugar flavored with lemon (grated rind may 
be used) and dust the center with sugar, then draw over three 
sides of each toward the center to form a triangle, but far enough 
apart to leave an opening in the center to show r the washed part. 
Brush with milk. When light bake in quick oven. Four sides 
may be drawn over, making a square instead of a triangle. 
When baked, a little jelly may be dropped in the center for 
Jelly Beadles; cream puff filling for Cream Beadles, or thick 
prune marmalade for Prune Beadles. 

Sr. Purdon's Lemon Buns 

Sponge 1% cup milk i cake yeast 

2/4 tablespns. sugar 2 cups flour 

M'hcn ligJit y? teaspn. salt /^ cup seeded raisins in 

Y?> cup oil or butter /^ teaspn. lemon [quarters 

3 tablespns. sugar extract, or grated rind of 

flour for soft dough [lemon 

Let rise, shape as desired, when light brush with milk, bake. 

Bread Sticks 

Work the white of one egg into a pint of light bread dough, 



444 THE LAUREL 

mold into slender sticks, place in stick pans, let rise, brush with 
milk or white of egg and water; bake in hot oven. 

Or, roll shortened dough to the size of a pencil and 6-8 in. 
long. Lay on tins, let rise a little, bake in moderate oven. 

Serve with soups or warm drinks. 

Crumb Cakes 

i cup milk or water /^ teaspn, salt 

i tablespn. oil Yl cake compressed yeast 

/<3 cup flour i egg 

about / 3 cup coarse zwieback crumbs 

Mix sugar and salt with dry flour, pour warm milk over grad- 
ually, stirring; when smooth add yeast, and zwieback crumbs 
for not too stiff batter, then the egg, white and yolk beaten 
separately; when light, bake on griddle. 

Old-time Buckwheat Cakescorn meal and flour 
Stir l /2 cup of yellow corn meal into I qt. of boiling water; 
cook, stirring, until thickened; when lukewarm add: 

1 teaspn. salt /^ cup white flour 

2-4 tablespns. soft yeast 3 cups buckwheat flour 

Beat, set in cool place until morning; add a little warm water 
if too thick and use less flour next time. 

if Buckwheat Cakesbread crumbs 

2 cups buckwheat flour i teaspn. salt 

2/ / 2 cups warm water i cup stale bread crumbs 

/4 cake compressed yeast (white or graham) 

i cup milk 

Add yeast to warm water and pour gradually over flour and 
salt, stirring; when light add crumbs soaked in milk and warmed 
a little. 




UNLEAVENED BREADS 

GEMS BEATEN BISCUIT STICKS CRACKERS 

GEM IRONS 



ROLLS 



BREADS-UNLEAVENED-WITHOUT CHEMICALS 



4 'The use of soda and baking powder in bread making is harm- 
ful and unnecessary. Soda causes inflammation of the stomach 
and often poisons the entire system.' 

The chemical substances left in foods by the union of soda 
and cream of tartar in baking powders cannot be used by the 
system, so the excretory organs are overworked in their efforts 
to throw them off. 

Experiments have also proven that the chemicals of baking 
powder retard digestion. 

The use of yeast is preferable to baking powder or soda, but 
breads made without baking powder, soda or yeast are best of all. 

Unfermented breads are generally baked in small loaves, so 
that they are dry and require thorough mastication. 

Because of their dryness, dough breads are more desirable 
than batter breads. 

With the other advantages, unleavened breads have all the 
sweet taste of the flour. 

The substitute for carbonic acid gas is as pure and "as free as 
the air we breathe." for it is the air we breathe, the very same 
thing; consequently it is inexpensive and the use of it requires 
less time and labor than the making of fermented breads. 

The Essentials of Success in making unleavened breads are, 
after good materials (the flour must be of the best); (a) that 
the ingredients be as nearly ice cold as possible; (b) that the 
breads stand or rest before baking, in a cold place for from 20 m. 
to 3 or 4 hrs., or over night; (c) that the oven is not too hot 
when they are first put in--not that they must be beaten very 
vigorously. 

1445] 



446 THE LAUREL 

Iron is the best material for batter bread pans as it gives a 
firm, steady heat. The irons with thin, flat, oval (not square 

' I ' 

cornered) cups are best, but the small round cups are not objec- 
tionable and the stick shaped pans are excellent. Next to irons 
are earthen custard cups. 

When meal is to be scalded, heat it in the oven before pour- 
ing liquid over it. 

Gems 
> . Batter breads baked in irons. 

Have materials and utensils cold, put liquid with salt, oil and 
yolks of eggs when used, in stone milk crock or deep pan, agitate 
for a moment by moving wire batter w r hip briskh" back and forth, 
when the liquid will be full of bubbles. Sprinkle flour in, not 
too slowly, with the left hand, keeping up the agitating motion. 
\Vhen the ; batter is quite stiff, beat it (never stir it as that drives 
out the air) just enough to incorporate all the flour. Give a few 
turns of the egg beater to the whites of eggs (which are in a bowl 
with a little salt), so that they are full of large bubbles, rinse off 
the beater with cold water, give it a shake and hang it in its 
place. Turn the eggs on to the batter and mix them in lightly, 
beating a little if necessary to mix well; cover the dish and set 
it in the ice box (or in a pan of cold water with a wet cloth over 
it) in summer, or in a cold room where it will not freeze in win- 
ter, for not less than 20 m. and longer if possible. (I always 
stir my gems up over night when making them for breakfast. ) 

Slightly w r arm the pans and oil them. 

When ready to bake the gems, warm the irons a little and 
without stirring the batter dip it into the cups, filling them to 
the brim, set into a slow oven that bakes well from the bottom. 

Bake until well risen, increase the heat sufficiently to brown 
the gems nicely, then lower the temperature and finish baking. 
Be sure that the gems are well baked to the center. Turn out 
of pans at once and let stand for 10 or 15 in. before serving. 
There is no objection to serving unleavened breads warm. 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 



447 



If the oven does not bake well at the bottom, leave the pans 
on top of the stove where it is not too hot, for io-i;5 rn,.;, .then 
place carefully in the oven. 

When baking with gas, put the gems on the top grate of the 
oven before it is lighted; use one burner onlv at first and have 

O J ! , 

. . ; I 1 1 / i 

that turned rather low. 

V t ! I :.: i 

Whole Wheat and Graham Gems 

1^3 -i/4 cup of milk, i egg arid flour for drop batter. 

Graham gems should not be quite as stiff as whole wheat. 
Use the quantity of milk that will just fill the pan; skimmed 
milk with 1/^-2 tablespns. of oil to the quart equals whole milk. 
Brazil or other nut butter or meal, with water, is sometimes used. 

All whole wheat or graham flour may be used, but combining 
either with %-% white flour makes gems more digestible. 

The batter may be made thinner than a drop batter, but I- hive 
better gems when it is quite stiff. I take only 3 eggs to a -cjuart 
of milk, but more may be used. When we are so happy as to 
get a spring wheat graham flour, 2 eggs to the quart of li(J;uid is 

\ 

sufficient. 

j 

Gems may be made without eggs with all whole 'w'heatt, or 
graham flour of spring wheat. They require a little more beat- 
ing, the longer rest is imperative, and the oven should be a little 
warmer at first. 

: ' !-..; i ... 

Cold boiled rice may be added to thin gem batter sometimes, 
also grated cocoanut. 

White, and Sally Lunn Gems 

Make the same as whole wheat gems, using white bread flour, 
and i egg to each cup of milk, add 2 tablespns. of sugar for 
Sally Lunns. 

Fruit and Nut Gems 
Add a few English currants, seeded raisins in quarters, with. 

r+ 

or without fine cut dates, or dried or fresh blueberries to any 
gem batter. Use chopped nuts alone or with fruit. Ground 
citron goes nicely with nuts. 



, i 



448 THE LAUREL 

Rye Gems 

i pt. skimmed milk i egg 

i tahlespn. oil 3 cups rye meal or 3/^-4 

VT, teaspn. salt cups rye flour 

with or without a fe\v caraway seeds 

No oil is required with whole milk. 

Plain rye or corn gems may be served with maple syrup. 

Rye and Wheat Gems 

i cup skimmed milk salt 

i tablespn. oil %-fa cup rye meal 

1 egg fa cup white bread flour 

if Crumb Gems 

r qt. skimmed milk 3 small eggs or 2 large ones 

2 tablespns. oil graham flour for thin batter 
salt i cup fine zwieback crumbs 

Or,. \ l /2 cup crumbs, l /2 cup white flour, 2 eggs, i teaspn. 
sugar, with the milk, salt and oil. 

if Corn Meal and White Flour Gems 

cup granular corn meal /^ teaspn. salt 

cup boiling water 2 teaspns. oil 

cup cold water i egg 

iX cup white bread flour 

Scald meal with boiling water, add oil, salt, cold water and 
yolk of egg; beat, add white flour, beating, and lastly stiffly-beaten 
white of egg; rest. Bake in moderate oven. 

Corn and Graham Gemsno eggs 

3 cups milk 3/^ cups white corn meal 
2 teaspns. oil 1/^3 cup graham flour 

salt 

if Cream Corn Gems or Griddle Cakes 

Stir enough corn meal into not too thick cream to make a 
stiff batter; about 1^2 cup meal to i of cream; add salt, beat a 
little, rest, bake in gem irons or on griddle. 

Pop Overs 

i egg i cup flour 

i cup milk salt 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 449 

Beat egg with salt; add half the milk, beat in the flour and add 
the remainder of the milk, and without beating strain into a 
pitcher; rest. Pour into rather hot irons and bake in moderate 
oven. 

Sometimes the mixed egg and milk are poured gradually into 
the flour, stirring, and sometimes the beaten white of egg only 
is used, being added after straining batter. And again, ateaspoon- 
ful of oil or melted butter is put in after the flour is beaten into 
half the milk. 

German puffs call for 4 eggs and Vanity puffs for 6 eggs, with 
the other ingredients the same. 

Other Variations of Pop Overs 

(a) 2 eggs, i cup milk, I cup flour, 2 teaspns. oil or melted 
butter. 

(7?) 2 eggs, I cup milk, 2 cups flour. 
(<r) 2 eggs, 2 cups milk, I J4 cup flour. 
(d) 2 eggs, i l /2 cup milk, I ^ cup flour. 

Whole Wheat Pop Overs 

*/?> cup whole wheat flour J/% cup milk 

YZ cup white flour salt 

i egg 

Mix flours and salt, stir into milk, add beaten egg, rest. Put 
into rather hot oiled gem pans, bake. 

if Corn Pop Overs 

y$ cup corn meal salt 

Y?> cup white flour i egg white and yolk 

% cup milk beaten separate 

if Sweet Potato Bread 

3 large (or i/^-i/^lb. ) i/4 level tablespn. butter or 

sweet potatoes 1/^2 cup granular corn [oil 

i teaspn. salt % cup milk [meal 

i egg 

Bake potatoes, peel and rub through colander, add salt, oil, 
meal, milk and beaten egg; beat well. Bake in moderate oven 
30-40 m. Serve hot. 



45O THE LAUREL 

if Rice Breakfast or Supper Cake 

2 cups boiled rice i cup milk 

i tablespn. oil salt 

1 tablespn. melted butter 3-6 eggs 

i cup flour 

Add stiffly-beaten whites of eggs last, rest, bake in shallow 

pans or patty pans. Serve hot. The flour is sometimes omitted. 

Take i cup each of rice and hominy for Rice and Hominy cake. 

i( Corn Bread 

2 cups yellow granular meal i teaspn. salt 
2/i cups boiling water i/4 tablespn. oil 

i egg 

Pour boiling water over meal, add salt, oil and yolk of egg; 
cool, add beaten white and bake in oiled pan. Use a little less 
water for Rhode Island meal. 

Crumbs and Corn Bread 

1 pt. hot milk 2 eggs 

/4 cup stale bread crumbs i /2 tablespn. oil or 

2 cups white corn meal melted butter 

i teaspn. salt 

Pour boiling milk over corn meal, stir well, add oil, salt and 
crumbs; cool, add beaten yolks of eggs, then stiffly-beaten whites. 
Bake in oiled pie pans. Or, soak meal and crumbs in cold milk 
for several hours and add salt, oil and eggs as before. 

^ The Laurel Brown Bread. Sr. Olive Jones Tracy 

i qt. each of corn meal, rye 2 teaspns. salt 

meal and cold water 2 tablespns. oil 

i /4 cup molasses 6 eggs 

Mix water, salt, molasses, oil and yolks of eggs and add mixed 
meals; then stiffly-beaten whites of eggs. Steam 3 hrs., bake in 
slow oven ^2 hr. I qt. of thin cream may be used in place of oil 
and water. 

Halved, seeded raisins may be added occasionally or fine cut 
steamed prunes or broken pieces of nuts. 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 451 

Crumb Brown Breadno eggs or yeast 

i cup granular corn meal i teaspn. salt 

or i YV of Rhode Island meal 2 cups water 

/^ cup rye meal 2^2 cups (not too fine) 
H cup molasses dry bread crumbs 

Mix and steam 3 hrs. 

2 cups of granella in place of the crumbs is better still. 

% cup sugar with ^ cup more of water may be used in place 
of the molasses. Cereal coffee may be used for the liquid, or a 
little browned flour may be mixed w r ith the meal. 

if Johnny Cake 

2^ cups granular corn meal salt 

3 tablespns. oil or melted butter about i/& cup milk 

Mix; rest i hr. or longer in cold place, bake in iron skillet in 

quick oven. 

Southern Johnny Cakes 

% cup each fine hominy, rice and rice flour, salt, water, milk. 
Cook rice and hominy in 2 cups of water, each. Add %-i cup 
milk, salt and rice flour; drop by spoonfuls on hot, oiled griddle, 
flatten with fingers dipped in cold water, bake in oven or on top 

of stove. 

if Bannock 

/^ cup granular meal % teaspn. salt 

3/4 cups boiling water i tablespn. oil or butter 

2 eggs 

Cook meal in water for 10 m.. add oil, cool a little, add yolks 
of eggs, beat well, fold in stiffly-beaten whites of eggs, bake in 
oiled pudding dish or pie plates, in moderate oven. Serve at 

once. 

Water Corn Bread 

i ^2 cup granular corn meal, salt, i cup cold water. Rest 
1-2 hrs., spread thin on hot griddle or frying pan, bake in hot 

oven, serve hot. 

No. 2 

i cup granular meal, salt, ^ cup boiling water. Spread at 
once, thin, on hot griddle or frying pan and bake in hot oven. 
Serve hot. 



45 2 THE LAUREL 

Oat Cake 

i cup fine oatmeal, l /2 teaspn. salt, boiling water, 1-1% cup 
perhaps. Grind rolled oats (not too fine) if very fine meal is not 
obtainable. Pour over enough boiling water to moisten, spread 
very thin on hot oiled frying pan or griddle (or spread spoonfuls 
in cakes), bake on top of stove or in hot oven. 

Corn Meal Crusts 

i cup yellow meal i % tablespn.oil or melted butter 

YZ teaspn. salt i teaspn. sugar 

i Y? cup boiling water 

Pour boiling water over meal, sugar and salt; beat well; add 
butter, spread very thin on well oiled pans, bake. Pull apart 
while hot. 

White Corn Meal Crusts 

i cup white corn meal, 2 cups boiling milk, i teaspn. salt; stir 
smooth and pour y$- l /2 in. deep in oiled pan. Bake in mod- 
erate oven. Split for eating. 

Rhode Island Johnny (Journey) Cakes 

Those who have not made the acquaintance of Rhode Island 
Johnny cakes have missed much. To make them in their per- 
fection Rhode Island meal is required, though white meal will 
do. Do not try them with yellow granular meal. Rhode Is- 
land meal has a creamy tint and is lighter in texture than gran- 
ular meal. 

Mix the meal with salt in a cake bowl and pour perfectly boil- 
ing water over it to more than moisten. (A rule for the quan- 
tity is out of the question). Stir, and if necessary add more 
water. The batter should be soft, but the meal must be well 
wet with the boiling water. Beat and drop in spoonfuls on to 
a hot, well oiled griddle. Dip the hand in water and flatten the 
cakes to about ^ in. thick. Keep the griddle hot until cakes 
are nicely browned on one side, turn, adding more oil if neces- 
sary and brown on the other side; after which set back where 
cakes will bake slowly for 20 m. to % hr. Serve with cream, 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 453 

nut cream or butter, or with some meaty flavored gravy; some- 
times honey or maple syrup. 

In many families these cakes form the bread for three times 
a day six days in the week, and one soon comes to feel lost 
without them. 

As Toast Split cold cakes, lay in deep dish with salt and 
bits of butter and pour hot milk over. 

Pone, or Corn Bread "Straight" 

I qt. white corn meal, I teaspn. salt, cold water for soft dough. 
With hands moistened with cold water mold into oblong mounds, 
a little thicker in the center than at the ends. Lay on hot 
oiled or floured pan, press a little with the fingers and bake in 
hot oven. Break (not cut). Eat hot. 

A little oil may be added to the meal for pone, but then it 
will not be "straight/ 

Ash Cake 

Brush a place clean before the fire and lay the pones upon it. 
Let the tops dry a little and cover with hot ashes. Bake until 
dry and firm, I 5-30 m. Draw from the fire, brush off the ashes, 
wash and wipe, serve. Buttermilk is the ideal accompaniment 
to ash cake or pone. 

A cabbage leaf may be laid above and below the cake in the 
ashes; then it will not require washing, but will need to be baked 

a little longer. 

Hoe Cake 

One hoe cake is the pone mixture baked on a hoe or griddle 
in one large cake or in several small ones l /i-^i in. thick. 

Another--! cup white Southern corn meal or Rhode Island 
meal, mix with l /2 teaspn. salt and pour boiling milk or water 
over to make a batter thick enough not to spread. Drop by 
spoonfuls on well oiled griddle and press /^ in. thick. \Yhen 
nicely browned on one side, put a small piece of butter or a 
little oil on top of each cake and turn. Bake thoroughly. 
Serve hot. A teaspn. of sugar is sometimes added to the meal, 



454 THE LAUREL 

but 'no Southern cook would risk the spoiling of her corn breads 
by sweetening them.' 

For campers, the batter may be spread on a floured oak board, 
the board slanted in front of the fire and the hoe cake baked "in 
its original way and with its original flavor;" or it may be baked 
on a smooth flat stone which has been heated and floured. 
Sometimes the scalded meal is allowed to stand for an hour or 
longer, then formed into cakes /^-^ in. thick before baking. 

if Sr. Welch's Corn Dodgers 

~/z cup common yellow corn meal 1/6 cup milk or water 

good Y~> cup white flour or half of each 

1-2 teaspns. sugar i large egg 

salt i teaspn. oil or melted 

butter 

Mix corn meal and flour and heat in oven, add sugar and salt 
and pour boiling liquid over, stir rapidly until smooth, add oil 
and yolk of egg, then stiffly-beaten white; drop in spoonfuls on 
hot oiled pan; bake in quite hot oven. 

Sr. Welch's Corn Dodgersgranular meal 

i cup yellow granular corn meal salt 

large /^ cup white flour 2^-3 cups boiling milk or 

YZ tablespn. sugar water, or half of each 

i large or 2 small eggs 

Mix and bake as with common meal. If the liquid is not rich 
milk, use I tablespn. oil or melted butter. 

Use 24^-1 cup of nut meal or butter and all water for Nut Corn 

Dodgers. 

Corn Meal Porridge Dodgers 

i cup corn meal i cup boiling water 

Y?, teaspn. salt i tablespn. oil or melted butter 

Pour boiling water over corn meal and salt in inner cup of 
double boiler; stir smooth, cook I hr., add oil, drop by spoon- 
fuls on oiled griddle, dip fingers in cold water and pat down flat; 
when browned put a dot of butter or a little oil on top of each 
and turn. Serve with poached eggs if desired. 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 455 

Griddle Cakes 

Batter for griddle cakes should stand 2 hrs. or longer in the 
ice box, or in winter in some cold place, to lighten it by allow- 
ing the starch grains and glutenous portion of the flour to swell. 

An iron or steel griddle is best for baking cakes. Soapstone, 
so highly recommended, is objectionable because little particles 
of the stone adhere to the cakes. 

The griddle should stand on a not too hot part of the stove 
and heat slowly for a long time before the cakes are to be baked. 
Professional pancake bakers have their griddle over a slow fire 
all night. 

When oil is used in the batter, less or none is required on the 

griddle. 

Have the griddle hot before putting the cakes on, brown them 
delicately, then turn once only. A second turning makes them 
heavy. Cakes ought to be eaten as soon as baked, but should 
not be covered when required to stand for a short time. 

Plain Griddle Cakes 

1 cup milk 2 eggs 

2 tablespns. oil i/i-i/4 cup bread flour 

yi-^A teaspn. salt 
Rest 2 hrs. or longer. May spread with jelly, or with butter 

and sugar and roll. 

Rice Griddle Cakes 

Add 1-2 cups cold boiled rice to plain cakes. 

Crumb Griddle Cakes 

Use only I cup of flour in plain cakes and add stale or dry 
bread crumbs to make quite a thick batter. 

Buckwheat Cakes 
Use % buckwheat in place of all white flour in plain cakes. 

Savory Meat Griddle Cakes 

Add crumbled trumese, fine chopped onion and powdered sage 
to rice or crumb cakes. 

Mushroom Griddle Cakes 

Lay a spoonful or two of chopped mushroom stems, simmered 



456 THE LAUREL 

in oil with or without a little tomato, browned flour and onion, 
on each small thin cake, roll lightly and serve with or without 
Italian or Boundary Castle sauce. 

Plain Griddle Cakes--Roux. Delicate and Creamy 

1 full tablespn. oil YZ cup water 

2 tablespns. bread flour /^ cup flour 

YI cup milk YZ teaspn. salt 

2 eg-gs 

Heat oil, add the 2 tablespns. flour, hot water and milk, boil 
well; when cool, add salt, yolks of eggs and Y* cup of flour, 
beating; then the stiffly-beaten whites of eggs; rest. 

Variations 

((7) 2 cups dry bread crumbs in place of the half cup of flour 
and less or no salt. 

(b) Add 2-4 cups of cold boiled hominy to plain batter and 
another ^ cup of flour if necessary. 

(r) Add i l /z-2 cups cold boiled rice to plain cakes and a little 
more flour if necessary. 

(d) Add i-i T /4 cup drained canned corn to plain cakes, more 
flour if necessary. 

(e) Add 4 tablespns. granular corn meal scalded with about 
/^ cup of boiling water, to plain cakes. 

Crumb Griddle Cakes--no flour 

i cup milk Y?> teaspn. salt 

i cup dry crumbs i egg 

Corn and Crumb Griddle Cakesno eggs 

Y* cup granular meal /^ teaspn. salt 

Y* cup boiling water M cup dry bread crumbs 

i teaspn. oil Y\ cup whole milk 

Cool. If necessary, add /^ cup more of milk. 

Rice Griddle Cakes--no flour 

/^ cup rice i cup milk 

3 eggs YV teaspn. salt 

i tablespn. oil 

Boil rice in 2 cups water, partly cool, beat smooth with milk, 
add salt and beaten eggs. Another yolk of egg may be used. 
If rice is thin, use less milk. 



BREADSUNLEAVENED 457 

Hominy Griddle Cakes 

% cup hominy 3 eggs l /3 cup milk i % tablespn. oil salt 
Cook hominy in 2 cups water and proceed as in Rice Cakes. 

Corn Meal Griddle Cakesno flour 

i pt. granular meal i pt. boiling water 

1 teaspn. each butter, salt and sugar %-*A cup cold milk 

2 eggs 

Scald meal with boiling water, add butter, salt, sugar and cold 
milk, then yolks of eggs; beat batter and fold in stiffly-beaten 
whites. Or, beat eggs all together. 

For Rhode Island meal, i^ pt. boiling water will be required. 

Green Corn Batter Cakes 

2 tablespns. oil or melted i teaspn. sugar if corn is 
butter not sweet 

3 tablespns. flour 3 tablespns. fine dry or 
#J cup boiling water toasted bread crumbs 
%-Y cup of grated or ground i egg 

green corn salt 

Heat oil, add flour, then boiling water; remove from fire, add 
salt and crumbs, cool, add corn and beaten egg. Bake on well 

oiled griddle. 

Nut Butter Griddle Cakes 

2 tablespns. almond, Brazil or other nut butter, i cup water, 
salt, 2 eggs, whites beaten separate, i cup bread flour. 

Nut and Egg Cakes 

For those who cannot take starchy foods. 

Rub 2 tablespns. nut butter smooth with 2 full tablespns. of 
water; add a beaten egg with salt. Bake on moderate griddle 

to delicate brown. 

Dough Breads 

Grind dough breads 5-8 times through a food cutter with the 
finest plate instead of kneading; it saves time and strength and 
the breads are better. 

A good spring wheat graham flour makes better rolls than 
whole wheat flour, but poor graham flour does not make good 
"anything.' The simplest rolls are made with flour and water, 



458 THK LAIKKL 

with or without salt, and require more thorough working than 
those made with shortening. Rolls may be reheated whole, or 
be split and toasted. 

Sticks and rolls may be mixed with milk instead of water. 

All crackers and wafers (except fruit) should be crisped thor- 
oughly in the oven before serving. 

Plain Graham Rolls 

Put a cupful of ice water into a cold bowl. Add }/^ teaspn. 
of salt if desired, but the rolls will have more of the sweet, 
nutty flavor of the flour without it. Agitate the water until full 
of bubbles and sprinkle in the cold flour as for gems. When the 
batter is too stiff to beat, take it out on to a cold floured board 
and knead, using as little flour as possible, until smooth and 
elastic. About 3 cupfuls of flour will be taken up. Divide the 
dough, roll it quickly and evenly to about ^ in. in diameter, 
cut into 3 in. lengths and set in ice box to rest. Bake in a 
moderate oven with steady heat until the rolls will not yield to 
pressure between the thumb and finger and are of a delicate 
brown. 

If preferred, the water may be poured over the flour and the 
dough kneaded the same. The dough may rest before being 
rolled out. 

The yolk of a hard boiled egg rubbed into each pint of flour 
makes more tender rolls; or one beaten raw yolk may be added 
to each ^ cup of water. 

Nut Rolls 

Add V^-i cup of nut meal to water in plain rolls recipe. 

Cream Rolls 

Mix rich cold cream and graham flour together quickly. Press 
together without kneading, rest for 2 hrs. or more, shape into 
rolls and bake, or put on ice again until ready to bake. 

Rolls may be kneaded, and if kneaded at all should be kneaded 
thoroughly. Cocoanut cream may be substituted for dairy. 



BREADSUNLEAVENED 459 

if Shortened Rolls 

The quantity of oil required will depend entirely upon the 
quality of the flour, but for ordinary graham flour take y$ cup 
of oil to each pint of flour; to a good spring wheat flour not 
more than V^ cup. Rub the oil into the salted flour, add ice 
water for moderately stiff dough, press into a mass and set to 
rest, unless preferring to knead. Finish the same as cream rolls. 
X white flour may be used with the graham. 

Fruit Rolls 

Roll shortened dough J^ in. thick. Cut into strips 2^-3 in. 
wide, put a strip of halves of stoned dates, pieces of nice fresh 
figs or a roll of seeded and ground raisins along the length of the 
dough a little one side of the center; slightly moisten the edge 
of the dough farthest away from the fruit, lap the edge nearest, 
over the fruit and roll it up in the dough, leaving a long roll 
with the fruit in the center; roll over and over until the edge of 
the dough is well fastened down; cut roll into 2 or 3 inch lengths 
(i inch for some occasions); bake. 

This way of putting the fruit in the roll has the advantage of 
leaving no pieces of fruit sticking through the dough to be burned 
in baking, and also of not having any "sad" portion of dough in 
the center of the roll. 

Fruit and Nut Rolls maybe made by adding pieces of nuts to 
the fruit in the roll. 

Sticks 

Roll any of the roll doughs or the graham cracker dough to 
about the size of a lead pencil or not over % of an inch in di- 
ameter; cut in 5-7 in. lengths, rest and bake the same as rolls. 
Sticks are more crisp and delightful than rolls. They should be 
on the table for every meal. 

White Sticks 

Take i-i l /> tablespn. of oil to each cup of white bread flour, 
with a trifle of salt, and water for stiff dough. 



460 THE LAUREL 

Dainty white sticks are nice to serve with soups, salads and 

some desserts. 

Porridge Sticks. 

i cup cold, thick oatmeal porridge salt 
i tablespn. oil /4 cup graham flour 

i/4 cup white flour 

Mix and knead thoroughly. Dough must be very stiff. 

Beaten Biscuit Whole Wheat 

i qt. true whole wheat flour l /3 cup oil 

% teaspn. salt i scant cup ice water, about 

Rub salt and oil with flour, add water, knead until smooth 
(the dough should be very stiff), then separate dough into sev- 
eral pieces and put it through the food cutter 6 or 8 times. 
This takes the place of the laborious beating. Shape into 
small thick biscuit; make a hole through the center of each one 
from the top with the thumb or finger, rest; bake thoroughly in 
moderate oven. 

If you have time to form the biscuit you will be well repaid 
for your trouble as they are so beautiful; but if your time is lim- 
ited, roll the dough l /2-i in. thick, cut with small round cutter 
and prick with fork. You may even cut the dough into small 
squares. Rolled very thin, cut with a large cutter and pricked 
well, the dough makes nice wafers. If a food cutter is not at 
hand, beat with a mallet or the rolling pin, or pick apart with 
the thumb and fingers, over and over again, until the dough 
snaps when pulled apart. 

A cup of medium thick cream may be used instead of oil and 

water. 

Maryland Beaten Biscuit 

i qt. white flour (use only /4 teaspn. salt with 
i teaspn. salt butter) 

2-4 tablespns. oil or 24-/& cup of ice cold milk or 
1-2 tablespns. butter, water, or half of each 

Proceed as with whole wheat biscuit. 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 461 

Maryland BiscuitUnbeaten 

i qt. whole wheat or 4 tablespns. oil or melted butter 

w r hite flour cold water or milk for stiffest ' 

salt possible dough 

Knead 20 m., or until dough blisters; set aside 1-2 hrs., or 
overnight; knead 5-10 m., roll and cut, or shape by hand. Bake. 

if White Crackers 

i qt. bread flour salt 

4 tablespns. oil, or 2 of oil and i of cold milk for very stiff 
butter (2 of melted butter) dough 

Knead until smooth, run through food cutter 6-8 times, or 
beat or pick as beaten biscuit; rest, roll thin, prick dough all 
over, cut into any desired shape, bake in moderate oven. /^ or 
y?. of pastry flour may be used; also water and a little more 1 
shortening. 

Swedish Milk Biscuit 

Make white crackers of milk, roll as thin as paper, prick, cut 
into biscuit the size of a saucer. Turn the wafers on the tins 
often while baking. Serve \vith some desserts, fruit or other 
salads, and with cottage cheese. Cut a hole in the center of 
some of the biscuit before baking and serve salads or suitable 
meat dishes on them in individual servings. 

Cocoanut Wafers 

2^2 cups pastry flour 2 tablespns. butter or 3 of 

i cup dessicated cocoanut salt [oil 

water 

Rub butter into flour, add salt and mix with cocoanut which 
has been ground through a food cutter. Add ice water for stiff 
dough, roll out at once or rest before rolling as preferred. Bake 
carefully so as not to scorch the cocoanut. Dried grated co- 
coanut of your own preparing is preferable. 2 cups of cocoanut 
may be used. 

If a sweet wafer is desired, add sugar to the dough or sprinkle 
with sugar before baking. 



462 THE LAUREL 

Fruit Bars 

Roll any desired dough thin, cut into 3-3 /^ in. strips, spread 
one half of the width with stoned dates, halved raisins, 
steamed figs, sweet prunes or any suitable fruit, which has been 
cut into strips with the shears; moisten the edge next to the 
fruit, fold the other half of the dough over, pressing the edges 
well together, and roll lightly to flatten the bar; cut with a sharp 
knife into 2^-3 in. lengths. 

Add nuts to make fruit and nut bars, or make nut bars some- 
times. The dough may be slightly sweetened. 

Crackers with Nuts 

Brush baked crackers with beaten white of egg and spread 
thick with chopped or coarse ground nuts (English walnuts or 
pecans or both). Put into warm oven to dry. 

These crackers are nice to serve with fruit or vegetable salads, 
or with cereal coffee or tea-hygiene. 

Graham CrackersSweet 

2 cups each graham and % cup sugar 

white flour /^ teaspn. salt 

/^ cup butter or oil cold water for stiff dough 

Mix well together, run through food cutter (with finest knife) 
5 or 6 times, roll about /8 in. thick, prick with fork, cut into 
any desired shape, set in cold place for 2 hrs. or longer, bake in 
moderate oven. 

Omit sugar for unsweetened crackers. Dough may be kneaded, 
picking it apart into small pieces, if food cutter is not at hand. 
Or, crackers are very good made up without any kneading, when 
rested in cold place. 

if Sour Cream Crackers 

y?> cup thick sour cream /^ teaspn. salt [dough 

2 tablespns. oil pastry flour for rather stiff 

Rest and finish as other crackers. If the cream is not rich, 
use more oil. 



BREADS UNLEAVENED 463 

Nut Wafers 

/^-i cup fine chopped or ground nuts X teaspn. salt 

i pt. flour, graham or white, or water for stiff dough 

half of each 

Finish the same as graham crackers. Nice \\ith fruit soups. 

Fruit Wafers 

Roll any of the cracker doughs thin, place figs, dates, raisins 
or prunes cut in thin pieces with the shears, on the dough, cover 
with another thin layer of dough, roll with rolling pin to press 
all together, prick with fork, cut in squares, rest, bake. 

if Oat Cakes 

i part oil, 2 parts water, salt, coarse oat flour to knead. 
Roll y in. thick of size to fit pie pan, crease in quarters, rest; 
bake in moderate oven. The dough may be cut into crackers if 
preferred. Grind rolled oats or oatmeal in food cutter, to make 

the flour. 

if Graham Crisps or Flakes 

Prepare dough as for plain graham rolls, kneading very stiff. 
After resting, separate into small pieces and roll each piece as 
thin as paper. When all are rolled, put as many as convenient 
into a hot oven on perforated pans or on the grate of the oven. 
Turn them over on the pans often while baking and bake to a 
delicate brown. Serve whole or in broken pieces. 

This is one of the most delicate and digestible of unleavened 
breads and has a crispness and nutty flavor peculiarly its own. 
It should be one of the staple articles of food in our homes and 
is especially adapted to school, picnic and travelling lunches. 

Cream Crisps 

Mix with thin cream instead of water and bake in slower oven 
than water crisps. \Yith cream, whole wheat or white flour 
may be used, as well as graham. 

Nut Crisps 

Use nut roll dough, kneading it very stiff Beaten biscuit 
dough may also be used for shortened crisps. 



THE LAUREL 

Cocoanut Crisps 

Use equal quantities of desiccated cocoanut and pastry flour, 
with water or milk for liquid. 

Nut Straws 

Take equal quantities of any nut meal and pastry flour, \\ith 
a little salt. Add just enough ice water to make the particles 
hold together, roll out without kneading to X i n - thick, then 
cut into strips ^ in. wide and 5-8 in. long. Bake in quick oven 
to delicate cream color. Serve tied with narrow ribbon in 
bunches of 3-5 with individual plates of salad or on celery 
dish. 2 A nut meal and 1 A flour may be used for richer straws. 

/ ,_/ / *j tj 

Unleavened Bread for Communion 

2 cups pastry flour Y* teaspn. salt 

2^-3 tablespns. olive oil / 7 3 to scant /^ cup of ice water 

Mix salt, flour, and oil together, add enough ice water for stiff 
dough, press together as for pie crust and set in refrigerator an 
hour or longer. Roll dough three-sixteenths of an inch thick, 
prick all over with a fork, mark off in nine-sixteenth-inch squares 
by a rule, cut into convenient sized pieces for baking. Lay on 
a pan or perforated sheet, then crease marked squares half 
through the dough with a spatula or the back of a knife. Bake 
very carefully in a moderate oven. 

1^2-2 tablespns. of butter may be used instead of the oil, but 
olive oil seems more suitable for the purpose. 



SANDWICHES 



Bread for sandwiches should be of fine even grain and twenty- 
four hours old, except for rolled sandwiches, then it must be 
moist enough to be pliable. 

Sometimes it is well to wrap the loaves to be used for sand- 
wiches in damp cloths for three or four hours before preparing. 

Dip the knife into hot water for slicing moist bread. 

Thin, fresh crisped crackers or wafers are nice for sandwiches 
when they are to be served right away, so they will not lose 
their crispness. Wafers of pastry are suitable for some sand- 
wiches. 

Small round tins, like baking powder cans, are nice to bake 
bread in for sandwiches. Be careful not to bake it too hard. 

Do not cut the crust from the bread as a rule; it is the sweet- 
est and most wholesome part of the bread and the slices look 
so ' 'naked" without it. 

Unless the loaf is of the regular sandwich style, cut it in two 
in the middle, spread each cut surface, if butter is to be used, 
and cut off a thin slice from each half loaf. Cover one slice 
with the sandwich filling and lay the other on top of that, press- 
ing well together. Cut into triangles, squares or strips. Con- 
tinue cutting slices from each half loaf, then they will fit. 

Cream (not melt) the butter before spreading; it may have 
chopped parsley, onion or lemon juice or other flavorings worked 
into it. 

For rolled sandwiches, the crust will have to be cut off unless 
it is very pliable. Cut slices thin, spread with the desired filling 
and roll as close as possible. If they should not stay together 
well, fasten with sharp pointed Japanese toothpicks They may 
be tied with baby ribbon. 

[465] 



466 THE LAUREL 

Steam figs, seeded raisins and dates and grind in food cutter 
for sweet sandwiches. 

Scrambled eggs are better in sandwiches than hard boiled. 
Hard boiled eggs may be rubbed to a paste in a mortar, with 
butter and salt. 

When mayonnaise dressing is used, put sandwiches together 
just before serving. 

Onion sandwiches, when carried, must be packed in a close 
covered box by themselves. 

To keep moist, cover plate with lettuce leaves, lay sandwiches 
on and cover with dampened lettuce leaves. Or, cover plate of 
sandwiches with a towel wrung out of cold water and set in cool 
place. Or, wrap sandwiches in a damp napkin or waxed paper 
and place in close covered tin box or stone jar and set in cool 
place. It is better to have everything ready and put the sand- 
wiches together just before serving. 

Garnishing- -Sandwiches are much more attractive if a few 
sprays of parsley are placed around the edges before the second 
slice of bread is laid on. Sprigs of celery or small spinach leaves 
may be used, or a narrow strip of lettuce may be laid around 
the edges, so that it will look like a dainty ruffle of green. 

Sweet sandwiches may be served with cereal coffee, tea-hy- 
giene, egg drinks or egg creams. 

Plates of sandwiches may be garnished with chervil, parsley, 
lettuce, celery or carrot tops, ferns, leaves or flowers. 

FILLINGS FOR SANDWICHES 

Salt understood 

Eggs Scrambled without liquid, rather soft, served hot or 
cold. 

Hard boiled, while warm minced with fork and mixed with but- 
ter and salt. 

Hard boiled, sliced, between slices of bread spread with thick, 
rich cream sauce; chopped parsley, with or without celery or 
onion. 



SANDWICHES 467 

Scrambled or hard boiled (if hard boiled, rubbed through wire 
strainer), mixed with improved mayonnaise dressing. 

Nuts Chopped black walnut meats mixed with peanut but- 
ter which has been blended with a little water or tomato. 
Almond butter on bread, minced tarragon, drained red raspberry 

and ripe red currant pulp sweetened, between. 
Chopped almonds, basil, sliced or chopped peaches, sugar. 
Butternuts or pine nuts, rolled; bread, crackers or Boston brown 

bread. 
*Nut butter, roasted or steamed, blended with water and mixed 

with chopped ripe olives, no salt. 
Nut butter blended with strained tomato and mixed with sliced 

ripe olives. 

if Nut butter, roasted or steamed, water, chopped soaked dried 
olives, on crackers. 
Nut butter, and tomato pulp. 
+ Pine nuts, butter or rolled; tomato pulp, with or without 

chopped soaked dried olives, on crackers. 

Trumese- -Trumese %, nutmese ^, mince together with 

fork, add a little pdrd. leaf sage or fine sliced celery sometimes. 
Minced, between slices of bread spread with tart jelly. Sage 

sometimes. 

And celery salad, trumese minced and celery cut very fine. 
Minced and mixed with thick, rich cream sauce. 
Olive oil and lemon juice. 

Nutmese or steamed nut butter, and cream (sweet or sour); 

mix to paste, add onion juice, and if desired, lemon juice; 

celery sometimes without lemon juice. Bread or crackers. 
Or unroasted nut butter, chopped or sliced onions and improved 

mayonnaise dressing. 

Minced, on bread, stewed green peas between. 
Sliced, on one slice of bread and tart jelly on the other, press 

together. 

Ripe Olives Sliced, between slices of bread spread with im- 



468 THE LAUREL 

proved mayonnaise dressing. Also ripe olives and tomato, 

chopped, mixed with cracker dust. 
Legumes- -Li ma beans, mashed with butter. 

Peas, green, mashed very dry with celery or celery salt and cream. 
Beans, crushed or mashed, sliced cucumbers, oil; lemon juice 

sometimes. 
Chick peas or lentils, mashed, dry; mushrooms dried or fresh, 

cooked in a little water with butter, chopped, added with 

liquid to peas. 
Cottage Cheese Soft, creamy, with or without chopped or 

sliced ripe olives; white, whole wheat or Boston brown bread 

or crackers. 
Spread on slices of rye bread (made with or without caraway), 

with pecan meats between, with or without celery. 
Boston Brown Bread- -Whipped cream, butter or oil (not for- 
getting salt); sliced cucumbers. Brazil nut, almond or pine 

nut butter may be used. 
Roasted peanut butter and sliced figs or dates. 

Spinach- -Tender fresh leaves, cut fine, a few delicate whole 
ones around edge, with any preferred dressing. 
Celery- -Brazil nut butter on bread or crackers; sliced, crisp 
celery between. 

Tomato- -Thin slices of tomato between slices of bread spread 
with improved mayonnaise dressing. A little chopped onion 
sometimes. 

Cucumber Substitute cucumber for tomato in above. 
Mayonnaise- -Improved- -Flavor with onion, chives, parsley, 
fresh thyme or tarragon, or combinations of same and spread 
on bread or crackers. 

Onion Slice fine, let stand in ice water ^ hour or more, 
changing water 2 or 3 times. Drain and dry in clean towel 
and place with parsley leaves between slices of bread spread 
with mayonnaise dressing, or nut or dairy butter or salted oil. 



SANDWICHES 

Carrot and Celery, or Onion Grated raw carrot and fine sliced 
celery or onion, French or mayonnaise dressing. 
Scented Clover- -Place blossoms in bottom of tureen, lay on 
loaf of bread from which the crusts have been trimmed and 
cover with blossoms. Cover and set in cool place for 12 hours 
or longer. Wrap butter in cheese cloth and put into another 
dish the same way. These sandwiches are simply bread and 
butter. Mignonnette, violets, nasturtiums, rose leaves or 
any highly scented flowers or leaves may be used. 
Brown and White Lay together three slices of buttered white 
bread and two of graham or rye, alternating. Set in cold place 
with gentle pressure for an hour or more. Slice to serve. 
SweetBetter than Cake Spread crackers or thin universal 
biscuit with butter and honey. 

English walnuts, raisins, sugar, white of egg, vanilla; put be- 
tween crackers and heat in oven. 

Brazil nuts, pecans or almonds, with figs or dates. 

Orange pulp, shredded mint, sugar, sweet dressing or whipped 
cream. 

Grated or desiccated cocoanut, moistened with cream, with 
sliced or ground dates, figs or raisins and vanilla. 

Equal quantities chopped dates and raisins ; grape juice to moisten. 

Almond butter, sugar or not, vanilla, ground or fine sliced citron. 

Butternuts or nut butter, date, fig or raisin pulp, crackers or 
pastry wafers. 

Thin slices of banana between slices of bread spread \vith cream 
and honey mixed, with or without a few chopped nuts. 
Sponge cake instead of bread, sometimes. 

Quince jelly, chopped hickory or pecan nut meats. 

Boston brown bread, raisins or dates, English walnuts or pecans, 
cocoanut cream or Brazil nut butter, or no butter. 

Pastry crust, prick with fork, cut in any desired shape, bake; 
spread with chopped almonds mixed with peach marmalade or 
any desired sweet or jelly and put two pieces together. 



47O THE LAUREL 

Rolled- -Plain or scented bread and butter. 

Figs steamed, ground, cream and vanilla. 

Roll buttered bread from corner over slender stalks of crisp 
celery. The small inside stalks are preferable. Turn the 
leaf ends of the stalks so that they will show at each end of 
the roll. A lengthwise strip of cucumber may be substituted 
for the celery, and parsley used for garnish. 

OPEN SANDWICHES-CANAPES 

These are daintily arranged bits of bread cut into rounds, ovals 
or any fancy shape; sometimes toasted on one side; served 
most suitably at a luncheon or supper and eaten with a fork. 
Crackers are more suitable for some coverings. Much taste may 
be displayed in the arrangement of canapes. 

Mushroom Canapes 

Toast rounds of bread on one side, lay toasted side down on 
individual plates and cover the other side with chopped mush- 
rooms cooked in a small quantity of water with butter, and lay 
one small broiled mushroom (or one that has been cooked the 
same as the chopped), cup side up, in the center. Garnish with 
lettuce, chervil, spinach or parsley. 

Trumese and Egg Canape 

Moisten hashed trumese with a little rich cream or brown 
sauce. Toast diamonds of bread on one side and dip the other 
side in melted butter. Scramble eggs soft and fine and place in 
center of toast, diamond shape, then cover the remainder of the 
toast with the trumese, making a diamond shaped border of it. 
Lay a piece of green string bean cut in diamond shape in the 
center; set in the oven a moment, serve on individual plates. 

Indian Canapes 

Mince trumese salad entree fine and rub hard boiled yolks of 
eggs with some of the dressing; spread on untoasted side of strips 
of bread or thin wafers. Garnish plate with slices of lemon and 



SANDWICHES 4/1 

tomato sprinkled with chopped parsley or with a leaf of parsley 
or spinach on each. 

Russian Canapes 

Drain Chili sauce and rub through strainer, place pulp in cen- 
ter of large wafer, surround with salted, riced yolk of hard boiled 
egg, finishing with a wreath of the riced white of egg sprinkled 
with chopped parsley. A leaf of green may be laid in the cen- 
ter of the Chili sauce. Toasted bread may be used. 

Cottage Cheese Canapes 

Cover crackers or circles of toast with creamy cottage cheese. 
Make a border on cheese of small leaves of parsley and place a 
star or other shape of boiled red beet or carrot in the center. 
Serve with lettuce salad. 

Ripe olives may be combined with cheese for canapes. Pastry 
wafers may be used. 

An oxeye daisy, p. 31, may be placed in center of canape, in 
the wreath of parsley. 

Sweet canapes may be prepared in great variety. The sand- 
wich filling of cocoanut moistened with cream, with dates, figs 
or raisins would be very pretty if wafer were spread with the 
sweet pulp, then covered with cocoanut decorated with citron 
or angelica and candied cherries in fancy shapes or chopped. 
Pastry wafers would be especially suitable for some of the sweet 
canapes. 

Sandwich a la Salade 

Roll strips of trumese salad entree in crisp lettuce leaves, 
fasten with Japanese toothpicks and serve on crackers or strips 
of zwieback or with crescent sandwiches of bread and butter; or 
the salad without the toothpick may be snugly rolled in a bread 
and butter or bread and oil sandwich. 

Sister Starr's Tomato Sandwich 

Chop together scrambled egg, oil and drained tomato (raw or 
canned), not forgetting the salt, add cracker crumbs to make of 



. 



4/2 THE LAUREL 

the right consistency and serve between crackers or slices of 
bread. 

Variegated Sandwiches 

Make three equal sized loaves of universal crust, one tinted a 
delicate pink with fruit color, one left white, and the third made 
of part graham flour with a little dark brown flour in the sponge. 

When old enough, cut in slices, butter, pack together brown, 
pink and white and set in refrigerator with weight on top. 

To serve, cut in slices, then in any desired shape. 

English Bread and Butter Sandwiches 

Spread butter on loaf and cut in just as thin slices as possible 
roll, fold, or place slices together. 

if Trumese Sandwiches--non-starch 

Broil thin slices of trumese and place between them, scram- 
bled eggs, or fine sliced onions or celery; garnish. 



MILK, CREAM, BUTTER AND CHEESE 



'The time has not come to say that the use of milk and eggs 
should be wholly discarded.' 

"But because disease in animals is increasing, the time \vill 
soon come when there will be no safety in using eggs, milk, 
cream or butter. ' 

'If milk is used, it should be thoroughly sterilized; with this 
precaution there is less danger of contracting disease from its 
use. ' 

State Boards of Health and Experiment Stations declare that 
from fifteen to thirty percent, of the cows from which our cities 
draw their milk supply are affected with tuberculosis. In one 
locality it was found that 65 per cent, of the best milk that was 
presented was tubercular. 

'Examination has determined that cream has from 10 to 500 
times as many bacteria in a given quantity of milk as mixed 
milk. The bacteria nearly all rise to the top with the cream.' 
"Life and Health ," April, 1909. 

In considering the question of appendicitis, a writer in the 
American Medical Journal says: 'The chief sources of tuber- 
culosis infection of the alimentary tract are the ingestion of milk, 
butter and cheese from tuberculous cows 

"These authors (of the Experiment Station in Washington) 
consider that a very large amount of butter infected with tubercle 

bacilli is daily consumed by our people 

'Measure for measure, infected butter is a greater tubercular 
danger than infected milk Tests show that in the ordi- 
nary salted butter of commerce the Koch bacillus 'may live and 
retain virulence practically four and a half months or longer.' 

To Pasteurize Milk 
Place a dairy thermometer, or one in an unpainted tin case, 

[473] 



474 THE I-AUKKI. 

in the milk; heat, preferably in double boiler, as quickly as pos- 
sible, to a temperature of not less than 140 degrees F. and keep 
it there for 40 in., or raise to 158 degrees F. for 10-20 m. Cool 
rapidly. The rapid heating and cooling are necessary because 
a warm temperature is most favorable for the development of 
germs and the spores of germs which (spores) are not destroyed 
by this treatment of milk. 

When milk is to be kept for several hours it should be heated 
in air-tight bottles or in bottles which have stoppers of sterilized 
cotton, by starting them in cold water and keeping them at a 
temperature of 149 degrees F. for a half hour after bringing the 
water to that point. 

Pasteurizing milk does not give it the cooked taste that a higher 
temperature does. 

When it is not possible to carry out these directions, just bring 
milk to the boiling point, or set bottles of milk or cream in cold 
water, bring the water to boiling and boil for 10-20 m. Of 
course the bottles should have something underneath them, to 
keep them from touching the bottom of the vessel in which they 
are standing. 

To Sterilize Butter 

Boil butter in a generous amount of water thoroughly. Cool, 
remove from the top of the water and drain. 

Sterilized Butter 

Pasteurize sweet cream the same as milk, cool quickly, let 
stand covered in a cold place for at least 4 hrs; whip or beat in 
a deep vessel, the inner cup of a double boiler or a pitcher, 
(some think it easier to shake the cream in a tightly corked, 
wide mouthed bottle or jar) until like whipped cream; then set 
the dish in slightly warm water, to raise the temperature of the 
cream enough to cause the butter to separate but not enough 
to make it oily. Remove the dish from warm water just as soon 
as butter begins to separate; pour off buttermilk and pour pure 
cold water over the butter. Work a little and pour water off; 



MILK, CREAM, BUTTER, CHEESE 475 

next pour on water with a little salt (i teaspn. to the quart) and 
let it stand from 10 to 15 m. Remove butter to cold dish, add 
salt, about ^ tablespn. to the pound, if unsalted butter is not pre- 
ferred; work a little, cover with a cloth wrung out of salt water, 
and let stand a few hours in a clean airy place. Then work a 
little and shape as desired. Do not work enough to spoil the 
grain and make the butter oily. 

This is the method with which I have had the best success. 
The regular temperature for churning cream is from 58 to 60 
degrees by the thermometer. Sterilized butter should be made 
fresh every day. 

"Protein is the most costly of the food ingredients and the 
one most likely to be lacking in inexpensive meals, and is the 
nutrient which skim milk supplies in a cheap and useful form.' 
-R. D. Milner, P/i. B. Fanners' Bulletin, 363, U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture. 

"Sour milk is the safest form to use if milk is not Pasteurized, 
as the acid of the milk kills all the germs except the lactic acid 
germ. ' -Dr. Rand. 

"People who cannot digest fresh milk or in whom it produces 
a feeling of heaviness and discomfort, can eat large quantities 
of curdled milk without inconvenience.' -W. Brown, J/. />., 
CJi. B., in Edinburgh Medical Journal. 

"Lactic acid precipitates the casein (clabbers the milk) but 
does not affect the fats and salts. Its effect on the casein is to 
improve the digestibility of this important compound, the meat 
element, which is the most valuable constituent of milk. . . . , 
As a matter of fact, sour milk is really a more healthful food 
than sweet milk, digesting more rapidly and more completely.' 
-W. M. Esten, in Storr s Bulletin, No. 59. 

Directions for making artificial buttermilk come with the 



lets and preparations sold for that purpose. 

As milk is a hearty food it should not be taken with other 



4/6 THE LAl'RKL 

heavy foods such as nuts, legumes or eggs, but with bread, zwie- 
back, crackers or rolls, parched or popped corn and other cereals. 

(Hear milk is coagulated by the gastric juice and should be 
taken slowly, in small amounts, so that the acid may have a 
chance to mix \vith it and form the curd in small particles. 
When drank rapidly, the curd will form in large pieces and be 
difficult of digestion, often causing distress and disease. 

Some can digest sweet milk better if an acid is taken with it, 
but, as a rule, such individuals would better take nut milk and 
cream, preferably nuts, and plenty of juicy fruits. 

In fact, considering the increase of disease among animals, 
it were better for us all to be learning more and more how to 
prepare foods without milk and eggs, educating ourselves and 
others away from them. 

The next thing to copper or re-tinned vessels for heating milk 
to the boiling point without scorching, is a nice clean iron fry- 
ing pan or round bottomed iron kettle. I have used a stone 
milk crock. 

Brush the inside of whatever dish milk is to be heated in with 
oil or butter, as a still further precaution against scorching, for 
scorched milk is unusable. 

Wash all utensils used for milk first in cold water, then with 
w r arm soapsuds, and then scald with perfectly boiling water. 
Wipe with clean dry towels and if possible put them in the sun. 

When hot water is poured into vessels before they are washed 
clean, the casein is glued into the crevices, ready to make mis- 
chief with the next lot of milk. 

Condensed milk, containing cane sugar, is thought by many 
physicians to be the cause of the great increase of diabetes, 
especially among children. 

A pinch of salt added to rather thin cream will cause it to 
whip up light. Whip cream in a pitcher, the inner cup of a 
double boiler or even in a tin can, something deep and small 
around. Of course the cream and utensils should be very cold. 



MILK, CREAM, BUTTER, CHEESE 477 

Stop whipping while cream is smooth, before it begins to have 
any rough appearance. 

Scalded, Devonshire or Clotted Cream 

Let milk stand undisturbed in a cool, well ventilated place 
for 12 hours in summer, 24 in winter. Then set the pan care- 
fully in some place over the fire where it will heat very slowly 
almost to the boiling point; it must not boil. (It is better to set 
the pan in water which will come up on the sides as high as the 
milk.) Let stand again in a cool place for 12 hours or until 
thoroughly cooled. Divide with a knife into squares, and skim 
by folding these squares over and over in rolls. Set in a cool 
place. This is a most delightful substitute for butter on bread, 
and it may also be used with cereals and fruits. 

The cream may be placed by skimmerfuls in layers on a plate 
instead of being rolled. 

USES OF SOUR CREAM WITHOUT SODA 

Sour cream may be used without soda in Pie Crust; Shortcake 
Crust; Dumplings for Pot Pies; Steamed Puddings, and all places 
where universal crust is used; Salad Dressings in all places where 
sweet cream is used; Soups, just before serving; Stewed Cabbage 
and Stewed Tomatoes; Gravy; Macaroni: Cottage Cheese much 
better than sweet cream; Dominion Salad Dressing: Crackers: 
Cream Lemon Sauce; Lemon Cream Sauce; Sauce Antique: Pie Fill- 
ing and Cake Fillings. \Yith Green Peas, mixed with a little flour 
before putting it in, it can not be distinguished from sweet cream: and 
the same with all vegetables with which I have tried it excepting 
string beans: in those it tastes a little tart. It may be poured over 
Trumese in half-loaves or in slices to bake: and Whipped, when 
the slight tartness is desirable. 

CHEESE 

The process of "ripening" in cheese is a process of decay, 
and poisonous ptomaines are often developed. I have no doubt 
but it would be better if cheese were never taken into the hu- 
man stomach. Our Father has given us such an abundance of 
clean, wholesome foods to select from that we can well afford 
to disregard the questionable ones. 



4/8 THE LAUREL 

Cottage Cheese 

Skim a pan of well thickened sour milk, cut it carefully into 
2-in. squares and set into a cool oven on an iron ring, or some- 
thing to keep it from the bottom of the oven, and leave the door 
open. Turn the pan occasionally but do not stir the milk. Be 
careful not to let it get too warm. It should never be hot, only 
a little above blood heat. I have sometimes made it in the 
summer by setting the pan in the sun. When the curd and 
whey have separated, turn all into a bag and hang up to drain. 
Do not drain the curd too dry. Season with sweet or sour 
cream and a little salt; pile in a rocky mass in a glass dish and 
set in a cool place. 

Pass Chili sauce, Sauce Americaine or improved mayonnaise 
dressing with it, in serving. 

Thick strained stewed tomato may be used instead of or with 
the cream. 

If milk is stirred while thickening or while heating, it will 
yield only about X as much cheese as it would otherwise. 

If properly made the cheese will be soft and creamy, instead 
of rough, dry and tasteless. It should never be used in anything 
that is to be raised to a high temperature, as that would make it 
hard and indigestible. 

Cottage cheese is a strong meat food, being the casein of the 
milk separated from the water. 

Zeiger Case 

i gallon fresh milk, I pt. thick sour milk, 3 eggs. Beat eggs, 
and sour milk together and stir slowly into sweet milk just as it 
begins to boil. \Yhen curd rises to top, skim into colander and 
drai n . 



DRINKS 

'Two-thirds of all the patients that come to my office come 
because they drink tea and coffee. When I can get them to 
give up tea and coffee, they can get well. 1 -Dr. Footc. Omaha. 

Tea and coffee hinder the digestion of all the food elements, 
both nitrogenous and carbonaceous. They cause extreme nerv- 
ousness and irritability. 

"To a certain extent, tea produces intoxication.' 

"The second effect of tea drinking is headache, wakefulness, 
palpitation of the heart, indigestion, trembling of the nerves and 
many other evils.' 

"The influence of coffee is in a degree the same as that of tea, 
but the effect upon the system is still worse.' 

Theobromine, the essential element of cocoa and chocolate, 
is identical with the thein and caffeine of tea and coffee. 

"Some of the best authorities claim that the quantity of theo- 
brornine in chocolate is greater than that of theine or caffeine in 
tea or coffee, and also that in equal quantities, theobromine is a 
stronger drug than caffeine or theine.' -Dr. George. 

A. B. Prescott, Ph. D., M. D., for many years Dean of the 
chemical department of the University of Michigan, says in his 
"Organic Analysis, " published by D. Van Xostrand Co., New 
York City in 1892, pp. 77 and 513: "Coffee contains I per cent, 
of caffeine.' 'Dry cacao seeds contain 1.5 per cent, of theo- 
bromine.' "The physiological effects of theobromine are like 
caffeine but are obtained bv smaller doses.' 

j 

The increasing use of chocolate and cocoa in and with every- 

J 

thing is alarming, and we feel that we must raise our voices in 
warning against this 'habit," since many are innocent in regard 
to its nature. 

[479] 



480 THE LAUREL 

"The use of unnatural stimulants is destructive to health and 
has a benumbing influence upon the brain, making it impossible 
to appreciate eternal tilings.' 

As our bodies are made up so largely of water it is necessary 
to take a sufficient amount to keep the tissues bathed and built 
up, but it should not be taken with our meals, for solid foods 
cannot be digested until the liquids have been absorbed, and 
when retained in the stomach too long' food ferments, making an 
inebriate of the water drinker. 

Fluids also dilute the digestive juices so that they lose their 
power to act. Do not drink for a half hour or more before 
meals, or within I to 3 hours after persons with slow digestion 
or subject to acidity, 3 hours. 

If very cold or hot drinks are taken, the temperature at which 
digestion is carried on is affected, causing another delay. 

As a rule, the body gets the greatest benefit from water taken 
early in the morning. 

Pastor Kneipp recommended the use of small quantities of 
water (i teaspoonful), often. If one is situated so as to be able 
to take a few swallows frequently, it is better than to deluge the 
stomach three or four times a day; as a steady, gentle rain is 
more beneficial than a torrent. 

Hot water, at one time the great panacea, is responsible for 
many case's of serious indigestion by causing the muscles of the 
stomach to relax and become weak. A cup of hot water occa- 
sionally, when one feels that he has taken a little cold, will help 
to ward off the cold but it should not be often repeated. 

The advice of one doctor of great sense and considerable rep- 
utation was "Drink cold water when thirsty.' 

Pure Distilled Water is unquestionably the best drink. 
Mineral Waters sometimes have a beneficial effect when used 
for a short time, but that is lost by their continued use and after 
a few weeks the individual begins to suffer with serious stomach 
and kidney difficulties. 



DRINKS 48l 

*' Very Hard Water is not only unpleasant to the skin and diffi- 
cult to make into a lather, but, what is more important still, it 
exerts a more or less harmful influence upon the digestive system. 
Constipation is not infrequently the direct result of the constant 
use of hard water. Wherever possible apparatus should be used 
for the purpose of distilling hard water. If this is impracticable, 
boiling the water will materially reduce the hardness. The flat- 
ness of boiled water is easily and quickly remedied by aerating it. 
Pouring water back and forth from one glass to another will 
speedily restore its oxygen.' -English Good Health. 

The liberal use of Fresh Juicy Fruits helps out in the amount 
of fluids. I have known a few people who ate no meat and 
almost no vegetables, but did use juicy acid fruits in abundance, 
who never felt the pangs of thirst, and they were in exceptionally 
good health, with great powers of endurance. 

The change of water in travelling affects many people unfavor- 
ably and often it is difficult to obtain pure water. The substi- 
tution of juicy fruits at such times banishes the difficulties. 

Fruit Nectars 

We make "fruit nectars" by adding lemon juice, sugar and 
water (the less sugar the better, a sugar syrup is preferable) to 
pure fruit juices and to combinations of fruit juices. Some, such 
as grape and black raspberry, will bear a good deal of water, but 
pineapple and other delicate flavored juices very little. 

If pineapple is combined with another juice, let it be some- 
thing without a strong, positive flavor (as orange or strawberry), 
or the pineapple juice will be wasted. A strong and a neutral 
flavored juice, red raspberry and currant for instance, go well 
together. Lemon juice gives character to all. Peach and grape 
juice, or apple and grape juice are good combinations. 

To fully enjoy the flavors, do not serve drinks ice cold. 

Banana Lemon Nectar 

Syrup- -3-4 cups water, ^ cup sugar, boil; add y 2 cup lemon 



482 THE LAUREL 

juice, cool. Cut I large banana in small pieces; pour syrup over, 
let stand in refrigerator 2 hours or longer; strain or not; serve 
with thin slices of lemon. 

Orange Banana Nectar 

Cut half a small orange into sections, rind and all and add to 
banana syrup about 20 m. before serving. Before straining, put 
sections into glasses, pour the strained syrup over them andserve. 

Orange Nectar 
Add sections of orange to lemon syrup without the banana. 

Mint Orange Nectar 
Add shredded mint to orange nectar. 

Lemonades 

Lemonade, with but little sugar, has no equal as a drink be- 
cause of the purifying effect of the lemon juice upon both the 
water and the individual, 

A strong lemonade requires less sugar in proportion than one 
having a large quantity of water. A sugar syrup is best for 
sweetening, and the less used the better. 

Mint Sprinkle fine cut spearmint into lemonade lo to 15 m. 
before serving. Very cooling and refreshing. 

Egg- -i egg, 2 tablespns. sugar, 2/^2 tablespns. lemon juice, 
water to make 2 glasses. Beat egg and sugar, add lemon juice 
and beat, then add water. 

White of Egg- -2-2^/2. tablespns. lemon juice, white of I egg, 
I tablespn. sugar. Beat white of egg and sugar, add lemon juice, 
then water. 

Milk and Egg- -\ egg, /^-/4 cup milk, i teaspn. or more lemon 
juice, a little grated rind of lemon. Beat yolk of egg and add 
cold milk, turn into glass; beat white of egg with a trifle of salt 
and add half the lemon juice; add remainder of lemon juice to 
the yolk and milk, lay white on top and serve at once. 

Egg Orangeade 

Beat the white of i egg with the juice of i large sweet orange, 
strain. 



DRINKS 483 

To Prepare Fruit Juices 

The most desirable juices for drinks are made from fresh, ripe, 
uncooked fruits by crushing, and straining through a cloth. It 
is better to pour cold water over some fruits and let them stand 
for a while before straining. Apples may be sliced or chopped 
and water added. 

For canning fruit juices, see pp. 60, 61. The liquid from soak- 
ing acid dried fruits in water for several hours (without cooking) 
is refreshing; also the juice in which chopped raisins have been 

steeped. 

Cranberry Juice 

Crush or grind I qt. of cranberries, pour I qt. of boiling 
water over, cool; add sugar after straining and stir until it is dis- 
solved. 

Cereal Coffees or Drinks 

The bulk of the so-called 'cereal' drinks on the market 
have some commercial coffee in them, as well as chicory. There 
are a few, however, made of combinations of grains, or of fruits, 
nuts and grains, only. Those containing chicory require a long 
boiling, according to the directions on the packages, to destroy 
the rank, harsh flavor of the chicory; and the ones made of 
parched grains without caramel in any form are improved by 
long steeping to develop the mild flavor. But it is a great mistake 
to boil those having a characteristic, agreeable flavor any more 
than we used to boil Java or Mocha. To make these, put the 
cereal (from I teaspn. to ] ^ tablespn. to each cup of water ac- 
cording to taste) into perfectly boiling water, allow it to just 
boil up, then stand on the back of the range where it cannot 
boil, for from 5-10 m. Serve with nice rich sterilized cream 
(hot better). When cream is not obtainable and the drink must 
be served, hot scalded milk gives a better flavor than unscalded 
milk, but as a rule, it is better to omit the coffee when you ha\ v 
no cream. 

Never make cereal coffee in a tin coffee pot that commercial 
coffee has been made in. It would ruin the flavor. 



484 THE LAUREL 

\Ve do not advise the drinking of even cereal coffee, but use 
it to win people from injurious beverages. 

To Make a Cerial Drink 

It is very convenient to know how to make a cereal coffee, 
though if one's time is worth much and a good coffee is to be 

obtained, it is cheaper to buy it. The following recipe is one 
that I have used for years and it is excellent. None of the 
whole grains equal bran for the drink. 

i qt. wheat bran pressed down lightly % cup hot water 

i pt. corn meal */z cup nice-flavored dark molasses 

Mix bran and corn meal and pour over them the molasses and 
hot water which have been combined. Rub all together with 
the hands until smooth; set in a warm oven and stir occasion- 
ally until well dried out, then increase the heat of the oven, 
stirring the mixture often; at the last have the oven very hot 
and stir almost constantly until cereal is a dark chestnut brown, 
which will take but a short time at the last. Remove from the 
oven and stir until cooled a little so that it will not brown more 
by its own heat, and put into a close covered can. 

When preparing to serve, use l /i-i cup of the coffee to each 
quart of boiling water, let it just boil up and stand for 5 m. 

Different combinations of grains are browned and ground for 
drinks. Barley is much liked by some, rye by others. Carrot 
and celery roots dried and browned are good, and browned peas 
are excellent. 

Tea-Hygiene 

Celery and raspberry leaf tea have been served in some of the 
restaurants in New York City for several years and are both 
good. Either the tops (fresh or dry) or seeds of celery may be 
used. Crush the seeds before steeping. I have also used mint, 
anise, tarragon, catnip and thyme for tea and found them all 
pleasant drinks. Steep them for 15-20 m., strain and serve 
with cream only. You will be surprised I am sure when you 



DRINKS 485 

try them. Do not allow catnip tea to stand with the leaves if 
to be re-heated. 

Bran Tea 

Brown bran delicately. Take 2 tablespns. for each cup of 
water, boil up well or steep for 20 m. Dried unbrowned bran 
may be used with longer cooking. 

Cold Cereal Coffee 

Pour hot coffee over cream or cream and sugar. Cool. For 
luncheon or supper. 

Eggnog 

i egg, l /2-^i cup of milk, I teaspn. or no sugar, flavoring or 
not. Beat or shake until foamy, pour into glass and serve with 
or without whipped cream on top. Eggnog does not necessa- 
rily contain liquor. 

Hot Eggnog 

Beat I egg with or without a teaspn. of sugar and a few drops 
of vanilla. Pour /^-^ cup of hot milk over, stirring. Turn 
into warm glass and serve at once. 

Cream for Coffee 

Beat I egg to a foam, add I tablespn. white sugar and pour a 
pint of boiling hot milk over, stirring briskly. Prepare at night 
for morning. 

Cream for Coffee No. 2 

Pour I pt. boiling milk on beaten yolk of I egg mixed with 2 
tablespns. cold milk. Set back on the stove to scald but not boil. 

"Food should not be washed down. No drink is needed with 
the meals. Eat slowly and allow the saliva to mingle with the 
food. Hot drinks are debilitating. Do not eat largely of salt; 
give up bottled pickles ; keep fiery spiced food out of your stomach ; 
eat fruit with vour meals, and the irritation which calls for so 

j 

much drink will cease to exist. But if anything is needed to 
quench thirst, pure water drunk some little time before or after 
a meal is all that nature requires.' 



INVALID FOOLS 



'Diet in the hands of an expert is far more effective than 
drugs. I speak from a large experience in both systems. ' -"Food 
ami Condition.' Dr. Yorke Davis ^ London. 

tk ln many cases of sickness the very best remedy is for the 
patient to fast for a meal or two, that the overworked organs 
of digestion may have an opportunity to rest.' 

"A fruit diet for a few days has often brought great relief to 
brain workers.' 

'Many times a short period of entire abstinence from food, 
followed by simple, moderate eating, has led to recovery through 
nature's own recuperative effort. An abstemious diet for a 
month or two would convince many sufferers that the path of 
self-denial is the path to health.' 

"There are some who would be benefited more by abstinence 
from food for a day or two every week than by any amount of 
treatment or medical advice. To fast one day a week would be 
of incalculable benefit to them.' 

Suggestions 

Whatever food is taken to the sick should be prepared and 
served daintily and neatly. If the tray cloth is ever so coarse 
or only a paper napkin, have it clean; use the daintiest and pret- 
tiest china to be found and serve the food in small quantities, 
without any drops or streaks on the edge of the dishes. A flower 
or leaf by the side of the plate, will give zest to the food. 

Food should be simple, nutritious and easily digested. Suit- 
able dishes are scattered all through the book. Among the 
soups are the broths and others, supplying the needs of different 
cases. There are toasts in variety; they may be served in deli- 
cate squares, triangles and crescents. 

Rice flour blanc mange, sea moss blanc mange, buttermilk, 

[486] 



INVALID FOODS 487 

parched grains, egg creams, fruit whips and ices are suggestive 
of some of the especially suitable dishes. Fruits and fruit juices 
are nearly always indicated. Baked apples, sweet and sour, 
without sugar, are staple invalid dishes. Before serving grapes, 
remove the seeds with two silver forks on a plate, then put the 
pulp and juice into a sauce dish or glass. Serve the pulp only, 
of oranges, (p. 42.) 

The most desirable gruels are those made of the dextrinized 
or parched cereals, but when the undextrinized grains are used 
they should be cooked as long as for porridges, in a somewhat 
larger quantity of water, strained, and thinned with milk, or 
cream and water. They may sometimes be cooked in milk. 
Cold porridges may be used. 

Granella Malted Milk Gruel 

i -1/4 tablespn. granella 2 tablespns. thin cream 

2-3 teaspns. malted milk salt water 

Cook granella in water to soften, strain, add malted milk, 
cream and salt which have been blended; heat, serve. 

Egg Gruel 

Poached yolks of 3 eggs, 1-2 cups milk. Rub yolks of eggs 
smooth, add hot milk, gradually, strain, reheat, salt, serve. 

Parched Corn Broth 

Pour hot milk over parched corn meal or cracked parched 
corn; let stand 5-10 m., strain. May use water and cream. 

Almond Gruel 

i tablespn. almond butter, I cup water, salt. Mix butter 
with water, add salt, boil, serve. 

Raisin Gruel 

Boil I y>, cup raisins in I qt. milk and water, equal parts, for 
% hour; strain, squeezing well, thicken with 1-2 teaspns. flour 
blended with water, add salt. 

White of Egg 

Dissolve the whites of 2 or 3 eggs in a glass of water and give 
a few teaspoonfuls every 2 or 3 hours. 



CONFECTIONS 



"Sugar clogs the system. It hinders the working of the living 

machine.' 

Children are not naturally fond of sweets, but with few ex- 
ceptions their taste has been educated to them from the cradle. 
I have known children who were so unaccustomed to candies 
that if they were given them they would merely play with them, 
never thinking of putting them into their mouths, and others 
who would say when a sweet dessert was given them, 4 I don't 
like that, it is too sweet.' 

Much life-long suffering w^ould be avoided if children were 
given plenty of good ripe fruit, sweet and sour, instead of con- 
fections. If, however, it seems best sometimes to make some- 
thing in this line, select the simplest and least harmful. 

Stuffed Dates 

Mix unsalted roasted nut butter with powdered sugar and a 
little vanilla, form into pieces the size and shape of date stones 
and put inside each date; roll in sugar or not, serve on grape or 
maple leaves. 

Serve with wafers, or with rolls and cereal coffee, sometimes. 

Almond or Brazil nut butter may be used instead of peanut 
butter, and rose or other flavoring. Grated cocoanut may be 
mixed with the almond butter. Fill the dates with marshmal- 
low paste for Marshmallow Dates. 

Cream Stuffed Dates 

Make a roll the size of the stone of confection cream and in- 
sert in date. The roll may be larger and allowed to show in the 

opening. 

Stuffed Figs 

Stuff pulled figs by removing the inside and mixing it with 
sweetened and flavored nut butter or with coarse chopped Eng- 

[488] 



CONFECTIONS 489 

lish walnuts, almonds and pecans, one or all, and replacing in 
the skin. 

Pile in the center of a dessert plate and surround with sticks 
or beaten biscuit. Serve with or without cereal coffee. 

Stuffed Prunes 

Soak and steam choice, plump California prunes until tender, 
cover close until cool, remove stones and fill space with a paste 
made by kneading together almond butter, white of egg and 
powdered or confectioner's sugar. 

Sweetmeats Fruits and Nuts 

I part each Brazil nuts, almonds and hickory nuts or filberts 
or English walnuts, and I or 2 parts raisins, figs or dates. Grind 
fruit through finest cutter of mill and mix with nut butter or 
meal or chopped nuts. Form into caramel shape, small rolls or 
cones, or into a large roll and slice. Two or more of the sweet 
fruits may be used, sometimes a little citron. Or, 3 parts 
chopped hickory nut meats, 2 parts figs and other fruits. 

A Sweetmeat Fruits 

i Ib. each of figs, from which the stems and hard part have 
been cut, stoned dates and raisins; mix and grind through food 
cutter; sprinkle board with confectioner's sugar, knead mixture, 
roll to ^ in. thick, cut into any desired shape and size and roll 

in sugar. 

Kisses 

Whites of 6 eggs, I cup powdered sugar. Beat the whites 
of eggs with a little salt, adding the sugar gradually while whip- 
ping until the mixture is stiff enough to hold its shape; add fla- 
voring if desired and drop by spoonfuls on to paraffine paper laid 
on boards of a size to fit the oven, or on baking tins. Dry in 
warm oven for about an hour, then brown slightly. If the oven 
is too warm, they may now be put into the warming oven or on 
a shelf over the stove until thoroughly dried. If the kisses stick 
to the paper, turn them over and moisten the paper slightly and 
they will come off in a little while. 



49O THE LAUREL 

Cocoanut Candy 

2 cups granulated sugar, ^ cup milk, I cup shredded cocoa- 
nut. Boil sugar and milk together for 4 m., add cocoanut, flavor 
to taste and cool in buttered tins. 

Candy Puffs 

2 cups sugar whites 2 eggs 

i cup water i cup chopped nuts 

flavoring 

Boil sugar and water till they spin a heavy thread, then pour 
the syrup over the stiffly-beaten whites of the eggs, stirring con- 
stantly. When all the syrup is in, beat until the mass begins 
to harden; add flavoring and nuts, mix thoroughly and place by 
teaspoonfuls on buttered plates. 

Confection, or Bonbon Cream 

Beat the white of an egg to a stiff froth, add gradually 8 ta- 
blespns. sifted powdered sugar, beat well together and flavor 
with vanilla or any desired flavoring. Or, one half its bulk of 
water may be added to the white of egg without beating, with 
enough confectioner's sugar to make stiff enough to mold into 
balls. Different colors and flavorings may be used in cream. 

Nut Creams 
Halve English walnut or pecan meats and put confection cream 

between the halves; press together and set away to harden. 

if Confection Potatoes 

Add a little cocoanut to second confection cream, and form 
into small potato shapes, making dents for eyes; roll in fine 
powdered coriander or anise seed, or in brown sugar with a little 

anise mixed with it. 

Marshmallows 

4 oz. gum arabic 2 teaspns. orange flower 

i cup water water or i of vanilla 

i l /i cup powdered sugar corn starch 

whites of 3 eggs confectioner's sugar 

Another recipe gives 2 cups powdered sugar and the white of 
i egg only, with the other ingredients. 

Soak the gum arabic in the water until soft, strain into inner 



CONFECTIONS 491 

cup of double boiler, add sugar and cook, stirring until thick and 
white. Try in ice water and when it will form a firm, not hard, 
ball, remove from the fire and chop and beat in the stiffly- 
whipped whites of the eggs with the flavoring. Turn the paste 
into a shallow pan covered thick with corn starch, leaving it I 
inch in thickness. When cool or in about 12 hours, cut into 
inch cubes, dust with confectioner's sugar and pack in boxes. 
Marshmallows are better to be made as soft as they can be 
handled. 

Old Fashioned Molasses Candy 

2 cups molasses, 2 cups granulated sugar, I tablespn. butter. 
Boil over not too hot fire until a little will harden as soon as it 
drops into cold water. Pour into buttered tins and pull when cool 
enough to handle. Candy may have hickory nut or black wal- 
nut meats pressed into it when partly cooled, without pulling. 

The most important thing for the candy is to get a good fla- 
vored molasses. The real Porto Rico is best. Do not be in- 
duced to add soda to the syrup. It spoils the rich golden color 
which belongs to molasses candy, besides making it more un- 
wholesome. Brush the kettle with butter before putting ingre- 
dients in. 

Everton Taffy 

i large cup New Orleans molasses /^ cup butter 

i Y* cup lightest brown sugar i teaspn. vanilla 

Boil until a little dropped in water will make fine, brittle 
threads; pour into buttered pans Y^~Y^ in. thick and cut in squares. 

Lemon Taffyto pull 

2 cups sugar 2 tablespns. lemon juice 

i cup water 2 or 3 drops lemon extract 

Boil sugar and water until nearly done; add lemon juice and 
cook until a little will harden in cold water; flavor and turn on 
to buttered plate. Fold the edges toward the center as they 
cool and pull as soon as cool enough to handle. 



492 THE LAUREL 

Penosia 

3 cups light brown sugar i Ib. English walnuts 

i cup milk or cream (i/^ cup chopped) 

i tablespn. butter i teaspn. vanilla 

Shell, blanch and chop the walnuts; boil sugar and milk until 
syrup will harden when dropped into water but will not become 
brittle; just before it is done, add the butter and vanilla; then 
the chopped nuts, stirring them in well; pour into buttered pans 
and with sharp knife mark off the squares. Cool. 

Another recipe says dark brown sugar and ^ cup only of cream. 

LozengesWintergreen or Peppermint 

2 cups granulated sugar 4-6 drops true oil of wintergreen, or 
YI cup water 3 drops oil of peppermint 

Boil sugar and water rapidly for 5 m. after they begin to boil, 
add the flavoring and remove from the fire. Stir briskly until 
the mixture begins to thicken and to have a whitish appearance, 
then drop on to a cold tin dish, oiled paper or a marble slab as 
fast as possible, in as large or small lozenges as desired. If the 
mixture hardens too rapidly, set the dish in a pan of hot water. 
Do not place the lozenges so close that they will run together. 
The wintergreen drops may be tinted pink with fruit color. 

Maple Cream. Candy 

3 cups grated maple sugar i cup cream i teaspn. butter 

Boil all together for 12 m., pour into another dish, stir until 
mixture thickens, pour into buttered tins and cut in squares. 

Hoarhound Candy 

3 cups water, 2 oz. dried hoarhound, 3 Ibs. (2^ qts.) brown 
sugar. Steep the dried herb in the water for a half hour; strain, 
add the sugar and boil until a little will harden when dropped 
in cold water; pour on to buttered tins and when sufficiently cool 
cut into sticks with oiled knife. 



MEALS AND MENUS 



"Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy 
princes eat in the morning!' 

'Blessed art thou, O land, when thy king is the son of nobles, 
and thy princes eat in due season, for strength and not for 
drunkenness.' Eccl. 10:16, 17. 

Many have been greatly benefited by eating the first meal, 
breakfast, 3-5 hours after rising, according to their work. 

"Eat only when hungry, drink only when thirst}-. ' -E. H .D. 

"Three meals a day and nothing between meals, not even an 
apple should be the utmost limit of indulgence. Those who go 
further violate nature's laws and will suffer the penalty.' 

"If you would give it a trial, you would find two meals better 
than three. ' 

"The stomach, when we lie down to rest, should have its 
work all done, that it may enjoy rest as well as other portions 
of the body. The work of digestion should not be carried on 
through any period of the sleeping hours. If you feel that you 
must eat at night, take a drink of cold \\ater and in the morn- 
ing you will feel much better for not having eaten.' 

'It is not well to eat fruit and vegetables at the sarr.e meal. 
If the digestion is feeble, the use of both will often cause dis- 
tress, and inability to put forth mental effort. It is better to 
have the fruit at one meal and the vegetables at another.' 

As a rule, it is better to serve fruits at the close of a nx-al. 

"In order to have healthy digestion, food should be eaten 
slowlv If your time to eat is limited, do not bolt vonr 

J 

food, but eat less and eat slowly.' 

(493) 



494 THK LAUREL 

Masticate food to creaininess. 'Enjoy to the full every 
mouthful of food as long as any taste remains in it. ' -C . C. If. 

"Custom has decided that the food shall be placed upon the 
table in courses Not knowing what is coming next, one may 
eat a sufficiency of food which perhaps is not the best suited to 
him. When the last course is brought on he often ventures to 
overstep the bounds and take the tempting dessert, which, how- 
ever, proves anything but good for him. If all the food intended 
or a meal is placed on the table at the beginning, one has oppor- 
tunity to make the best choice.' 

For some time I have practised either putting the food all on 
the table or having what was not on the table in sight on the 
sideboard, or letting guests know in some way the full menu, as 
I have always felt that while teaching temperance, we were 
encouraging intemperance by the customary manner of serving. 

When working hard, eat light; do not overwork the whole 
body at the same time. 

Perfect rest without sleep for i 5-30 m. after meals is a great 
aid to digestion. 

"We should not provide for the Sabbath a more liberal sup- 
ply or a greater variety of food than for other days. Instead of 
this, the food should be more simple and less should be eaten in 
in order that the mind may be clear and vigorous to comprehend 
spiritual things. Overeating befogs the brain. The most pre- 
cious words may be heard and not appreciated because the mind 
is confused by an improper diet.' 

'Do not have too great a variety at a meal; three or four 
dishes are a plenty. At the next meal you can have a change. 
The cook should tax her inventive powers to vary the dishes 
she prepares for the table, and the stomach should not be obliged 
to take the same kinds of food meal after meal.' 

Three or four dishes, each perfect of its kind, are more satis- 



MEALS AND MENUS 495 

lying than a great number, not one of which is perfectly pre- 
pared and served. 

MENUS 

The suggestive menus given will admit of variation according 
to the season and circumstances. 

Nut, olive or cooking oil with salt; nut butter of any kind; or 
cream, may be used instead of dairy butter. 

Macaroni baked in cream sauce left from dinner may be heated 
and served for the next morning's breakfast with the addition 
of tomato or more milk. 

Where the two pies are served for dessert, two small pieces 
should be served on one plate. They introduce to the guests 
two kinds of crust without lard, and mince pie without meat. 

When a hearty soup or dessert are on the menu the other 
dishes of the meal may be lighter. 

Dainty dishes and spotless linen, will have much to do in fit- 
ting for that city which has foundations of precious stones and 
the paving of whose streets is gold. 



BREAKFAST 

First Day 

Baked Macaroni in Cream or Tomato Sauce 

Bread and Butter or Cream 
Whole Wheat Wafers Apples and Oranges 

Second Day 

Corn Omelet 

Whole Wheat Gems Apple Sauce 

Graham Sticks 

Third Day 

Rye Meal Porrid,^e---Nut or Dairy Cream 
Beaten Biscuit Fresh or Canned Blueberries 

Molasses Cookies 



496 THE LAUREL 

Fourth Day 

Soft Poached Kggs on Broiled Trumese 

or 

Cutlets of Roast with Brown Gravy 
Parker House Rolls Cranberry Sauce Crisps 

Fifth Day 

Cutlets of Corn Meal Porridge or 
Rhode Island Johnny Cakes with Gravy No. 44 or 50 

Scrambled Eggs 

Bread and Butter or Cream 

Graham Sticks Bananas 

(Cutlets plain at first and with maple syrup at last of meal) 

Sixth Day 

Trumese Hash Swedish Milk Biscuit 

Baked Doughnuts Cereal Coffee 

(Cream Toast may be added) 

Seventh Day 

Nut Rolls 

Canned Peaches or Baked Sweet Apples 

with or without Almond or Dairy Cream 

Apples or Bananas Fruit Bars or Wafers 

(Granella with cream or hot milk may be added) 

DINNER 

First Day 

Mashed Lentils Cream Sauce Baked Potatoes 

Boiled or Stewed Cabbage salt and oil 

Bread and Nut or Dairy Butter 

Corn Pone or Water Corn Bread 

Squash or Pumpkin Pie 

Second Day 

Vegetable Consomme Soup Balls 

Peanut Pie Stewed Corn 
Celery or Lettuce Mayonnaise Bread and Butter or Oil 



MEALS AND MENUS 497 

Graham Sticks 
Tapioca Jelly or Apple Tapioca Pudding 

Third Day 

Succotash Rice Lentil Gravy 

Leavened and Unleavened Breads 
Steamed Apple Dumplings Creamy Sauce 

Fourth Day 

Mother's Soup Cream Noodles 

Trumese in Tomato Celery, Radishes or Green Onions 

Squash Cutlets or Mashed Winter Squash 

Apple and Banana Salad Cream Dressing 

Fifth Day 

Baked Beans and Brown Bread Scalloped Potatoes 

Pumpkin or Water Custard Pie 

Nuts and Raisins 

Sixth Day 
Cream of Corn Soup Pop Corn Celery 

Gems and Oil, Cream or Butter 
Quaker Pudding Molasses, Maple or other Sauce 

Seventh Day 

Baked Macaroni Cream Sauce 
Green or Canned Peas Scalloped Tomatoes 

Lettuce Mayonnaise or Lemonade Dressing 
Fruit Bread or Buns Beaten Biscuit 

Cream Pie or Gelatine Blanc Mange 



SUPPER 

Number One 

Stewed Fresh Tomatoes 

Bread and Butter White Crackers 

Fruit and Nut Relish 



49^ TH E LAUREL 

Number Two 

Dread and Milk Daked Sweet Apples or 
Dlueberries or Black Raspberries 

Number Three 

Nuts Crackers 

Apples or Other Fruit 

Number Four 

Rhode Island Johnny Cakes Honey 
Cocoanut Crisps Tea-Hygiene 

Number Five 

Rice Cakes or Milk Toast 

Sliced or Stewed Peaches Old Friend Sponge Cak' 

Number Six 

Baked Apples, Pears and Grapes, or Apples, Grapes and Figs, 

or Sour Apples and Sweet Apples 

Number Seven 
Rusk or Granella and Milk 

Number Eight 
Acushnet Hash 

Water Corn Bread Whole Wheat Wafers 

Cereal Coffee 

Number Nine 

Cream of Tomato Soup Soup Crackers 
Bread and Butter Apple Sauce 

Number Ten 

Cream of Corn Toast 
Rolls Honey 

MIDDAY LUNCHEON 

Number One 

Tomato Shortcake Crackers Pine Nut Cheese 

Lemon Egg Cream 



MEALS AND MENUS 499 

Number Two 

Hot Egg Sandwich 

Lettuce French or Mayonnaise Dressing 

Number Three 

Timbales of Corn Whole Wheat Popovers Graham Crisps 

Cantaloupe 

Number Four 
Consomme Sticks Celery Sandwiches Washington Pie 

Number Five 

Bread Omelet with Molasses Sauce 
Graham Wafers Tea-Hygiene 

Number Six 

Sunflower Mayonnaise Sticks 

Bread and Butter 
Apples, Peaches or Pears, or Canned Peaches or Pears 

Number Seven 

Apple Salad Almond or Cream Dressing 

Whole Wheat Sticks (shortened) 
Bread and Butter Rich Small Cakes 



PUBLIC OR ENTERTAINMENT DINNERS 

Number One 

Nut Bouillon Royal Paste Croutons 

Ripe Olives 

Trumese Pie Celery in Tomato 

Graham Crisps 

Apple and Pineapple Salad Cream Dressing- 
White Sticks 

White Fruit Cake (no icing, almonds on top) 

Cereal Coffee 



5OO THE LAUREL 

Number Two 

Milk Stew of Oyster Plant 

Soup Crackers Celery 

Timbale of Trumese Boundary Castle (fresh mushroom) Sauce 
Cauliflower Sauce Americaine Beaten Biscuit 

Mint Grape Fruit Salad or Orange Mint Salad 

White Sticks 

Ice Cream (unflavored) Cocoanut Jumbles 

Number Three 

Oyster Plant or Asparagus a la Crone 

Rolled Bread and Butter Sandwiches 
Blanched Almonds, dried 

Trumese and Celery Salad on 
Swedish Milk Biscuit with lettuce leaf 
Whole Wheat Gems Butter 

Cocoanut Cream Pie Granella Crust 
Mince Pie Pastry Crust 

Number Four 

Nut Chowder---Sticks 

Helianthus (Sunflower) Mayonnaise 
Cucumber or Celery or Onion Sandwiches 

Pineapple Gelatine---Whipped Cream 
Cocoanut Crisps 

Confection Potatoes Mixed Nuts 

Number Five 

Cream of Tomato or Spinach Broth Soup Sticks 

Trumese and Mushrooms a la Creme Wafers 

Scalloped Oyster Plant Celery 

English Bread and Butter 

Currant and Red Raspbern^ Salad 
Almonds or Walnuts 

Rice Charlotte---Whipped Cream Roses 
Small Cakes Cereal Coffee 



MEALS AND MENUS 5OI 

Number Six 

Cream of Fresh Mushroom Soup 
Finger Rolls (of roll or universal dough) 

Claudia's Stuffed Egg Plant 
Whole Wheat Popovers 

Nut Croquettes 
Baked Creamed Tomato Crisp Bread 

Grape Fruit and Celery Salad (in grape fruit cups) 

Crackers with Nuts 

Rose Ice Cream Hard Sponge Cakes 

Celerv Tea Cream 



SIMPLE COMPANY LUNCHEONS 

Number One 

Steamed Trumese Biscuit (p. 137) Boundary Castle Sauce 

Jelly Sandwiches Celery 

Pineapple Sponge--Whipped Cream 

Cream Crisps 

Number Two 

Creamed Mushrooms (or oyster plant) in Ramekins or 

Cream Puff cases Sticks 

Orange and Celery Salad Wafers 

Cereal Coffee Nut Crisps 



EVENING LUNCHEONS 

Number One 

Sweet Fruit Sandwiches 

Cereal Coffee 

Number Two 

Grapes Pears 

Orange, or Mint Orange Nectar 



502 THE LAUREL 

Number Three 
Vanilla or Lemon Egg Cream 

Xut and Citron Cake 
Raspberry Lemonade (later) 

Number Four 
Ice Cream Crackers with Nuts 

Sweetmeats or Caramels 
Orangeade (later) 

Number Five 

Grape Sherbet Nut Crisps 

Royal Sponge Cake (with Royal filling and icing) 



NON-STARCH MEALS 
Number One 

Breakfast 
Plain Omelet Apples Pears Grapes 

Dinner 

Nut and Tomato Bisque 

String Beans 

Lettuce---French or Lemonade Dressing 
Blanched Almonds Honey 

Supper 

Baked Apples Mellow Ripe Bananas Figs 

Number Two 

Breakfast 
Broiled Trumese Apples in Oil 

Apples Grapes 

Dinner 

Cottage Cheese---Chili Sauce or Mayonnaise 

Beet Greens Green Peas 

Baked Custard 

Supper 
Plums Pears Raisins 



MEALS AND MENUS 503 

Number Three 

Breakfast 
Scrambled Eggs Ripe Currants Canteloupe 

Dinner 
Baked Peanuts Pickled Carrots 

Stewed Oyster Plant 
Bananas 

Supper 

Apples Grapes or Tart Lemonade 

Number Four 

Breakfast 

Dried Blanched Almonds Apples Steamed Prunes 

Dinner 

Spinach with Egg Mayonnaise Dressing 

My Mother's Cabbage 
Nesselrode Confection or Sweetmeats, p. 489 

Supper 

Cereal Coffee Cream 
Brazil Nuts Figs or Dates 

Number Five 

Breakfast 
Almond Puree Peaches Bananas 

Dinner 

Trumese and Celery Salad 

Stewed Okra Boiled Onions 

Fruit Gelatine 

Supper 
Figs and Milk 

Number Six 

Breakfast 
Nut Omelet Strawberries Bananas 



5O4 THE LAUREL 

Dinner 

Trumese or Nutmese and Onion Sandwiches 

Celery in Tomato 

Stewed Asparagus 

Steamed Figs Pecans 

Supper 

Strawberries 
Oranges 

These meals may be easily changed to sugarless as well as 
starchless by substituting vegetables that contain no sugar for 
those that have some, and tart fruits for sweet ones. 

The custard may be made without sugar. Gluten biscuit used 
as meat with fruit and vegetables give more of a variety, when 
obtainable. 

One may take large quantities of fruit in place of starchy foods, 
since they are not so concentrated. 

PICNIC AND TRAVELLING LUNCHES 

Collect boxes of different sizes as you have opportunity. 
Save waxed paper from cracker boxes and other sources and 
have a certain place for it so as to know just where to find it. 

Quite a large roll can be bought in the stationery stores for five 
cents. 

Keep small tin boxes for packing strong flavored sandwiches, 
and vaseline bottles and cold cream jars for salad dressings, or for 

sandwich fillings which must be spread upon the bread the last 
thing. 

For a picnic or a long journey, be sure to take everything that 
may be needed, corkscrew, can opener, nut picks, paring knives, 
spoons, a case knife, a knife large enough and sharp enough to 
cut bread, cups for drinking, and a small saucepan or large cup 
for heating drinks or anything necessary. As far as possible, 
carry dishes that may be thrown away, as wood or paper plates 
and cups. A spirit lamp is very desirable. 



PICNIC AND TRAVELLING LUNCHES 5O5 






Rich cakes, jellies and all sweets are especially objectionable 
for travelling. 

Be sure to take plenty of lemons and other fruits, as the trains 
will not often stop long enough for one to buy them at the sta- 
tions, and they may not be at the proper stage of ripeness and 
the price will be high. 

Carry salt in a vaseline bottle, or if in a salt shake, screw a 
piece of thick paper under the top and wrap well. Have sugar 
in a wide-mouthed bottle or jar, also ripe olives. Rice or cus- 
tard puddings can be carried in cups. 

Bottled fruit juices are invaluable. Lemon juice sufficient 
for one day may be bottled. 

A jar of cold cereal coffee or of tea-hygiene with cream would 
be highly prized by many. 

Trumese in Tomato or Sauce Imperial, well dried in the oven, 
is excellent. Fruit buns retain their moisture nicely. 

Wrap sandwiches, buns, cakes, eggs and nut foods in waxed 
paper, and if there are different kinds of sandwiches mark them. 

For a simple luncheon without a knife or spoon, pare oranges 
and break them into sections, and pare, quarter and core apples, 
and wrap all in waxed paper. These fruits with a trumese and 
egg sandwich (p. 4/2) make an ideal midday luncheon when 
spending the da}' in the city on business. 

One lady who has travelled a great deal tells me that she has 
found a small white apron with a pocket a great convenience in 
serving and eating lunches on trains, and a gentleman suggests 
that a short apron with a bib and strap and a pocket for the 
napkin would be a great convenience for those of his sex. 

Some of the strong pasteboard boxes that package foods come 
in, make good lunch boxes. \Ye have one about 22 in. long, 
9 in. wide and 6 in. deep that we can carry in a shawl strap, 
which we prize. 

The dining car has no attractions campared with the comforts 
of a nice home luncheon for travelling. 



INDEX 



Breads, Leavened, 424 
Beadles 4.43 
1 liscuit, Breakfast, 442 

Potato, 441 

Raised, 441 

Split, 441 

Boston Brown, 434 
Buns, Currant, 443 

Lemon, 443 

Nnt. 443 

Plain, 442 
Cakes, Buckwheat, 

Bread Crumbs, 444 
Old Time, 444 

Crumb. 444 
Corn Cake, 435 
Corn Meal, Scalded, 434 
Crackers, Soup, 438 
Crisp, 433 
Crust, Sour Cream, 437 

Universal, 437 
Delicious, 433 
Flour, 426 
Fruit, 431 
Graham, 431 
Irish, 431 

NewYork"Home Made,' 
Nut, 431 [432 

Oatmeal, 432 
Potato Ball, 433 
Rice, 432 
Rolls, 438 

Buttermilk, 440 

Crumb, 440 

Of Brown Bread. 440 

Rolled, 441 

Swiss, 440 
Rusk, 442 

Browned, 442 
Rye, 432 

Salt Rising, 435, 436 
Salh' Lunn, 438 
Sticks, 443 



White. 430 

Whole Wheat. 431 

Yrast, 424 

Bread, Suggestions, 
Dry, 426 [427 

Potato, Grated, 425 
Mashed, 425 

Zwieback, 432 

Breads, Unleavened, without 

chemicals, 445 
Bannock, 451 
Bars, Fruit, 462 
Biscuit, Beaten, 460 

Maryland, 460 
Maryland, Unbeaten, 
Swedish Milk, 461 [461 
Brow r n, Crumb, 451 
The Laurel ,450 
Cake, Ash, 453 
Hoe, 453 
Johnny, 451 
Oat, 452 
Rice, 450 

Cakes, Batter, Green Corn 
Griddle, 455 [457 

Buckw r heat, 455 
Corn Meal, no flour, 

U57 

Corn and Crumb, 456 
Crumb, 455 

No Flour, 456 
Hominy. 457 
Mushroom, 455 
Nut Butter, 457 
Plain, 455 

with Roux, 456 

Variations, 456 
Rice, 455 

No Flour, 456 
Savory Meat, 455 
Nut and Egg, 457 
Oat, 463 



INDEX 



507 



Breads, Rhode Island Johnny, 

452 

Southern Johnny, 451 
Corn, 450 

Water, 451 

Crackers, Graham, Sweet, 
with Nuts, 462 [462 
Sour Cream, 462 
White, 461 

Crisps, Cocoanut, 464 
Cream, 463 
Graham, 463 
Nut, 463 

Crumbs and Corn, 450 
Crusts, Corn Meal, 452 

White, 452 

Dodgers, Corn Meal Por- 
ridge, 454 
Sister W 7 elch's, 454 

Granular Meal, 454 
Dough, 457 
Gems, 446 

Corn and Graham, 448 

Meal and White Flour. 
Cream Corn, 448 [448 
Crumb, 448 
Fruit and Nut, 447 
Graham, 447 
Rye, 448 

and Wheat, 448 
Sally Limn, 447 
White, 447 
Whole Wheat, 447 
Pone or Corn Bread 

"Straight," 453 
Popovers, 448 
Corn, 449 

Other Variations, 449 
Whole W^heat, 449 
Potato, Sweet, 449 
Rolls, Cream, 458 
Fruit, 459 

and Nut, 459 
Graham, Plain, 458 



Breads, Nut, 458 

Shortened, 459 
Sticks, 459 

Porridge, 460 

White, 459 
Straws, Nut, 464 
Unleavened, for Commun- 
ion, 464 

\Vafers, Cocoanut, 461 
Fruit, 463 
Nut, 463 
Cakes, 370 

Additions to Cookies and 

Small Cakes, 387 
Angel, 385 
Anise Wafers, 389 
Citron and Cocoanut, 380 
Cocoanut Loaf or Layer, 
Corn Starch, 373 [374 
Cookies, Cream, 388 

Molasses, 390 

Sour Cream, 389 
Cream Puffs, 386 
Crullers, 392 
Doughnuts, Risen, 392 
Baked, 391 
Dried Apple, 380 
Elizabeth's Raised, 381 
Fried, 393 
Fruit and Nut, 375 
Fruit, White, 389 
German Almond Loaf, 382 

Coffee, 383 

Light, 377 
Julia's Birthday, 374 
Jumbles, Yolk, 388 
Lunch, 389 
Maple Loaf, 382 
Molasses, 378 

Bread or Hard Mo- 
lasses Cake, 378 

No eggs, 390 

Raised, 383 

Sugar, 378 



508 



THE LAUREL 



Cakes, Nut. 391 

Nut and Citron, 373 
Patty, 374 

Pie, Washington, 381 
Plain Loaf, 378 
Rice Flour. 375 
Rich Loaf, 374 
Saffron, 379 

Scotch Short Bread, 377 
' Silver, 377 
Snaps, Molasses, 390 
Sponge, Cocoanut, 384 

Layer, 384 

Old Friend, 384 

Rice Flour, 385 

Royal, 383 

Variations of 383 
Suggestions, 370 
Suggestive Combinations, 

[337 

Tri-Colored Layer, 385 
Wafers, Honey, 389 

Nut, 391 
Washington, 381 
Without Chemicals, 382 

Yeast, 379 
Cakes, Icings and Fillings for, 

Apple, Creamed, 398 [393 
Cream, Cocoanut, 397 

Whipped, 397 
Filling, Butternut, 397 

Cocoanut, 398 

Cream, 400 

Date, 398 

Fig Jelly, 399 

Imperial, 399 

Lemon Cheese, 401 

For Lemon Pie Cake and 
Washington Pie, 400 

Marshmallow, 401 

Nut and Raisin, 399 

Pineapple, 399 

Prune, 399 

Royal, 400 

Sour Cream, 398 



Cakes, Icings and Fillings for. 
Frosting, Butter, 395 
Icing, Boiled, 396 

Maple, 397 
Milk. 396 
Caramel, 397 
Coffee, 399 
Cream, 394 
Fruit Juice, 394 
Golden, 395 
Jelly, 395 
Pineapple, 399 
Royal, 400 
Water, 394 
White of Egg, 395 
With Lemon Juice 

[395 
Cereals, 409 

Corn, Pop, 411 

Sweet, Parched, 410 

To Hull, 417 
Granella, No. i, 2. 3, 4, 

To Serve, 417 [418 
Hominy, Baked, 417 
Porridges, 412 
Proportion of Water and 

Length of Time for 

Cooking, 413 
Rice, 414 

Baked, 416 

To Boil, 415 

Chinese Way, 415 

Indian Way, 416 

Parched, 416 

To Steam. 416 
Rusk, 412 

Yolk Egg, 41 1 
Chestnuts, 271 

To Blanch, 271 
Boiled, 271 
Puree, 271 

Puree with Whipped Cream, 
Roasted, 271 [272 

Salad, Chestnut and 
Banana, 272 



INDEX 



509 



Chestnuts, to Shell, 271 
Vanilla or Raisin, 272 
Confections, 488 

Candy, Cocoanut, 490 

Hoarhound, 492 

Maple Cream, 492 

Molasses, 491 

Puffs, 490 

Cream, Confection, 490 
Creams, Nut, 490 
Dates, Cream Stuffed, 488 

Stuffed, 488 
Figs, Stuffed, 488 
Kisses, 489 
Lozenges, 492 
Marshmallows, 490 
Penosia, 492 

Potatoes, Confection, 490 
Prunes, Stuffed, 489 
Sweetmeat, Fruits, 489 
Sweetmeats, Fruits and 
Nuts, 489 
Taffy, Everton, 491 

Lemon. 491 
Drinks, 479 

Coffees, Cereal, 483 

Cold, 485 

Cream for, 485 
Cereal, to make, 484 
Eggnog, 485 

Hot, 485 

Juice, Cranberry, 483 
Juices, Fruit, to Prepare, 
Lemonades, 482 [483 

Egg, 482 

Milk and Egg, 482 

Mint, 482 

White of Egg, 482 
Nectar, Banana Lemon, 481 

Mint Orange, 482 

Orange, 482 

Banana, 482 
Nectars, Fruit, 481 
Orangeade, Egg, 482 



Tea, Bran, 485 

Hygiene, 484 
Water, Distilled, 480 

Hard, 481 

Mineral, 480 

Entrees and Breakfast, Lunch- 
eon and Supper Dishes^ 109 

a la cremc\ Asparagus Tips, 

[116 

Beans, Young Lima, 116 
Celery and Mushrooms, 115 
Macaroni and Mush- 
rooms, 116 

Oyster Plant and Mush- 
rooms, 116 
Cakes, Corn, 1 14 

Oyster Plant Griddle. 114 

Spanish, 136 
Croquettes, 109 

Bread, in 

Celery, no 

Corn, no 

Rice, no 
and Fig, in 

Sauce, 109 
Custards, Celery. 115 

Corn, 114 

Onion, 115 
Cutlets of Corn Meal 

Porridge, 113 

Cucumber, 113 

Rice, 113 

Squash, 112 

Vegetable, 112 
Hash, Acushnet, 132 

Cabbage and Potato, 133 

With Poached Egg. 133 

Savory, 133 
Hashes, Vegetable, 132 
Miscellaneous 

Apples in Oil, 138 
Onion, 138 

Asparagus en Croustade, 

[i 12 



THK LAI' KM. 



Entrvt-s, Miscellaneous 

1 laked Creamed Toma- 
toes, 122 

Potatoes and Milk, i^S 
1 Vi If-J Tomatoes, 130 
Sliced Tomatoes, 130 
Squash with Celery 

Stuffing. 127 

I liscuit, Mamie's Sur- 
prise, 136 

i hvad and Milk with 

Sweet Fruits, 138 

Broiled or Baked Toma- 
toes, 130 

Creamed Sweet Potatoes, 

C >rn Oysters, 114 [122 

Dried and Hulled Corn, 132 

Fruit and Nut Toma- 
toes, 129 

Macaroni with Onion or 
Celery and Tomato, 131 

Mashed Potato Loaf, 123 

Oyster Plant en Crous- 
Patties, in [tade, 112 
and Potato Omelet, 138 

Parsnip and Potato Stew, 

Pilau, stew T ed rice, 131 [131 

Rice Border. 137 

Souffles, Individual Daisv, 
Spinach, 122 [123 

Succotash, 131 

Tomato Short Cake, 131 

Yorkshire Pudding, 137 

Pie, Carrot, 126 

Mushroom and Celery, 
Oyster Plant, 125 [125 
Oyster Plant Pastry, 125 
Potato, 126 
Vegetable, 124 

Pudding, Carrot, 118 
Corn, Green, 1 16 
Corn, no eggs, 117 
Corn, no milk, 1 16 
Oyster Plant, 117 



Pudding, Squash, 117 
Sweet Potato, 117 

Scallop of Fgg Plant, 

Armenian, 119 
Of Oyster Plant, 121 
Oyster Plant, 12 i 
Scalloped Asparagus, 118 

Cabbage, 118 

Celery and Tomato, 122 

Egg Plant, 118 

Onions, 119 

Oyster Plant, 120 

Cooked Potatoes, 120 

Potatoes, raw nut butter 

and onions, 119 

Ra\v Potatoes, 119 

Squash, 120 

Sweet Potatoes, 120 

Tomatoes, 122 

Onion Flavor, 121 
With Rice and Onion, 122 
Stuffed Egg Plant, Claudia's, 

Potatoes, 128 [128 

Potatoes, Meringued, 128 

Squash, Winter, 126 

Tomatoes, 128 
Fillings for, 129 

Tomatoes, Green, 130 
Timbale of Carrot, 123 

Corn and Egg, 124 

Of Corn, Individual, 124 
Toasts, 133 

Blueberry, 134 

Cream, 135 

Creamed, 135 

Cream of Corn, 135 

French, 136 

German, 136 

Lentil and Other Legume, 

Milk, Old-Fashioned, [135 

Prune, 134 [135 

Royal, 135 

Sister Betty Saxby's, 134 
Zwieback, 133 



INDEX 



SIT 



Fruits, 34 

Cooked, 47 

Apple Sauce, 47 

Strained, 47 

Baked, 47 
Apples, Quarters of, 

Baked, 48 [Baked, 47 

Lemon, Orange and 

Others, 48 

Sweet, Baked, 48 

Mother Cranson's 

Stewed, Sweet, 48 
Bananas, Stewed, 49 

in Butter, 49 

and Raisins, 49 

Baked, 49 
Crumbed, 49 
With Tomatoes, 49 
Cranberries, 49 

Stewed, 50 

Baked, 50 

With Raisins, 50 
Peaches, Baked, 50 
Quinces, Baked, 50 

Plain Baked, 50 
Rhubarb, 50 

Stewed, 51 

Baked, 51 
Dried 

Apricots, Stewed, 52 

Butter, 52 

Figs, Steamed, 52 

Stewed, 52 

Prune Marmalade, 52 
Primes, Steamed, 52 

Sweet California, 52 
Stewed, 51 
Fresh, 34 
Apples, 36 
Bananas, 37 
Blackberries, 37 
Canteloupe, 37 
Currants, 38 
Currants, Frosted, 38 



Dates and Cream, 38 
Dates or Figs and Milk, 38 
Dates and Nuts, 38 
Figs, 38 

Gooseberries, 39 
Grape Fruit, 39 
Ambrosia, 40 

With Malaga Grapes, 40 
Grapes, 49 

To Pack, 39 
Olives, 40 
Oranges, 41 
Peaches, 42 
Peaches and Cream, 43 
Peach Snow, 43 
Pineapples, 43 

Grape Fruit, 44 

and Orange Ambrosia. 45 

Shredded, 44 

and 'Straw r berry Am- 
brosia, 45 

and Whipped Cream, 44 
Raisins, 45 
Raspberries, Black, 4^ 

Red, 45 
Strawberries, 45 

Orange, 46 
Watermelon, 46 
Whortleberries, 46 
Jam, Gooseberry, 67 

Raspberry and Currant, 66 
Rhubarb, Mrs. Chandler's, 
Rhubarb and Pine- [67 

Strawberry, 66 [apple, 76 
Jellies, 62 
Apple, 64 

and Cranberry, 64 

Parings and Cores, 64 
Bluebem^ 66 
Cranberry, 65 

Pulp, 66 

Sauce, 66 
Currant, 63 

Black, 64 



512 



THK LAt'REL 



Currant and Raspberry, 64 
Elder-berry and Apple, 65 
Gooseberry, Green, 65 
Grape, 66 
Ouince, 65 

Tumblers, to Make, 63 
Miscellaneous 

Mutter, Elder-berry and 

Apple, 67 

Melrose Apple, 67 
Grape Marmalade, 68 
Lemon Peaches, 68 
Ripe Cucumber Pickles, 68 
To Dry Blueberries, 68 
To Can, 53 
Apples, 61 

Baked, 61 

Sweet, and Cranberries, 

Quinces, 56 [57 
Barberries, 59 
Berries, Solid, 55 
Citron, 58 

Combinations of Fruits, 6r 
Cranberries and Sweet 

Apples, 57 
Grapes, Concord, 59 

Juice, 60 
Juices, Fruit, 60 

Condensed, 61 

To Bottle, 6 1 
Peaches, 55 
Pears, 56 
Pineapple, 58 
Plums, 56 

Quinces and Sweet Apples, 
Rhubarb, Cooked, 58 [56 

Without Cooking, 58 
Strawberries, Red Rasp- 
berries and all delicate 

berries, 57 
Tomatoes, 59 

for Soups and Sauces, 60 

Whole, 60 
Watermelon Rind, 58 



Gelatine, Vegetable, 335 
Agar Agar, Medical Use of, 

[346 

Aspic for Garnishing, 345 
Light, 344 
Tomato, 344 
Bavarian, Coffee, 342 

and Blanc Mange or Jellied 

Custard, 342 
Beets in Jelly, 337 
Blanc Mange, 341 

Cocoanut, 341 
Bouillon for Jelly, 345 
Broth, Dark, Jellied, 346 
Cafe an Lait, Jellied, 342 
Charlotte, Rice, 341 
Cream, Maple, 342 

Orange, 339 
Custard, Jellied, 342 

With Meringue, 343 
Directions, 335 
Jelly, Cream of Tomato 

and Carrot, 343 
Fruit, 336 

and Mint, 337 

Jellied Cream Trumese, 346 
Jelly, Lemon, Delicate, 337 
Orange, 338 

Or Lemon with Strawber- 
ries, 338 

In Orange Cups, 338 
Red, with Fruit, 338 
Tomato, 344 
Whipped Cream, 342 
Lemon Snow, 340 
Molds, Apple Sauce, 339 

Prune Cream, 340 
Orange Garnish for Salad 
or Cold Entree, 339 
Pudding, Marshmallow, 343 

Sponge, 340 
Salad, Wedding Breakfast, 

[338 
Secrets of Success, 335 



INDEX 



513 



Sponge, Pineapple, 340 
Stock for Jelly, Dark, 345 

Light, 345 
Of Trumese, 346 
General, 9 

Cooking Utensils, Their 

Uses and Care, 9 
Colorings, 32 

Carmine, Pokeberry, 32 

Green, 32 

Red, 32 

Yellow, 32 
Economy, 15 
Flavorings, 24 

Brown Onion, 27 

Salad, 28 

For Sw r eets, 27 
Garnishing, 29 

Arrangement and Garnish- 
ing of Salads, 33 

Egg Daisies, 31 

Oxeye Daisies, 31 

Pastry Bag, 32 

Potato Balls, 31 

Radish Lilies. 30 
Ice Cream and Fruit Ices, 402 

Frappes, 408 
Frozen Peaches, 408 

Pineapple, 407 

Strawberries, 408 
Ice, Currant and Raspberry, 

Lemon, 405 [406 

Mint, 406 

Orange, 406 

Raspberry, 406 
Ice Cream, The Laurel, 404 

Maple, 404 
Sherbet, Grape, 406 

Lemon, 407 

Mint, 407 

Orange, 407 

Pineapple, 407 
Invalid Foods, 486 

Broth, Parched Corn, 487 
Egg, White of, 487 



Gruel, Almond, 487 

Egg, 487 

Granella Malted Milk, 487 

Raisin, 487 
Suggestions, 486 
Macaroni, 419 

Baked, in Cream Sauce, 421 
Browned, and Granella, 422 
To Cook, 419 
With Corn, 421 
Cream Mold of, 422 

Sour, 423 
In Milk, 422 
With Pine Nuts, 421 
With Tomato and Onion, 422 
Vermicelli w T ith Asparagus, 422 
Meals and Menus, 493 
Breakfast, 495 
Dinner, 496 
Luncheons, Evening, 501 

Midday, 498 

Simple Company, 501 
Menus, 495 

Non-Starch Meals, 502 
Public or Entertainment 
Supper, 497 [Dinners, 499 

Meats, True, 139 
Eggs, 195 

a la Salade, 201 
Boiled, Hard, 200 
Caramel, 215 
Carbonated, 215 
Cream, Almond, 214 

Banana, 214 

Honey, 214 

Lemon, 213 

Maple, 214 

Raspberry, 214 

Vanilla, 214 
Creamed, 199 

On Toast, 200 
Croquettes, Egg, 203 

Egg and Rice, 203 
In Perfection, 212 



' 



THE LAUREL 



Eggs, In the Shell, 197 
' Italian, 200 
and Macaroni, 200 
and Milk, 215 

Hot, 215 

With Olives, Ripe, 201 
'Omelets, 203 

Almond Butter, 209 

Baked, 209 

Bread, 209 

Bread and Milk, 209 

Breaded Tomato, 210 

Bread Omelet Pie, 210 

Butter, Nut, Unroasted, 

Corn Starch, 210 [209 

Cracker, 210 

Crumb German, 210 

Foam, 208 

French, Plain, 204 

Grape, 208 

Okra in Almond Cream 
Sauce, 207 
Orange and Another, 208 

Puff, 207 

Savory, 208 

Souffle, 211 
Trumese Salad Entree, 207 

Variations, 205 

Vegetable Pudding, 207 

White Sauce, 210 

Pickled, 201 
Poached, 198 

Beaten, 199 

Creamed Celery, 199 

Rice, 199 

Yolks, 199 

W T hites, 199 
Roasted, 198 
Scalloped Eggs and Celery, 

Eggs and Potatoes, [212 
Scrambled, 202 [212 

Cream Sauce, 203 

Florentine, 203 

Large Quantity, 202 



Scrambled, Sour Milk, 202 

Tomato, 202 
Scrambles, Various, 202 
Shirred, 201 
Stuffed, 200 
Suggestions, 196 
Timbales, 211 

Rice and Egg, 212 
Uncooked Egg Dishes, 213 
With Sauce, 200 

Legumes, 184 

Beans, Baked, Rich, 190 
Western, 192 
Creamed, 188 
Croquettes, 188 
Flowering, 193 
Loaf, Sister Boulter's 

Red Kidney, 190 
Mashed, 186 
Stewed, 193 

In Bean Sauce, 193 
Hash, 195 
Lentils, Baked, 193 

Cabbage Leaf Rolls of, 
Croquettes, 188 [194 

Mashed, 185 

With Rice, 186 
Pie, Potato Crust, 187 
Universal Crust, 187 
With Poached Eggs, 188 
Roast, 189 
Stewed, 194 

Timbales, Rice and, 189 
Patties, 189 
Peas, Baked, Split Green, 

Yellow, 192 [192 
Croquettes, 188 
Mashed, 186 

With Macaroni or 

Vermicelli, 187 
Pie, Corn Crust, 187 
Ragout of Chick, 194 
Roast, 190 
Chick, 190 



INDEX 



Peas, Stewed, Split Green, 

Timbales, 189 [193 

Purees of, 190 
Variegated Meat, 186 

Nuts, 140 

A Few Suggestive Com- 
binations, 142 
Almonds, 140 
Toasted, 147 
To Blanch, 141 
Brazil Nuts, 141 
Butter, 143 
for Bread, 145 
Cocoanut, 146 
Butternuts, 141 
Cocoanut, Ground or 

Milk, 145 Grated, 146 
Shredded, 146 
Cooked Nut Dishes, 147 
Cheese, Almond, 153 
Peanut, 153 
Pine Nut, 153 
Pine Nut and Ba- 
nana, 153 

Chowder, Peanut German, 
Confection, Almond, [151 

Nesselrode, 154 [153 
Croquettes, 147 

Peanut and Rice, 152 
Savory Nut, 147 
Cutlets, Nut and Sweet 

Potato, 148 

Fruit and Nut Relish, 153 
Gumbo, Peanut, 150 
Hashes, Peanut, 151 
Loaf of Nuts, 140 
Mound, Black Walnut and 

Potato, 148 
Peanuts, Baked, Lemon 

Apples, 150 
Uciked like Beans, 150 
With Green Peas, 150 
Hot Pot of, 151 
To Boil, 149 



With Noodles or Vermi- 

. ceJli, 150 

Pie, Peanut, 152 

With Turnip, Crust, 

Pine Nuts, Baked, 148 [152 

Roast or Timbale, Nut 

and. Ripe,. 148 

Scallops, 153 

Soup Stock, 149 ' i 

Stew, Nut Chinese, 150 

Cream and Milk, .143 

Rich, of Raw Peanuts, 

Filberts, 141 ; [146 

Meal, Nut, 144 

Peanuts, 142 

Pine Nuts, 142 

Relish, Nut, 146 

Walnuts, Black, 141 
English, 141 

Nutmese, 174 
Cornstarch, 175 
Tomato, 175 

Nutmese Dishes, ,175 

Nutmese a la crews'. '177 
With Baked Beans, 176 
Broiled, 176 
and Corn, 178 
Cottage Cheese, i^ 
In Cream of Tomato 

.S a lire. 177 
Croquettes, 179 . 
Crust, Hashed Potato, 
Cutlets, 176 [i79 

and Green Peas with 



New Potatoes, 177 
Patties, 170 

Pie, Apple and Nutmese, 179 

Nutmese and Potato with 

Pastry Crust, 179 

With Potato Crust, 178 

and Rice with 1 V^s Sluice, 



Scallop of Nutmese - 

Tomato, ; i7 



5i6 



THE LAUREL 



Shells, Nutmese and 

Oyster Plant in, 178 
Stew, Nut Irish, 176 
Tomato Nutmese and 

Eggs, 176 

Trumese, 154, 156, 158 
Almond, 158 
Brazil Nut, 159 
Cashew Nut, 159 
English Walnut, 158 
Pine Nut, 158 
Red Kidney Bean, 158 
Trumese Dishes, 159 
a la crcme, Trumese 
and Celery, 166 
Trumese and Maca- 
roni, 166 

Trumese and Mush- 
rooms, 165 
Trumese and Oyster 

Plant, 166 
a la mode, 160 
Baked, with Onion Dress- 
ing, 162 

Boiled Dinner, 169 

Broiled, 159 

Cannelon of, 171 

en Casserole, 166 

Croquettes, 172, 173 
Russian, 174 
Savory Trumese and 

Cutlets, 162 [Rice, 173 
Batter, 163, 164 
Corn, Green, 164 
Imperial, 163 
Lemon Rings with 
Parsley Butter for, 163 
Savory with Mashed 

Potato, 163 

And Eggs, 160 

With Egg, Poached, 160 

Elsa's Roll of, 171 

Hash, Trumese and 

Potato, 174 



Hash, Trumese and Rice, 

174 

and Italian Sauce on Bis- 
cuit or Dumplings, 160 
XYith Jelly Sauce, 160 
For Luncheon or Second 
Course, 165 
With Mushrooms, 160 
With Onions, 162 
Pasties, 171 
Pie, 167 

Crusts, All Ready, 168 
Pot, 1 68 

Rice and Trumese, 167 
Ragout (Stew) of Tru- 
Rissoles, 171 [mese, 164 
Salad Entree, 159 
Scallop with Cracker 

Crumbs, 168 
Shortcake, Italian Sauce, 

1 68 

Smothered with Bananas, 
Souffle, 172 [162 

Spanish, 162 
Stewed Hashed, 164 
Timbale, Boundary 

Castle Sauce, 170 
Rice, Trumese and As- 
paragus Tips, 171 
Trumese Stuffing, 169 
Trumese and Rice, 170 
In Tomato, 161 
With Truffles and Mush- 
rooms, 165 
Trumese and Nutmese 

Dishes, 179 
Fricassee, Nut, 179 

Nut with Rigatoni, 179 

Pie, Nut Pastry, 180 
Pudding, Nut Corn, 180 
Timbales, Cream of 

Trumese and Nutmese, 

[180 



INDEX 



517 



Roasts, 181 

Black Walnut, 183 

Brazil Nut and Lentil, 183 
Cutlets of Roast, 182 
Gravies and Sauces, 223 

Almond and Tomato Cream, 
Apple and Onion, 233 [225 
Boundary Castle, 231 
Bread, 228 

and Bean, 228 
For Breaded Carrots, 236 
Brown, Simple, 224 

Onion, 224 

Dried Mushroom, 232 
Canned Mushroom, 232 
Catsup, Tomato, 233 
Catsups, Other, 233 
Celery Consomme, 225 
Chili, 233 
Chutney, Apple and 

Green Tomato, 235 

Bro. Coates' Mother's, 235 

Jellied, 234 

Ripe Cucumber, 234 

Tomato, 234 
Consomme, 225 
Cream or White, 226 

Of Fresh Mushroom, 231 
Lentil, 229 
Tomato, 226 

Sister Howard's, 226 

Tomato Cream, 226 

Variations, 227, 228 
Currant, 234 
Drawn Butter, 228 

Sauce, 229 

Variations, 228, 229 
Emerald, Parsley, 229 
Everybody's Favorite, 225 
Gooseberry, Baked, 234 
Gravy for Rhode Island 

Johnny Cakes. 229 
Italian, Dried Mushroom, 232 
Lemon Butter, 236 



For Meat and Vegetable 
Mint, 235 Pies, 229 

Currant, 235 

Mushroom and Asparagus, 231 
Nut Gravy for Roasts, 224 
Nut and Lentil, 230 

Onion, 224 

Plain, 224 

and Tomato, 224 

and Tomato Bisque, 224 
Old-Fashioned Milk Gravy, 
Olive, 230 [225 

and Nut Butter, 231 
Peas and Carrot, 233 
Pink, 233 
Pickle for Beets, String 

Beans and Carrots, 236 
Roast Gravy, par excellence, 
Sauce Americaine, 236 [225 

Imperial, 232 
Savory, 224 

Sour, for Carrot Timbale, 236 
Sour Cream, 226 
Suggestions, 223 
Swiss Lentil, 230 
Tarragon, 229 
Vegetable, 230 

Milk, Cream, Butter and . 

Cheese, 473 

Butter, Sterilized, 474 
To Sterilize, 474 
Cheese, 477 

Cottage, 478 
Cream, Devonshire, 477 
Sour, Uses of Without 

Soda, 47" 

Milk, To Pasteurize, 473 
Zeiger Case, 478 

Mushrooms, 216 

a la Crenu\ 219 
Baked, 217 
Broiled, 217 
Creamed, 217 
Chop Seuey, 218 



5 i8 



THE LACK EL 



Mushrooms, Dried, 218 

Fresh, Under Glass Globe, 
Pickled, 218 [219 

Pic, Mushroom and (Kster 
1'uff Balls, 218 [Plant, 219 
In Rice Rings, 218 
Soup, Boundary Castle, 220 

Cream of Fresh Mushroom, 
Steamed, 217 [220 

Stew, 218 
Stewed, 217 
Stewed, Canned, 218 
Timbales, 219 

Picnic and Travelling Lunches. 
Pies, 347 504 

Apple, 353 

Dutch, 354 

and Elder-berry, 354. 
Blueberry, 354 
Buttermilk, 365 
Carrot, 369 
Cherry, Mock, 355 
Cranberry, 355 

and Raisin, 355 

Stewed,. 355 
Cream, Caramel, 362 

Cocoanut, 361 

Farina, 362 

M.y Mother's, 363 

Xut, 362 

Parched Corn, 363 

Par Excellence, 361 

Of Rice, 362 

Sour, 363 

Tomato, 362 

White, 363 
Crumb. 364 
Crust, Bread, 351 

Butter, 351 

Or, Pastry, Cream, 351 

Granella, 352 and 353 

Hot Water, 35 1 

Nut Meal, 351 
Currant, 355 



Currant, Black, 355 
and Raisin, 355 
Raspberry, 355 

Custard, 364 

That Makes Its Own Crust, 
Without Milk, 364 [364 

KltUT-berry, 355 



355 



Fillings for Granella Pies, 353 
Flakes, 350 

Gooseberry, Green, 355 
Lemon, 358 

With Bread, 360 

Cake or Sponge, 359 

Cornstarch, 360 

Cream, 359 

Custard, 361 

Without Eggs or Milk, 360 

Granella Crust, 358 

Mrs. Hance's, 360 

That will Keep, 360 

Ma's, 359 

Starchless, 359 
Mince, Crumb, 356 

Filling, 356 

Green Tomato, 356 

Sour Cream, Annie Carter, 
Orange, 361 [356 

Custard, 361 

Pastry for One Large, 350 
Peach, 357 
Prune (two), 357 
Pumpkin, 366 

Grated, 368 

One, 368 

With Eggs, 368 

Without Eggs, 367 
Raisin, 357 

Lemon, 357 

Meringue, 357 
Rhubarb, 358 

Canned, 358 

Elizabeth's, 358 

and Pineapple, 358 



INDEX 



519 



Pie, Rhubarb and Strawberry, 
Rice, 364 [358 

Sour Milk, Mock Lemon, 

With Raisins, 365 [365 

Squash, Lemon, 366 

and Sweet Potato, 366 
Two Large, 366 
Strawberry Meringue, 358 
Suggestions, 347 
Sweet Potato, 365 
Tomato, Green, 358 

Turnip, 369 
Puddings and Desserts With 

Eggs, 309 

Apple Cream, 316 
Rose, 316 

Dessert, 323 
Apples, Molded, 322 
Banana, 314 
Batter, 321 
Birds Nest, 316 
Blanc Mange, Flour, 318 
Snow, No Milk, 318, 
Brown Bread, 309 
Cabinet, Steamed, 310 
Cocoanut Banana, 312 

Rice, 321 
Corn Cake, 309 

Starch Meringue, 319 
Cottage, Eggs, 320 

Cheese and Cake, 322 
Cream, Sponge, 317 

Tapioca. Eva's, 319 

In Glasses, 319 
Crumb, Steamed, 310 
Custard Apple, 313 

Boiled or Baked, Plain, 311 

Cocoanut Banana, 312 

Coffee, 312 

Corn Starch, 312 

Lemon Water, 312 

White, 311 

Of Yolks of Eggs, 311 
Dainty Dessert, 322 
Floating Island, 312, 313 



Fluff, Bro. Fulton's Straw- 
berry, 315 
Fruit, Steamed, 321 
Hattie's Prune Dessert, 314 
Indian, Elizabeth's, 309 
Lemon Snow, 316 

Souffle, 317 

Molasses Cake with Whipped 

Cream, 322 
Mold, Fruit Juice, 317 

Sweet Potato, 322 
Orange, 313 
Quaker, 321 
Rice Custard, 322 

Flour, 318 

With Lemon Meringue, 322 
Sea Foam, Sea Moss, 319 
Souffle, Prune, 314 
Sponge Apple, 317 
Tapioca, Molded, 320 

Water, 320 
Victoria Dessert, 310 
Whips, Fruit, 314 

Jelly, 315 

Strawberries and Cream, 

316 

Puddings and Desserts without 

Eggs, 294 

Almond Custard, 307 
Apple, Mary's Scalloped, 300 

Steamed, with Cream, 308 
Blanc Mange, 306 

Irish or Sea Moss. 3.08 

Rice Flour, 306 
Blueberry or Other Fruit. 

Steamed, 298 
Bread and Currant, 300 

and Milk, 300 
Cake, Dutch Apple, 296 
Clabber, 308 
Cobbler, Mother's Peach, 299 

Pear, 299 
Corn, Green, 308 
Cottage, 299 
Cream, Farina Banana, 307 



THE LAUREL 



Cream, Imperial Raspberry, 
Sago, 304 [307 

Tapioca, Sister Bramhall's, 

303 
Dumplings, Apple, Baked, 294 

Steamed, 294 
Peach, 295 

Dutch Boiled or Steamed, 299 
Fig, Steamed, 301 
Graham Porridge, 306 
Indian, Emeline's, 305 
Mrs. Hinsdale's, 306 
Jelly, Caramel, 307 

Raspberry, 307 
Plum, 301 

American, 301 
Of Crumbs, 301 
Pot Pie, Blueberry, 295 
Rice, Cocoanut, 305 
Cream of, 304 
'Indian", 305 
Nut Cream of, 305 
With Raisins, 305 
Roly-Poly, Orange, 295 
Scallop, Apple, 300 
Scalloped Raspberries, Blue- 
berries or Peaches, 300 
Short Cakes, 296 
Fillings, 297 
Steamed, Plain, 299 
Tapioca, Granular, 302 

Apple, Pearl or Flake, 303 
Tarts or Dumplings, Fruit, 295 
Whole Wheat, Steamed, 302 
Sauces, Pudding, 324 
Almond Cream, 332 

For Puddings or Cereals, 
Whipped Cream, 332 [332 
Antique, 331 
Banana Cream, 330 
Cocoanut, 330 
Cold Cream, 330 
Cranbern 7 , 329 
Cream, 330 



Sauces, Pudding, Cream 

Creamy, 324 [Lemon, 327 

Of Cooking Oil. 331 
Custard, 332 
Date, 328 
Egg Cream, 331 
Fig, 328 
Foamy, 325 

White, 330 
Fruit Saba\ r on, 329 
Grape and Almond, 332 
Hard, 325 

Of Cooking Oil, 326 
Variations of, 325 
Variegated, 326 
Jelly Meringue, 329 
Lemon Cream, 331 
With Egg, 327 
Plain, 327 
Raisin, 328 
Starchless, 327 
Maple Sugar, 333 

Syrup, 333 
Molasses, 333 
Orange, 327 

Egg Cream, 331 
Syrup, 338 
Peach, 329 
Pineapple, 329 
Plain, 333 
Prune, 328 
Raisin, 328 
Raspberry, 324 
Red, 334 
Rose, 333 
Strawberry, 332 
Cream, 331 
Whipped Cream, 330 
White, 330 
Salads, 273 

Dressings, Cooked, 276 
Almond Butter, 278 
Boiled, with Cornstarch, 

279 



INDEX 



521 



Salad Dressings, Cooked 

Boiled, Large (Quantity. 2 
Butter, 277 
Cream, Sour, 277 

Sweet, 277 

Mayonnaise, Improved, 276 
Milk, Sweet or Sour, 27- 
No Oil, 277 
Nut, no eggs, 278 
Olive, 279 
Orange, 279 
Rhubarb, 278 
Tomato, 279 

Dressings, Uncooked. 280 
Cream, Mayonnaise, 283 
Quick, Sweet, 282 
Sour, 282 

Sweet of, 282 
Whipped, 282 
English, 281 
French, 280 

Grape, 280 
Hone}', 280 
Orange, 280 
Nut, 280 
Lemonade, 281 
Mayonnaise, 282 
Cream, 283 
Green, 283 
Milk, Sour, 282 
Orange, 281 
Raspberry Juice, 281 
Salad Entree, 281 
Tarragon, 281 
Fruit, 290 

Additional Combinations, 
Apple, Cooked. 292 
and Cranberry, 291 
and Pineapple, 290 
Currant and Red Rasp- 
berry, 291 

Grape Fruit and Celery . 
Love Apple, 292 [292 

Mint, 291 



Salads, Fruit, 

Nut and Banana, 291 
Oriental, 292 
Peach, 292 

Sweet Fruit and Cocoanut, 
True Meat, 284 [292 

Additional Combinations, 

286 
Bean, Green French and 

Cucumber, 284 
Cottage Cheese and Pear, 

and Radish, 285 [286 
Helianthus (Sunflower) 

Mayonnaise, 285 
Legume, Novel, 284 

Roses, 285 
Marguerite, 285 
Nut Meat, Hot, 284 
Trumese and Celery, 284 
Vegetable, 286 

Additional Combinations, 
a la Russe, 287 [289 

Asparagus Mayonnaise, 288 
Bean, String, and Celery, 
Beet and Olive, 288 [288 
Cauliflower. 287 

Cucumber and Onion, 288 
Dominion, or French 
English, 287 [Sam's, 287 
Lavender, or Pink, 286 
Pink No. 2, 287 
Slaw, Cold, 287 

Hot, 287 

Snow. Cabbage, 286 
Tomato, Stuffed, 289 
Sandwiches, 465 
a la Saladc, 471 
Bread and Butter, English, 
Canapes, 470 [472 

Cottage Cheese, 471 
Indian, 470 
Mushroom, 470 
Russian, 471 
Trumese and Egg, 470 



522 



THE LAll, 



Fillings for, 466-470 
Tomato, Sistrr Starr's, 471 
Trumose, non-starch, 472 
Variegated, 472 
Soups, 74 
Bisques, 92 
Of Corn, 92 
Cucumber, 92 
Spinach, 94 
Milk and Tomato, 93 
With Eggs, 93 

Nut and Tomato, 94. 
CJiowders, 94 

Celery, Onion and Corn, 97 
Corn and Carrot, 95 
Nut, 95 
Oyster Plant and Another, 

96, 97 

Potato and Onion or Celery, 
Rice and Vegetable, 97 [96 
Royal Vegetable, 97 
: Seashore, 94 

String Beans and Celery, 97 
Tomato Cream, 96 
Cream and Milk, 84 
Cream of Asparagus, 85 
Bean, 85 

Beans, String, 87 

Bouillon, 85 

Cabbage or Celery, and To- 

Carrot, 85 [mato, 85 

Celery, 86 

Chestnut, 86 

Corn, 86 

Corn, Dried, 86 

Corn, Dried, and Carrot, 86 

Corn and Celery, 87 

Corn and Peas, 87 
i Leek, 86 

Lentil, 86 

Onion, 87 

Oyster Plant, 87 

Peas, Dry, 87 

Peas, Green or Canned, 89 



Ctvam ol, 

Potato, or Sweet Potato, 87 
Rice, 8 

Spinach. *7 
Succotash, < S 7 
I >mato, and Another, 89 

Miscellaneous Cream and 

Milk 

] Jnizil N'ut, 90 
i'.roths, Cream, 89 
Cabbage. Milk Stew of, 91 
Mayflower, 91 
Okra. with Cream, 88 
Oyster Bay, 91 

Plant and Celery, 92 
and Corn, 92 

Cream Stew of, 92 

Milk Stew of, 92 
Paris Onion. 88 
i Vas Pods, Soup of, 88 

Split, 88 

and Tomato, 89 
Potato, Sister Cooley's 

Sliced, 90 [Brown, 90 
Tomato Cream, 89 
Vegetable, Milk, 90 
Fruit, 100 

Blueberry and Cocoanut, 
Cherry, 101 [102 

Grape Juice Cream, 102 
Raisin and Almond Broth, 
Scandinavian, 101 [102 
Sea Moss, 101 
Strawberry and Pineapple, 

[100 

Garnishes and Accompani- 
ments, 102 

Balls, 105 

Cream, 104 

Egg, 105 
Croutons, 102 
Dice Royale, 103 
Dumplings, 107 
Eggs, Spun, 106 
Miscellaneous, 103 



INDEX 



523 



Noodles, 107 
Cream, 108 
Paste, Royal, 105 
Thickening for Potato Soup, 
Timbales, Rice, 106 [106 
Our Famous Soups, 99 
Purees, 97 
Almond, 97 
Of Potatoes, 98 

Sago, 98 
Split Peas, 98 
Suggestions, 75 
Water, 76 
Bean, 83 

Unstrained, 83 
Bouillon, Cereal, 78 

Nut, 76 
Broths, Legume, 79 

Tomato, 79 

Cabbage and Tomato, 80 
Celery and Tomato, So 
Consomme, Vegetable, 77 

Egg, 79 

French, Nut, 79 

Gumbo, Nut, 82 

Mother's, 82 

Nut and Barley. 80 

Onion, 80 

Peas, Chick, 83, 

Split and Onion, 81 

Potato with Onion or ( I- 

Rice, Savory. 80 [< n . 

Stock, Dark, 78 
Vegetable, 78 
White, 77 

Tampa Bay, 82 

Tomato, 82 

Vegetable, No. i, 2, 3, 3i 
Stuffings and Dressings, 221 
Black Walnut and Potato. 2 
Celery, 222 
Chestnut, 222 
Danish, 221 
Nut and Raisin, 222 



Onion and Parsley, 222 
Savory, 221 
Simple, 221 
Vegetable, 222 

Vegetables, 237 

Artichokes, Globe, 238 
Jerusalem, 238 

Asparagus, 239 

Cream or Butter, 240 
Drawn Butter, 240 
Egg Cream Sauce, 240 
Sauce Americdine, 240 

Beans, String, Cream, 240 
Nut and Tomato Bisque 

Sauce, 241 

Shelled, Green. 241 

Flowering, Green, 241 
Beets, 242 

Pickled, 242 
Broccoli, 242 
Brussels Sprouts, 243 
Cabbage, Boiled, Plain, 243 

and Corn, 244 

In Cream or My Mother's, 

243 

With Nuts and Raisins, 244 

Sour, 244 

Sweet Sour, 244 

In Tomato, 244 
Carrots, 244 

a la Washington, 245 

and Beets, 246 
Corn, 246 

Minced, 245 

and Onions, 246 
Peas, 245 

Pickled, 245 

Stewed, 245 

and String Beans, 245 

Succotash, 245 
Cauliflower, 246 
Celery, Mint Sauce, 247 

Raw, 247 

Stewed, 24- 



INDEX 



524 



Celery, In Tomato, 248 
Chard, Swiss, 248 
Corn, Baked, 250 

In Husks, 249 
Boiled, 249 

In Husks, 249 
On the Cob, 248 
Dried, 250 
Green, 248 
Roasted, 250 
Slitter, 249 
Steamed, 249 

In Husks, 249 
Stewed, 250 

In Milk, 250 
Cucumbers, 251 

au Naturel, 251 
Sliced, 251 
Stewed, 252 
Egg Plant, 252 

In Batter, 252 
Greens, 253 

Kale, 254 
Okra, Sliced, Stewed, 254 

Stewed whole, 254 
Onions, Baked, 255 
Boiled, 255 
Raw, 255 
Stewed, 255 
Oyster Plant, 256 

with Celery or Corn, 257 

Drawn Butter Sauce, 257 
Stewed or Creamed, 256 
Parsley, 257 
Parsnips, 257 
Boiled, 257 
Browned, 258 
Fricassee of, 258 
Mashed, 258 
Stew^ed, 258 
Peas, 258 

With Corn, 259 
German Way, 259 
Melting Sugar, 259 



1 ' ias, With New Potatoes, 250 
Parisian Style, 259 
Slewed, 258 
Poke Shoots, 254 
Potatoes, 259 
I Jaked, 260 
1 Soiled Early, 261 

Late or Winter, 261 
Browned Mashed Slices, 264 
Cakes, 263 
Creamed Stewed, 262 

Warmed Over, 262 

Water, 262 
Hashed Browned, 263 

Creamed, 263 
Irish Way, 261 
In Jackets, 261 
Mashed, 263 
New, Small, 262 
Parisian, Improved, 263 
Puree, 264 
Steamed, 262 
Sweet, Baked, 264 

Boiled, 264 

Mashed, 264 
Preserving 

Corn in Brine, 73 

Beans, String, in Brine, 73 

To Can, 69 

Asparagus, 70 

In Full Lengths, 70 

Beans, Shelled, 70 
String, 70 

Beets, 71 

Corn, 71 

Greens, 70 

Mushrooms, 71 

Okra, 71 

Peas, 71 
To Dry, 72 

Beans, Shelled, 72 
String, 72 

Corn, 72 

Mushrooms, 72 



INDEX 



525 



Vegetables, Pumpkin, Baked, 

Individual, [265 
Mashed, 265 [265 

Radishes, 265 
Spinach, 265 

With Cream, 266 
Squash, Summer, 266 
Baked, Ripe, 266 
With Corn, 266 
Winter, 266 

Baked, Mashed, 267 
Virginia Way, 267 
Mashed, 267 



Vegetables, Starchless, 270 

and Sugarless, 270 
Suggestions, 237 
Tomatoes. 267 

Broiled, 269 

Puree, 269 

Raw, 268 

Steamed, 268 

Stewed, 268 
Turnips, 269 

Boiled, 269 

Mashed, 270 
Vegetable Stew, 270 




THE 'SAVORY' DOUBLE BOILER